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Full text of "The growth of industrial art"



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THE GROWTH 




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INDUSTRIAL ART. 









ARRANGED AND COMPILED UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE 




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HON. BENJ. BUTTERWORTH, 

COMMISSIONER OF PATENTS AND REPRESENTATIVE OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ON UNITED 

STATES GOVERNMENT BOARD, 

CINCINNATI INDUSTRIAL EXPOSITION, CINCINNATI, OHIO ; 

SOUTHERN EXPOSITION, LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY; 

THE WORLD'S INDUSTRIAL AND COTTON CENTENNIAL EXPOSITION, 

NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA. ^"> 



Reproduced and Printed in Pursuance of Act of Congress March 3, 1886, and Acts Supplementary thereto. 




WASHINGTON : 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1892. 



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ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 




Page. 

Advertising Devices 41 

Advertising Methods 42 

Air and Gas Engines 163 

Amalgamators 122 

Architecture 60 

Baggage Checks and Seals 43 

Balances 120 

Bale-band Tighteners 49 

Banjos and Guitars 135 

Bean and Clover Harvesters 8 

Bedsteads 79 

Bee Hives and Houses 30 

Bee-keeping . 31 

Bee-swarming, Hiving, and Feeding 32 

Blast-furnaces 123 

Book-binding and Paper-ruling 159 

Boots and Shoes 113 

Boot and Shoe Heeling 114 

Boot and Shoe Sole Cutting 115 

Boot and Shoe Lasting 117 

Boot and Shoe Nailing and Pegging 116 

Bottling and Filling 90 

Bottle Stoppers and Fasteners 148 

.— — Bread and Cracker Making 88 

Brewing 44 

Brick -making 89 

^Butter Packages 35 

Carding 171 

Care of Stock 29 

Carriages 107 

Cartridges 72 

Chairs and Stools 80 

Cheese Manufacture 36 

Chemical Fire-extinguishers 76 

Churns 34 

Cigar-making 183 

Cigar-molds 184 

Cigar-wrapper Cutters 185 

Cigarette-making 186 

Coaches 108 

Coal-gas Manufacture 91 

Combined Reapers and Thrashers 17 

^ Cooking-stoves 105 

Cork-extractors 81 

Cornets 136 

Corn-harvesters 9 

CORN-HUSKERS, ShELLERS, AND HOMINY- MAKING 25 

Cotton-bale Ties 48 

Cotton Ginning and Cleaning 46 

Cotton — Hand-culture and treatment 45 

Cotton-harvesters 10 

Cotton Presses and Compresses 47 

Creamery and Milk 33 

Cultivators 3 

Cultivators — Walking 4 

Diggers 7 

Distillation 50 

Dosing and Dropping Bottles 149 

Drive-chains 51 

Educational Appliances 52 

Egg-carriers 37 

Electric Illumination and Motors 54 

Excavators 61 

Felting and Hats 172 

Fire-arms 74 

Fire-engines 77 

Fire-escapes 78 




Page. 
Fishing 92 

Flutes 137 

.Forging and Welding 128 

Fruit- jars 143 

Gas-burners 104 

Glass-making 93 

Grain-conveyors 57 

Grain-mills 27 

Harness 118 

Harrows 2 

Harvester Binders •__ 18 

Harvester Cutting Apparatus 12 

Hay-forks 20 

Hay-loaders 21 

Hay-tedders 22 

Heating 106 

Hedge-training 40 

Hedge-trimmers 16 

Hemp and Flax Harvesters 11 

Hemp and Flax Treatment !__ 28 

Horology 121 

Horse-rakes 19 

Horse-shoe Making 129 

Hydraulic Engineering 62 

Hydraulic Motors 87 

Ice-elevators 58 

Ice-making 94 

Ironing 82 

Iron and Steel Furnaces 124 

Iron Truss Bridges 64 

Jacketed Vessels and Wrappers 145 

Knitting 173 

Knitting — Circular 174 

Knitting — Straight 175 

Lanterns 103 

Lawn-mowers 13 

Leather-working 119 

Locomotives 109 

Looms for Fancy Weaving 179 

Looms — Jacquard and Moquette 178 

Loom-power for Weaving Plain Fabrics 177 

Looms for Weaving 176 

Lubricators 164 

^Marine Propulsion 161 

Matrix-making 154 

Metallurgy — Gold and Silver 125 

Metal Packing and Storing Cans 144 

Metal Pocket Boxes 147 

Metallurgy — Quicksilver 126 

Mining Stone and Coal 69 

Mowers 14 

Music-boxes 138 

Nail-making 130 

Nails and Spikes— Types of 131 

Oil-gas Manufacture 95 

Oil-presses and Mats 142 

Ordnance 75 

Paper-folding 157 

Paper-making 96 

Paper Manufactures 158 

Passenger and Freight Elevators 59 

Pens 53 

Pianos 139 

Pipe Organs 140 

Pitchers, Cruets, and Stands 146 

Planters 5 

Plows 1 



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OCT 8- 1931 

^•PATENT 0^> 



Page. 

Printing — Sheet 152 

Printing — Web 153 

Projectiles 73 

Pruning Implements 39 

Railway Cars HO 

Railway Systems 66 

Railway Track Appliances 67 

Reapers 15 v 

Reducing and Separating Ores 127 

Reed Organs 141 

Refrigerator Buildings 160 

Road-engines HI 

Road-making __, 68 

Rock-drilling 70 

Safes 150 

Saw-sharpening 134 

School Furniture 83 

Screws — Types of 133 

Screw-making 132 

Seeders 6 

Sewing Machines and Attachments 180 __ 

Ship and Boat Building 162 

Slaughtering and Meat Cutting 38 

^Soap and Candle Making 97 

Spinning 181 

Spinning — Ring-cap and Fly-frame 182 

Stand and Bracket Lamps 101 

Steam-engines 166 ' 

Steam and Air-brakes 165' 

Steam-engines — Rotary and Oscillating 167^" 

Steam Pumping-engines 169' 

Steam and Vacuum Pumps 170" 

Steam-engine — Valve-gear 168 -^ 

Stone-sawing 98 

Subterranean and Submarine Construction 63 

Sugar-making 99 

Suspended Lamps 102 

Sweeping 100 

Telegraphy 55 

Telephones 56 

Thrashing and Cleaning Grain 23 

Timber and Stone Bridges 65 

Tobacco-curing 187 

Tobacco Driers 188 

Tobacco — Hand Culture and Treatment 192 

Tobacco-leaf Treatment 189 

Tobacco Pipes 191 

Tobacco Presses 190 

Trunks 151 

Type-setting and Distributing 155 

Type-writers 156 

Velocipedes 112 

Washing 84 

Water Elevators 193 

Well Boring and Drilling . 71 

Wheat, Rice, and Cotton-seed Hullers 26 

Window Blinds 85 

Wind-mills 194 

Winnowing and Sifting Grain 24 

Wood-working — Coopering 195 

Wood-working — Molding 196 

Wood- working — Mortising 197 

Wood- working — Planing 198 

Wood-sawing 199 

Wood-working — Turning 200 

Wringers 86 







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PLOWS. 

No. 1. Primitive Egyptian. 

2. " " 
3. 

4. " Assyrian. 

5. U. S. Patent, Cast Iron— A. D. 1797. 

6. " " Steel and Wrought Iron— A. I». I SOS. 

7. " " Adjustable Point— A. D. 1819. 

8. " " Side Hill— A. D. 1831. 

9. '• '• Colter Attachment— A. D. 1834. 

10. " ' Rolling Land Side— A. D. 1843. 

11. " •" Swivel Attachment— A. D. 1870. 

12. " ■■ Jointer " —A. D. 1884. 

13. " " Wheel— A. D. 1884. 

14. " " Gang— A. D, 1884. 

15. " •' Steam— \. D. 1884. 




The use of the plow can be traced to a very remote 
antiquity. "The Book of Job," the most ancient writ- 
ing of The Old Testament, begins with an allusion to 
the plow. 

The first idea of the plow was a crooked stick, of 
which various forms were used ; then came the provis- 
ion of an iron point. Up to this time the crooked 
sticks were on the principle of the double mold board, 
throwing off the earth on each side. The next step 
was to hew off one side of the sticks, so as to throw 
out the earth only on one side, approximating to a 
single mold board. Then the plow became a simple 
wedge, the land side being parallel with the line of the 
plow's motion, the other side moving the furrow still to 
the right, but leaving the furrow standing on edge. 
Tlicn the wedge was gradually twisted so as to regu- 
larly invert the furrow. 

Thomas Jefferson was one of the earliest American 
laborers in the effort to perfect and simplify the plow, 
his first ideas on the subject having been noted in his 
journal of 1788, although it was not until 1793 that he 
reduced his theory to practice. 

The next American inventor was Charles Newbold, 
of Burlington County, New Jersey, who invented and 
constructed the first cast iron plow in America, for 
which letters patent were granted to him on June 28, 
1797. After expending large sums of money in per- 
fecting and introducing his invention, he abandoned the 
business in despair. The farmers conceived tile idea 
that the "cast iron plow" poisoned the land, injured 
its fertility and promoted the growth of weeds. 

The second patent granted by the United States for a 
plow, was to John Deaver. of Maryland, June 12, 1804. 

Third, to D. Peacock, of New Jersey, April. 1807. 

Fourth, to S. Vinton, of Connecticut, November 18, 
1807. 



15 
PLOWS. 



Fifth, to H. Harris, of Kentucky, February 24, 1808. I 
Sixth, to R. B. Chenoweth, of Maryland, Novem- 1 
ber 25, 1808. 

Patents on plows were subsequently issued in the 
following order : 

October 12, 1809, F. Woodward, New York. 
October 12, 1809, U. & J. Nichols, New York. 
July 13, 1810, S. Hall, Massachusetts. 
August 10, 1811, J. Sanford, Connecticut. 
September 7, 1811. N. Turnbull, Maryland. 
January 11, 1812, J. Klay, Maryland. 
February' 8, 1813, J. Seeley, Maryland. 

May 28. 1813, S. Tously, New York. 
June 2, 1813, M. Patrick, New York. 

August 7, 1813, M. Murray, Maryland. 

August 28, 1813, H. Pease, Connecticut. 

March 1, 1814, J. & J. Butler, Pennsylvania. 
July 2, 1814. Jethro Wood. New York. 

July 5, 1814, J. Swan, New York. 

October 14, 1814, Morgan & Harris, New York. 

November 9, 1814, Tously & Swan, New York. 

December 17, 1814, H. Shultz, Pennsylvania. 

October 13, 1816, J. Cromwell, Virginia. 

May 29. 1817, D. Peacock, New Jersey. 

|uly 31, 1817, J. Lupton, Virginia. 

May 26, 1818. G. Davis, Maryland. 

October 26, 1818. P. Miller, New York. 

December 19, 1818. R. M. Harrison, New York. 

December 28, 1818, G. D. Avery, New York. 

Eleven of these patents were issued to citizens of 
New York, eight to Maryland, three to Connecticut, 
two to Virginia, two to Pennsylvania, one to Kentucky, 
and one to New Jersey. After this time the inventors 
of plows multiplied so rapidly that only those are enu- 
merated whose inventions involved new ideas, or such 



as have been remarkably popular, viz: Harris, 1819; 
Burden, 1819: Hingham, 1823; Hitchcock, 1823; 
Nourse, 1827 ; McCormick, 1831 ; Mears, 1831 ; 
Prouty, 1831; Jacobs, 1834; Webster, 1836; Web- 
ster, 1837; Witherow, 1839; Alger, 1839: Burrell, 
1843 ; Holbrook. 1845 ; Mead, 1863. 

Jefferson and Small discovered the importance of 
straight lines running from the sole to the top of the 
share and mold board ; Pickering, the importance of a 
straight line running from the front to the rear ; Jethro 
Wood, that all the lines running from the front to the 
rear should be straight ; Knox, the method of laying 
down all the lines on a plane surface ; Mears, the im- 
portance of a center draft, and the practical means of 
obtaining it by the inclination of the land inward. 

Smith was'the first to adopt two plows to work to- 
gether, one of which threw two or three inches of the 
surface into the bottom of the preceding furrow, and 
the other covered it with the lower earth. 

Gov. Holbrook invented a method by which plows 
of any size could be made symmetrical, either concave 
or convex, in such a way as to insure the complete 
pulverization of the soil. 

It is strange, in view of the antiquity and importance 
of die plow, that its construction should have received 
so little attention from scientists, and that the principles 
of its construction should have been so little observed 
by those who used it. 

There are, approximately, 900. establishments in the 
United States for the manufacture of plows, the annual 
product of which is estimated at $5,000,000, 

The plowing of the land under cultivation in the 
United States is estimated at 180,000,000 acres, requir- 
ing the labor of 2,000,000 teams, either of oxen, horses 
or mules for 80 days each year. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPItMENTS. 

1,943 Manufactories in the Jutted States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed. • 



.860 IX WO 

fill, 4 7,239.00 f62,109,668.00 

17,599,960.00 68,640,486.00 

- 5,080,549.00 15,359,610.00 



14,814 



39,480 



STT3B CLASS. 

PLOWS. 

1,326,123 Manufactured in 1880, 
Capacity— 

Acres per day, 

Hands Employed per day, . 1 

6,686 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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HARROWS. 



No. 1. Primitive Hand. 
Log. 

3. U. S. Patents, Type3 of Teeth. 

4. U. 8. Patent, Rotary— A. D. 1859. 



6. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 



Disk— A. D. 1867. 

Spring Tooth— A. D. 1869. 

Wheel— A. D. 1876. 

Disk— A. D. 1877. 

Crushing— A. D. 1882. 

Wheel Spring Tooth— A. D. 1884. 



The Harrow is mentioned three times in the Bible. 
First, in the book of Job, "Will he (the unicorn) har- 
row the valleys after thee." II Chronicles xx, 3, "He 
cut them with saws and with harrows of iron." In 2d 
Samuel, " He put them under saws and under harrows 
of iron." 

The harrow was not in ordinary use in ancient 
Egypt. The various operations of husbandry at that 
period show that the clods of earth were either broken 
with hoes and plows, or by the tramping of men and 
animals. 

Harrows bore the part in tilling the ground in the 
time of Pliny, A. D. 79, that they do at the present 
time: "after the seed is put into the ground, harrows 
with long teeth are drawn over it." 



The harrow of the Romans was a hurdle. They also 
used planks studded with iron spikes. 

There is a representation of a harrow in the tapes- 
try of Bazeaux, A. D. 1066. 

One of the old modes of using the harrow in Ireland 
was to tie, with a- cord of raw hide or bark, the trunk 
or brush ljmb of a tree to a horse's tail. This was 
abolished by act of Parliament, in the year 1664, "as 
being cruel and injurious to the animals." 

In some parts of the north of Europe, the spiked 
limbs of fir trees are bound together. The spurs of 
the limbs make a reasonably fair substitute for the teeth 
of a harrow. 

The usual form of the British harrow is called the 
" Berwickshire." 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, 

1,943 Manufactories In the United States. 



Double harrows are made in many forms, two, three 
or four leaved, having sections square, lozenge shaped, 
trapezoidal, rhomboidal or triangular. 

Rotary harrows are also made in various forms, and 
may have one, two or more sections, which lie flatly on 
the ground. 

The spiked cylinder harrows are a late invention. 

The spring harrow teeth, formed of spring metal, 
have been introduced, and are very extensively manu- 
factured as a novel improvement in this line of in- 
ventions. 

The concavo, convex and straight disk is one of the 
latest completed improvements. 

Among the latest are those having inclined teeth set 
so, or set in bars susceptible of various inclinations. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 



18*10 1880 

111,477,239.00 $62,109,668.00 

17,599,960.00 68,640,486.00 

- 5,080,549.00 15,359,610.00 



14,814 



sirs class. 

HARROWS. 

127,997 Manufactured in 1880, 

Capacity — <■;£» 
Acres per day, . J 

Hands Employed per day, . 1 

1,478 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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CULTIVATORS, 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

1,943 Manufactories In the United States. 



CULTIVATORS. 

No. 1. U. S. Patent, Wheel— A. D. 1846. 



Rotary— A. D. 1868. 
Straddle Row.— A. D. 1869. 
Wheel Parallel— A. D. 1879. 
Disk— A. D. 1880. 
Spring Attacbment^A. D. 1883. 
—A. D. 1884. 
Parallel, Riding— A. D. 1884. 



Ancient Roman writers recommended hoeing and 
weeding the corn and fallowing the ground. 

The progenitor of the cultivating machine is the 
hoe. History furnishes no account of a time when 
man was destitute of the hoe and the plow; in the 
distant past they w ?re all of wood ; the original hoe 
was a forked limb. 

The term "cultivator" embraces implements which 
are used in tending growing crops ; it is an improved 
harrow. 

Jethro Tull, of England, is the author of horse-hoe- 
ing husbandry, and introduced his system, in 1701, of 
cultivating plants by machinery. In 1731 he published 



a book on this subject which rendered the invention 
of the cultivator possible. 

Wilkie, of Scotland, is the inventor of the cultivator. 
He invented in 1820, the plurality of shares, the ex- 
panding frame and the caster wheel. 

The Finlayson cultivator was used in England in 
1816. 

Cultivators are direct off-shoots from the regular 
plow. 

The first patent granted by the United States for 
cultivators was to Borden, in 1830. 

The first wheel cultivator patent was issued in 1 846. 

The single shovel plow has been in use for many 
years : the double shovel is a later invention ; it re- 



sembles some of the plows used for a thousand years 
or more in Asia and Southern Europe. The double 
shovel is nearly perfect for the purpose for which it is 
used, viz : that of tending a crop which is planted in 
hills, such as corn or potatoes. 

The nearest approach to the American shovel plow 
is the Scotch horse hoe. 

The Scotch grubber is a heavy cultivator, drawn by 
four horses and supported on wheels, for stirring and 
loosening the soil to plow depth. 

Cultivators are classed in die United States as or- 
dinary, wheeled, rotary, st-addle-row, parallel, disk, 
walking, riding, vineyard and expanding. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 



I860 18S0 

$11,477,239.00 162,109,668.00 

17,699,960.00 68,640,486.00 

- 6,080,549.00 15,359,610.00 



14,814 



CULTIVATORS 

318,057 Manufactured in 1880. 

Capacity— p.™*., 
Aerea per day, • • . 1 

Hands Employed per day, . 1 

2,554 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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CULTIVATORS — WALK1HG. 

No. 1. Primitive Crotched Stick 

2. " Egyptian. 

3. " Roman. 

4. " English. 

5. U. S. Patent, Hilling— A. D. 1830. 
Straddle Row— A. D. 1835. 

7. " " miling— A. D. 1837. 

Parallel— A. D. 1851. 

" Runner-^A, D. 1884. 
Straddle Row— A. D. 1884. 



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CULTIVATORS-WALKING. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

1,843 Manufactories In the United States. 



The walking cultivator is of modern invention, and I angular or rectangular frames, with handles like those 
is one in which the operator walks behind, as distin- of a plow, with a greater or less number of teeth, and 
guished from the jiding cultivator. with their center beams projecting in front for the at- 

Many American cultivators are constructed with tri- tachment of wheels and draft clevises. 



They are very extensively manufactured and used in 
the United States, and are frequently called "horse 
hoes." 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 



I860 I WHO 

$11,477,239.00 $62,109,668.00 

17.599,960.00 68,640,486.00 

- 5,080,549.00 15,359,610.00 



14,814 



39,480 



STXB CLASS- 

CULTIVATORS— WALKING. 

318,057 Manufactured in 1880. 

Capacity — ftjmiu 

Acres per day, ... 1 

Hands Employed per day, . . 1 

772 Patents Granted by the United States. 




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PLANTERS. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, 

1,943 Manufactories In the United States. 



PLANTERS. 



No. 1. Primitive Hand. 
2. " Diobler. 
3. 

4. Modern Hand. 
6. U. 8. Patent Wheelbarrow— A. D. 182C. 



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6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 



Hand— A. D. 1866. 
Foot— A. D. 1856. 
Hand— A. D. 1876. 
Cotton— A. D. 1S76. 
" —A. D. 1883. 
Cheek Row— A. D. 1883. 



Pliny says the Romans sowed their corn with as much 
care as they raised their armies. 

Columbus found the natives of the West Indies using 
bread of maize. 

Humboldt says that the cultivation of maize was in- 
troduced into Mexico in 666 by the Toltecs. 

When Capt John Smith visited Virginia in 1609, in 
writing of the Indians, he says : "The greatest labor 
they take is in planting corn." 



About 1649 Gabriel Platte described a dibbling ma- 
chine, formed of iron pins " made to play up and down 
like virginal jacks." 

The Jesuit Lana, about the year 1665, proposed a 
planting machine to consist of a harrow, the spikes of 
which should make holes in the earth and the grains of 
corn were to fall from a box pierced like a sieve and 
placed over the harrow. 

One of the first patents granted by the United States 



for a corn planter was a box that was placed on the 
shank of a hoe. 

Planters are classified in the U. S. Patent Office as 
follows : 

Corn, Cotton, Foot, Hand, Hand Oscillating, Hand 
Reciprocating, Hand Rotating, Potato, Potato Walking, 
Walking, Walking Vibrating Hoppers. 

In the States which produce the greatest quantity of 
corn the larger part is planted by machinery. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, - 



I860 1880 

$11,477,239.00 162,109,668.00 

17,599,960.00 68,640.486.00 

- 6,080,549.00 15,359,610.00 

14,814 39,480 



STTJB CLASS. 

PLANTERS. 

87,979 Machines Manufactured in 1880. 
Capacity — '"«»!«- 

Acres per day, 
Hands Employed per day, 

2,497 Patents Granted by the United Stales. 



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SEEDERS. 

No. 1. Primitive Egyptian. 

2. " Assyrian— B. C. 504. 

3. " Italian— A. D. 1605. 

4. U. S. Patent, Slide Broadcast— A. D. 1835. 

5. " " Rotary Broadcast— A. B. 1856. 

6. " " Broadcast Cultivator Attachment- — A. D. 1869. 

7. " " Grain Drill— A. D. 1874. 

8. " " Broadcast Harrow Attachment — A. D. 1878. 

9. " " Walking Drill— A. D. 1881. 

10. " ■• Grain " —A. D. 1884. 

11. " " " " —A. D. 1884. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

1,943 Manufactories In the United States. 



Seeding in ancient Egypt was done by scattering the 
seed upon the mud left after the receding waters of the 
Nile. The husbandman who scattered it was followed 
by a flock of sheep or goats, whose feet trod the seed 
into the surface of the soil. 

The first seeding machine is said to have been 
used by the Assyrians, 504 B. C, and was called a drill 
plow. 

The Italians claim the honor of originating, in 1605, 
the first seeder. 

In the year 1623, Alexander Hamilton, of England, 



was granted a license for his protection in developing 
his invention of a seeding machine. 

In 1634, David Ramsey made an attempt in the 
same direction, but without success. 

Joseph Locatelli, of Austria, was the next to enter 
the field with a seeder. The exact date of the invent- 
ion cannot be determined, but there is evidence that a 
trial of the machine took place at Luxembourg, in 
1662. He obtained a patent for it in Spain. It was 
held in such high esteem that the Earl of Sandwich 
sent it to England. 



In 1730, the attention of Jethro Tall, the inventor of 
horse-hoeing, was called to this machine, who was de- 
lighted with its adaptability to his mode of cultivation. 

The first patent granted by the United States for a 
seeder was to E..Spooner, of Vermont, January 25, 
1799. Hornsby, of England, was the first to apply 
india rubber tubes as grain spouts, in place of tin cups. 

The American grain drill is usually drawn by a pair 
of horses, and has a gang of shares, in one or two 
banks. Some varieties have a capacity for changing 
to a single or double bank drill. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 



1860 1880 

$11,477,239.00 $62,109,668.00 

17,599,960.00 68,640,486.00 

- 5,080,549.00 15,359,610.00 



14,814 



39,480 



STXB CLA.SS. 

SEEDERS. 



79,074 Manufactured in 1880, 

Capacity — ,, . 

Acres per day, ■/t*'- """"• 

Hands Employed per day, ' " '" 5 10 * » 

1,440 Patents Granted by the United States. 




SacketU Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 





DIGGERS. 

No. 1. Primitive Hand. 

2. " Egyptian Hoe. 

3. " Chinese Spade. 

4. TJ. S. Patent, Hand Potato Digger— A. D. 1856. 

5. " " Digging Hoe— A. D. 1871. 

6. " " Separating Digger— A. D. 1876. 

7. " " Vibrating " —A. D. 1882. 

8. " " Rotary " —A. D. 1882. 



The spade as a digging instrument does not seem 
to have- been known in Ancient Egypt ; its place was 
supplied by a heavy hoe. 

The Ancient Greek spade has two cross pieces for 
the foot. 



DIGGERS. 



The Irish spade has a single cross piece for use with 
the right foot. 

Many attempts to devise a machine which shall 
plow up potatoes from the furrow, separate them from 
the loose earth and deposit them on the surface of the 
ground, have been made. 



9 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

1.943 Manufactories In the United States. 



The modern potato digger is a machine drawn by 
horses, which digs the potatoes, separates tliem from the 
dirt, and loads them into a cart, whilst the farmer rides 
on the machine with nothing to do but to guide his team. 

Diggers operated by steam take out 8oo barrels of 
potatoes per day. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 



1880 1SSO 

$11,477,239.00 $62,109,668.00 

17,599,960.00 68,640,486.00 

- 5,080,549.00 15,359,010.00 



14,814 



STTB CLASS. 

DIGGERS. 

33,453 Potato Diggers Manufactured in 1880, 
Capacity— •"&?*!" 

Acres per day, ... J 

Hands Employed per day, . 1 

952 Patents Granted by the United States. 



39,480 



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BEAN AND CLOVER HARVESTERS, 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

1.943 Manufactories in the United States. 



BEAN AND CLOVER HARVESTERS. 

No. 1. U. 8. Patent, Clover— A. D. 1849. 

2. " " Clover Stripping Drum— A. D. 1864. 

3. " " Clover Head Cutter and Breaker— A. D. 1856. 

4. " " Bean Stalk Cutter and Bundler— A. D. 1859. 

5. " " Clover Spiral Drum— A. D. 1861. 
" " Bean Underground Cutter — A. D. 1865. 

" Clover Head Stripper— A. D. 1877. 

" Bean Stalk PuUer— A. D. 1879. 




There are several forms of bean harvesters : 

i. The hand puller, having a long row of teeth to 

catch, and a movable clamp, which conies down upon 

the teeth to grip, the vines. 

2. A machine with a broad, flat, oblique share, which 
cuts the roots beneath the surface, followed by lifting 
bars which raise, and a rake which collects, the vines in 
a bunch. By oscillating the rake the bunch is dumped 
upon the ground. 

3. A plow, which cuts the vines below the surface, 
and lifting and directing rods, which conduct them to a 
box on the machine. 



4. A machine with a pair of horizontal toodied 
wheels rotating in apposition, so as to grasp the vines 
at the ground surface, and lift them so that they may 
be grasped by a traveling elevator belt, which deposits 
them in a box of the machine. 

5. A wheeled machine, in which the pulleys are 
guided in and out of a hollow cylinder by a cam guide, 
so as to catch the haulm, lift it and carry it upward and 
over, and then, by retroaction of the puller arms, leave 
the vines upon the platform. The pullers rest upon 
springs, and are projected by the same in the interval 
of their retraction by the cam guide. 



Clover harvesters are constructed on the same 
principle as the wheat harvester of ancient Gaul. 
In this machine it was the duty of the attendant to 
sweep the ears of grain back into the box of the 
machine, which was driven before the ox that impelled 
it. 

The English clover harvester of thirty years back 
was of the Gallic pattern, and was drawn by one horse 
and guided by handles in the rear. The load was 
scraped out occasionally, and deposited in bunches in 
the field. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, • 



iouv IS9O 

$11,477,239.00 162,109.668 00 
17,599,960.00 68,640,488.00 



5,080,549.00 
14,814 



15,359,610.00 
39,480 



STJB CLASS. 



Mods. 

14 

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c APACITY _ B " N HARVESTERS 

Acres per day, 

Hands Employed per day, 

22 Patents Granted by the United States. 

STJB- CLASS. 

c APACITY - CL0VER HARVESTERS. 

PrimitW, 

Acres per day, . . "!'?• 

Hands employed per day, - J 

44 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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CORN HARVESTERS, 




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CORN HARVESTERS. 

No. 1. Primitive. 

2. U. S. Patent, Cutter— A. D. 1844. 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 



Ear Stripper— A. D. 1850. 

Ear Stripper, Husker and Sheller — A. D. 1850. 

Cutter and Shocker— A. D. 1852. 

" — A. D. 1854. 

" —A. D. 1866. 
High and Low Cutter— A. D. 1859. 
Cutter and Shooker— A. D. 1866. 
Picker and Husker— A. D. 1867. 
Picker, Husker and Shocker— A. D. 1869. 
Cutter, Husker and Shocker — A. D. 1876. 



The Romans cut their corn by hand, either close to 
the ground, with a hook, or only the ears, with a curved 
stick having a saw attached to it, or they cut the stalks 
in the middle, leaving the stubble to be afterwards 
mowed. 



The modern corn harvester is a machine for cutting 
corn in the field ; sometimes delivering the corn in 
shocks, sometimes merely laying it in gavels upon the 
ground, or on the machine, whence it is taken by hand 
and shocked. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

1,943 Manufactories in the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, - 



1800 1880 

$11,477,239.00 $62,109,668.00 

17,599,960.00 68,640,486.00 

- 6,080,549.00 16,359,610.00 

14,814 39,480 



errs oi,a.ss. 

CORN HARVESTERS. 

Capacity — 

Acres per day, 

Hands Employed per day, 



Primitive 
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286 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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II 
COTTON HARVESTERS, 



COTTON HARVESTERS. 

1. Primitive Hand. 

2. U. S. Patent, Toothed Picking Disks & Cylinders— A. D. 1850. 




Hand Picker— A. D. 1865. 
Brush Stripper— A. D. 1859. 
Exhaust Flexible Pipe— A. D. 1859. 
Fan Blower— A. D. 1868. 
Saw and Stripper Brush— A. D. 1870. 
Electric Belt^-A. D. 1870. 
Picker Stem— A. D. 1872. 
Toothed Cylinder— A. D. 1874. 
Revolving Picker Stems— A. D. 1878. 
Toothed Cylinder— A. D. 1883. 



The season for harvesting cotton in the United 
States begins in August, and continues until Novem- 
ber, and sometimes even until the latter part of De- 
cember. 

The cotton plant continues to produce and ripen its 



bolls until the appearance of frost. The height of 
the picking season is in October. 

Harvesting by hand is generally performed by 
negroes, both male and female, who, with wide- 
mouthed sacks suspended from their waists, pass be- 
tween the rows of plants and gather the fleecy cotton 



from the open pods, when it is carried in the sacks and 
deposited in baskets at the end of the rows ; the aver- 
age amount per person picked per day being from 200 
to 300 pounds. 
The primitive mode of harvesting is the most general. 



12 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

1,943 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 



»8«0 I8S0 

$11,477,239.00 $62,109,668.00 

17.599,960.00 68,640,486.00 

- 6,080,549.00 15,359,610.00 



14,814 

STTB OIA.SS. 

COTTON HARVESTERS. 

Capacity — 

Pounds per day, 

Hands Employed per day, 

104 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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HEMP AND FLAX HARVESTERS, 



HEMP AND FLAX HARVESTERS. 

No. 1. U. S. Patent, Revolving Pulling Drum & Band— A. D. 1838. 

2. " " " Pulling Roller— A. D. 1852. 

3. " " Reciprocating Pulling Jaw — A. D. 1863. 

4. " " Stalk Puller— A. D. 1866. 

5. " " Side Delivery— A. D. 1870. 

6. " " " —A. D. 1871. 

7. " " Stalk Cutter— A. D. 1872. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

1,943 Manufactories in the United States. 



Hemp and flax harvesters are reaping machines re- 
sembling those for corn in their adaptation to operate 
upon tall top-heavy stalks, and differ from them in cut- 
ting low. One form is a puller, which grasps the stalks 
near the ground and uproots them. Another variety 
is one with a low platform on wheels, with a cutter bar 



in front, a reel to gather the stalks to the knives and 
direct them over into a cradle where they are collected 
in a bunch. In another form the stalks are caught by 
an arm till a shock is collected. 

The stalk puller consists of a pair of revolving disks 
on axes, set at an obtuse angle with each other, so as 



to grip die stalks, which are conducted between them 
at the lowest part of their revolution, and then open 
as they rotate, and allow the stalks to fall into a cradle 
on the ground. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 



1860 1880 

$11,477,239.00 $62,109,668.00 

17,599,960.00 68,640,486.00 

- 5,080.549.00 15,359,610.00 



14,814 



39,480 




STJB CLA83. 

HEMP AND FLAX HARVESTERS. 

Primltr 

Mode 

U 
. 1 



Capacity — 

Acres per day, 

Hands Employed per day, 



36 Patents Granted by the United States. 




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HARVESTER CUTTING APPARATUS. 



HARVESTER CUTTING APPARATUS. 

1. Primitive Grass Hook. 

2. U. 8. Potent, Reciprocating Serrated Cutter — A. D. 18S1. 

8- " " 2 Cutters reciprocating in opposite directions— A. 0. 1860. 

Endless Chain Cutter— A, J). 1855. 
Wave Wheel Reciprocating Cutter — A. D. 1855. 
Rotary Cutters— A. D. 1856. 
Vibrating Cutters— A. D. 1858. 
8piral Cutters— A. D, X857. 
Differential Gear Gyrating Motion— A. D. 1870. 



4. " 

5. " 

6. •' 

7. " 



9. 




Far back in the history of art "Time" himself is 
represented as a winged old man with a primitive 
scythe in his hand. 

A charming harvest scene is presented to us in the 
Bible, when the loyal-hearted Ruth bends above the 
golden sheaves cut down by the scythes of the 
laborers of Boaz. This scene has been the theme of 
song and story since the time that the chivalrous son 
of Judah lifted the beautiful daughter of Moab, from 
among the humble gleaners in the field, to be the mis- 
tress of his heart and home. It has been reproduced 
in stained glass in our church windows, painted on the 
artist's canvas, and retained in the picture gallery of 
the mind by every one who ever read the pathetic 
narrative told in the brief Book of Ruth, 

The scythe of the present day is of Anglo-Saxon 
origin, and was first spelled "sithe." 

In ancient days a scythe was affixed to the axles of 
war chariots, intended, like that held by "Time," to 
mow down men instead of grain. 

With the advancement of civilization, however, this 
useful apparatus became associated solely with the 
peaceful implements of agriculture, and has even fur- 
nished a convenient rhyme for the poets in their pas- 



toral songs and gentler epics. For instance, even 
Puritan John Milton sings: 

" While the milkmaid singeth blythe 
And the mower whets his scythe." 

Man has hammered at the problem of finding the 
most convenient and available machine for harvesting 
for centuries. 

The harvester used in the plains of Rha^tia, in the 
time of Pliny, had no proper motion, but was simply a 
comb whose teeth had sharp edges which tore and cut 
the head of the grain from the stalk and allowed it to 
be brushed into the box of the machine. 

A harvest scene of ancient Egypt is shown by an 
illustration found in a tomb at Thebes, 1490 B. C. 
The reaper here uses the scythe, which has precedence 
of every other harvesting machine. The grain seems, 
to have been cut at this time just below the ear. 

Other methods of harvesting were practiced in Gaul 
in the time of Pliny. One was to pull the grain up by 
the roots, bind it in bunches, and then each bunch was 
drawn over a comb or hackle. This manner of har- 
vesting is represented in a tomb at Eilethyas. 

The Greeks and Romans used the curved sickle of 



the Egyptians, with but slight alterations. Varro de- 
scribes three modes of reaping as common in Italy : 

1. Cut low by a hook, the ears being afterwards cut 
off and sent to the granary. 

2. Cut off below the head by a toothed sickle, and 
, the heads carried off in baskets. 

3. Cut off at half the lengthof the straw. 

From the primitive curved blade of our Anglo- 
Saxon forefathers many improvements have been 
made. Modern invention now lays low in the short 
space of an hour vast fields of ripened grain. No 
longer is it necessary to bend over the scythe, but a 
machine propelled by horse-power or steam fells at a 
swoop the myriads of stalks whose crests are heavy 
with the seed of wheat, oats, hay, etc. 

Later inventions are propelled by steam instead of 
horse-power. The apparatus consists of a boiler and 
steam engine, erected on a light wrought-iron girder 
frame, the whole being carried on four wheels, of 
which the two hind wheels are utilized for propulsion 
and the two fore wheels for steerage and for carrying 
the cutting apparatus free of the ground. This pow- 
erful machine is used almost exclusively on the great 
wheat fields of the West and Northwest, 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, 

1,843 Manufactories In the United States. 



Cnpital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 



1800 ihso 

$11,477,239.00 162,109,668.00 

17,599,960.00 68,640,486.00 

- 5,080,549.00 15.359,610.00 



14,814 



39.480 



SXTB CLASS. 

HARVESTER CUTTERS AND MOWERS. 

„ 72,090 Manufactured in 1880. 

Capacity — 

Acres per day, 

Hands Employed per day, 

1,610 Patents Granted by the United States, 




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LAWN MOWERS. 









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LAWN MOWERS. 

No. 1. Hand. . 

2. English— A. D. 1830. 

3. TJ. 8. Patent, Reciprocating Knife— A. D. 1861. 
» —A. D. 1863. 

" Spiral Cutter— A. D. 1868. 
" —A. D. 1874. 
Edge Trimmer— A. D. 1879. 

• —A. D. 1883. 

" Revolving Cutter— A. D. 1884. 



The old English word for lawn is "laund," or 
"lawnd." The Italian and Spanish is "lande." It is 
probable that "lawn" and "land" once meant the 
same. 

John Evelyn, a wealthy gentleman of the court of 
Charles II, devoted much of his leisure and money to 
pastoral pursuits. He is, perhaps, the first author who 
wrote of mowing " carpet walks." 

Evelyn was one of the founders of what is 
known as " English landscape gardening." He was 
born in 1620, and wrote two able books, "Silva" 
and " Terra", bearing upon the subject. The beauti- 
ful lawns around his country house at Sayes Court, 
near Deptford, were probably mowed with the dimin- 
utive primitive scythe, which cost much time and 
physical exertion. 

When Peter the Great was in England he wantonly 



devastated these grounds. Evelyn complained of it 
so bitterly that the Government compensated him for 
the injury done to his property. 

Later we read of the beautiful lawns and artificial 
lake of Kenilworth Castle. 

Great attention is paid to the parks and lawns sur- 
rounding die country seats in this country and in 
Europe. 

During the warlike times of ruder ages the castles 
of the nobility were perched upon almost inaccessible 
hills, on whose rocky heights scarcely a blade of grass 
could grow. Now, however, a smoothly-shaven lawn 
is as necessary an adjunct to the houses of the rich 
and tasteful as the moat and precipitous paths used to 
be to the castles of the feudal barons. 

The tasteful grouping of trees, shrubbery, fountains 
and statues around our National Capitol, the sloping 



lawns and well-kept terraces, the ornamental walls that 
enclose it, are, taken all together, a masterpiece of the 
art of "landscape gardening." 

The great interest taken in reaping and cutting ma- 
chines, especially between the years 1851 and 1855, in 
this country, caused the old-fashioned scythe to be 
superseded by the cylindrical lawn mower. 

An apparatus consisting of reciprocating shears was 
patented in 1800, but was not successful. 

The most popular form of the modern lawn mower 
has a revolving cylinder, armed with spiral knives, 
which rotate in contact with the rectilinear edge of a 
stationary knife placed tangentially thereto. The 
cylinder is rotated by gear connection to the support- 
ing and driving wheels. The machine is made of dif- 
ferent sizes to cut a swath of from 18 to 36 inches, and 
is pushed before him by the gardener. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, 

1,943 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 



1800 1880 

$11,477,239.00 $62,109,668.00 

17.699,960.00 68,640,486.00 

- 5,080,549.00 15,359,610.00 



14,814 



39,480 



STTB CLASS. 

LAWN MOWERS. 

47,661 Manufactured in 1880, 



Capacity- 



Acres per day, 

Hands Employed per day, 

138 Patents Granted by the United States. 




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MOWERS. 

1. Primitive Hand Scythe. 

2. English Mower— A. D. 1799. 

3. U. S. Patent, Mower— A. D. 1822. 

4. " " Slotted Guard Finger and Mower— A. D. 1833. 
6. " " Spokeless Wheel Mower — A. D. 1857. 

6. " ' Front Cut One-Wheel Mower— A. D. 1857. 

7. " " Front Cut Two-Wheeled Mower— A. D. 1858. 

8. " " Rear Cut One-Wheeled Mower— A. D. 1858. 
Front Center Cut Mower— A. D. 1863. 

" Steam Mower— A. D. 1868. 
" Front Cut Two-Wheeled Mower— A. D. 1880. 
" —A. D. 1884. 




Mowing was a familiar duty in Palestine, and the 
Scripture reference to it shows that " the ardent sun" 
cured the grass in a short time. 

Of the scythe, Pliny says, A. D. 79, " there are two 
varieties, the Italian, one handed, which is shorter and 
can be handled among brushwood, and the two-handled 
Gallic. 

The first patent granted by the United States for 
cutting grain and grass bears date May 17, 1803, to 
Richard French and J. T. Hawkins, of New Jersey. 

A mower which had some popularity was invented 
by Wm. Manning, of New Jersey, in 1831. 

Obed Hussey, of Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1833, patented 
a machine for reaping and cutting all kinds of grain, to 
which he applied the saw toothed cutters and guards. 
This machine was publicly exhibited in 1837. 



II 

MOWERS. 



Cyrus McCormick built one hundred and fifty mowers 
in 1845. 

Whilst the names of Smith, Bell, Gladstone, and 
Scott are well known in connection with the experi- 
mental working of this machine in England, the names 
of Hussey, McCormick, Ketchum, Manny. Adams, and 
Ten Eyck are equally familiar to the American farmer- 
as the inventors of mowers and reapers. 

The mower and reaper had not attracted much atten- 
tion until the exhibition of American machines at Lon- 
don, in 1852. 

The earliest mowing machines made would cut only 
dry and coarse grass, and work on uplands, and it was 
thought until a few years ago that it would be im- 
possible to mow grass while the dew was on. A good 
machine of the present day, however, will mow in all 



12 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

1.043 Manufactories, in the United States. 



kinds of grass, whether wet or dry, coarse or fine, and 
some builders warrant their machines to work well in 
any place where the farmer is willing to ride. 

Though the mowing machine was suggested by the 
ancient Romans, it is believed that the first experiments 
tending toward practical results were made in Europe 
in the early part of the present century, while for its 
general usefulness and present perfection, the world 
has acknowledged its obligations to the genius and 
enterprise of American inventors. 

The American mower is awarded the palm of supe - 
riority the world over. 

72,090 mowers were produced in the United States 
in 1880. 

It is said that there are over 300,000 mowers in use 
at the present time. 



p .. , T , *860 1880 

<-*pital 'nested, - - $11,477,239.00 $62,109,668.00 

Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 



17,899,960.00 68,640,486.00 
5,080,549.00 15,359,610.00 



Hands Employed, 



14,814 



39,480 



STTB OIiA-SS. 

MOWERS. 



Capacity — 

Acres per day, 

Hands Employed per day 



72,090 Mantfactured in 1880. 




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REAPERS. 

No. 1. Egyptian Sickle. 

2. Colonial " 

3. Grain Cradle. 

4. English— A. D. 1799. 

5. U. 8. Patent, Harvester— A. D. 1834. 

6. " " Harvester, Hand Raker — A. D. 1865. 
Self Raker— A. D. 1856. 

" " Dropper— A. D. 1861. 

" Adjustable Switch Reel Rake— A. D. 1865. 

—A. D. 1875. 

— A. D. 1879. 

" " " " — A. D. 1884. 



Frequent reference is made in the Bible to reaping, 
and the sickle wherewith the grain was cut. 

The Greeks added nothing, and the Romans very 
little, to the crude mode of cutting grain by the curved 
sickle of Egypt. 

Gleaning was the common privilege of the poor 
Egyptians and Israelites, and it is ordained by the law 
of Moses that "When ye reap of the harvest of your 
land thou shalt not make clean riddance of the corners 
of the field ; neither shalt thou gather any gleanings 
of the harvest ; thou shalt leave them to the poor and 
to the stranger." 

The Gauls used the reaper A. D. 70. Pliny says 
that "in the extensive fields in the lowlands of Gaul, 
vans (carts) of large size, with projecting teeth on 
the edge, are driven on two wheels through the stand- 
ing grain by an ox, yoked in a reverse position ; in 



REAPERS, 



this manner the ears are torn off and fall into the 
van." 

Paliadius also wrote a description of this machine in 
the 4th century. 

After a lapse of centuries this form of machine is 
used for gathering clover. 

The first modern machine was similar to the 
Gallic. 

The English machine of Pitt, 1 786, had a cylinder, 
on which were rows of combs which tore off the ears 
and discharged them in a box of the machine. 

In 1799 Boyce, of England, invented the vertical 
shaft with rotary scythe. 

Mr. Gladstone, in 1806, was the first to use the horse 
in front, beside the uncut grain. 

The invention of Henry Ogle, in 1822, marks the 
commencement of a new era in reaping machines, his 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

1,943 Manufactories in the United States. 



machine was of extreme simplicity and used a recipro- 
cating cutter. 

The Bell machine, of 1826, which was brought for- 
ward to confound the American exhibitors at the 
World's Fair, held at London, 1857, was pushed ahead 
of the horses. 

In this machine there was the adjustable reel — a 
method of raising the cutters, and also a mode of de- 
livering the cut grass in line on the ground, to allow 
any number of binders to work after it. 

In the summer of 1855 a competitive trial of reapers 
took place in France ; the competitors were America 
and England. The American machine cut an acre in 
22 minutes ; the English machine cut an acre in 66 
minutes. 

There were produced in the United States in the 
year 1880 35,327 reaping machines. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 



1800 1880 

$11,477,239.00 #62,109,668.00 

17,599,960.00 68,640,486.00 

- 5,080.549.00 15.359,610.00 



14,814 



39.480 



STTB CLASS. 



REAPERS. 

35,327 Manufactured in 
Capacity — 

Acres per day, 

Hands Employed per day, 




1,398 Patents Granted by the United States, 






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HEDGE TRIMMERS 





HEDGE TRIMMERS. 

No 1. U. S. Patent, Horizontal and Vertical Cutter— A. D. 1853. 




Adjustable Side and Top— A. D. 1857. 
" " —A. D. 1857. 

Side and Top Rotary Cutter— A. D. 1866. 
Trimmer— A. D. 1874. 
Top and Side Cutter— A. D. 1882. 



The art of clipping trees, says Pliny, "was invented 
by Martius, a friend of the late Emperor Augustus, 
within the last eighty years A. D. 79." 

The osage orange has a great tendency to run up. 
It must be clipped savagely to make it spread below. 
Allowing it an extra three inches of height at each of 



the three clippings during its first year's growth, in | A first class hedge fence is said to be horse high, pig 
succeeding years it may be allowed to advance about a tight, and bull strong. 

foot a year, and at the end of five years it should be Hedge clipping machines are made which pass along- 
five feel broad at bottom and five feet high, slanted on I -side the hedge, and by their revolving cutters trim it to 
each side to a central ridge. I the shape to which the cutting apparatus is adjusted 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

1.943 Manufactories in the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 



« 8 «» 1880 

$11,477,239.00 $62,109,668.00 

- 17,599,960.00 68,640,486.00 

- 5,080.549.00 16,359,610.00 



14,814 



39,480 



STJB CLASS. 



HEDGE TRIMMERS. 

SO Patents Granted by the United States. 




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COMBINED REAPERS AND THRASHERS. 







COMBINED REAPERS AND THRASHERS. 

No. 1. U. S. Patent, Reaper and Thrasher— A. D. 1836. 

Thrasher, Separator and Sacker — A. D. 1846 
Head Cutter and Side Deliverer— A. 1). 1849. 
Harvester and Thrasher — A. D. 1877. 
Steam Harvester— A. D. 1879. 
Header, Thrasher and Separator— A. D. 1883. 




Under another head is given a full history of har- 
vester cutting apparatus, carrying the reader back to 
the most ancient devices for cutting grain. An appli- 
ance which at once reaps and thrashes is of compara- 
tively modern invention. 

In 1828 Samuel Lane, of Maine, invented a reaper 
with which a thrasher was combined. This combina- 
tion arrangement has not, however, yet come into gen- 
eral use. 

In the State of California the combined reaper and 



thrasher is found to be more available, as the special 
conditions of the topography, soil and climate make its 
use practicable. 

The steam harvester is used in all the grain fields of 
the great West. This cuts the grain in broad swaths, 
and with incredible rapidity; it is thrashed by the same 
power. 

A portable engine, by whose power the reaper is 
first propelled and afterwards the thrasher, has been 
found to be the most convenient method of harvesting 



the larger crops of grain. The reaper of Cyrus W. 
McCormick, after which the most notable modern ma- 
chines may be said to haye been modeled, combined, 
perhaps, more desirable qualities than any others. In 
this machine, although the reaping and thrashing are 
not done simultaneously, the grain is so compactly 
bound as it is reaped that the thrashing can be speedily 
and conveniently accomplished. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

1,943 Manufactories In the United State*. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 



ISO* 1880 

fll.477,239.00 $62,109,668.00 

17,599,960.00 68,640,486.00 

- 6,080,649.00 15,369,610.00 



14,814 



39.480 



SUB CLASS. 

COMBINED REAPERS AND THRASHERS 

44 Patents Granted by the United States. 




SackeU&WilhelmsLithoCo NewYork 



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HARVESTER BINDERS. 



HARVESTER BINDERS. 



No. 1. U.S. Patent, Cord Knolter— A. D. 1853. 




Wire Twister— A. D. 1856. 

Straw Braid Twister— A. D. 1857. 

Gleaner and Binder— A. D. 1862. 

Self Tripping Cord Knotter— A. D. 1867. 

Wire Twister— A. D. 1868. 

Automatic Trip— A. D. 1870. 

Straw Looper— A. D. 1870. 

Vibrating Binder— A. D. 1875. 

Low Down Binder— A. D. 1878. 

Compressor Automatic Trip — A. D. 1879. 

Low Down Oblique Delivery — A. D. 1884 



The most primitive method of binding grain was a 
wisp or bunch of the grain twisted and tied around the 
bundle. These bundles were stacked together in 
what are called "sheaves." 

A great many experiments have been made to pro- 
duce a machine which will bind grain as fast as it is cut. 

Among the first to succeed at this was Allen Sher- 
wood, of Auburn, N. Y., who was granted a patent 
for a grain binder in 1858. 

A simple sheaf binder is a string strained around a 
sheaf by means of a notched stick. The band is com- 
posed of the two cords knotted together, forming 
loops. 

At the Paris exposition a number of cord and wire 
binders were exhibited. One exhibitor showed a cord 
made of twisted bark of osiers ; another showed cheap 
hempen cords in packages of 1,000 each. It was de- 
monstrated that there was a waste in using a bunch of 
the grain as a binder. 



Another patented device is a grain band having a 
string attached to a block. Both are treated with tar, 
and are smoked to render them indestructible by 
humidity, and noxious to insects. 

At the Paris exposition in (878 there were exhib- 
ited nine binding reapers — six American and three 
British. Four American machines went into the field, 
all of which used the wire binder. Since then each of 
the owners has placed a twine binder on the market 
instead. Two twine binders were shown at this expo- 
sition, one American and one British, but did not com- 
pete on the field. The four competing machines were 
those of McCormick, Wood, Osborne and Aultman. 
In the McCormick twine-binding reaper the cut grain 
is delivered upon a platform, which is a moving web of 
canvas, which carries it to the elevated aprons and then 
delivers it upon the binding table. Here a band is 
placed around the middle of the bundle, tied closely, 
and the twine or wire cut. 



The binding apparatus consists of a needle arm, 
gripper and discharging device, with the necessary 
gear. The needle rises through the table when the 
grain is in place, carrying the twine with it ; this en- 
circles the sheaf and a quick knot is tied. The twine 
string is fed from a tin canister on top of the machine, 
which can be worked by one man. 

The reaping and.automar.ic machine of S. D. Locke, 
of New York, made by Walter Wood, of that State, 
is believed to be the most perfect binder, after twelve 
years of experiment. Since 1874 great numbers of 
these machines have been put upon the market and 
are now in successful operation. 

Among other successful binders is that of James F. 
Gordon, of New York, patented in 1874. 

Barta's self-binder has also worked successfully. It 
uses cord and makes a square knot. This is also a 
recent invention. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

1,943 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, • 



1S«0 1880 

$11,477,239.00. 162,109,668.00 

17,599,960.00 68,640,486.00 

- 5,080,549.00 15,359,610.00 



14,814 



39.480 



Cai'acitv — 

Acres per day, 

Hands Employed per day 



STTB CLASS. 

HARVESTER BINDERS. 




697 Patents Granted by the United States, 






19 





4 





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No. 1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 



10. 
11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 



HORSE RAKES. 

imitive, Hand. 

S. Patent, Flopover— A. D. 1822. 

Spring Tooth— A. D. 1839. 

Dumping Sulky— A. D. 1848. 

Draft Dumping— A. D. 1850. 

Self Dumping— A. D. 1852. 

Spring Tooth Self Dumping— A. D. 1856. 

Draft Dumping— A. D. 1856. 







-4o 






HORSE RAKES. 




111) 



#»'''-' 

%?&!<///"'•' 





" 


—A. D. 1859. 


Drag 


—A. D. 1866. 


Draft 


—A. D. 1866. 


Drag 


—A. D. 1870. 


Draft 


—A. D. 1876. 


" 


—A. D. 1884. 



The rake is not represented in the sculptures of an- 
cient Egypt. 

Grain rakes in Great Britain are made of large size, 
for raking and gleaning the stubble. The head is four 
feet long, the teeth of iron four inches long and one 
and one-half inches apart. 

In Scotland a rake is used with a jointed head fifteen 
feet long ; the handle has a cross-bar, and the imple- 
ment is drawn by two men. 

The wheeled hand rake of the United States used for 
grain or hay was the precursor of the modern horse rake. 



The American horse rake with curved steel tires at- 
tached to a bar hinged to a light axle tree, was first 
used in Pennsylvania. 

These having two sets of wooden teeth lying close 
to the earth and revolving at the will of the driver, 
were invented by H. N. Tracy, of Vermont. 

Horse rakes are of several kinds, and have come 
into extensive use of late years. They are wheeled 
or wheelers. 

Some rake heads revolve as in the flop-over rake, 
in others the rake head is formed by, or attached to, 



the axle or trails behind it, and the teeth are only 
lifted to deliver the hay. 

In some the teeth are independent, so as to yield 
to obstacles without affecting the operation of the 
other teeth. The rake head in some cases is 
turned by hand at the proper moment, but is more 
commonly arranged to receive motion from the power 
of the animal when a holding device is released by 
the driver. 

The mower, horse rake, and hay fork are a most 
effective trio in the business of cutting and saving hay. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

1,043 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 



1800 1880 

$11,477,239.00 $62,109,668.00 

17.599,960.00 68,640,486.00 

- 5,080.549.00 15,359,610.00 



14,814 



39,480 



STJB CLASS. 



HORSE RAKES. 

95,625 Manufactured in 1880. 

Capacity — 'jj| 

Acres per day, - - - I 

Hands employed per day, - ] 

963 Patents Granted by the United States. 



30 
1 



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Sacked & Wilhelms Litho Co New York 



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HAY FORKS, 



HAY FORKS. 



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No. 1. Primitive Hand. 

2. U. S. Patent, Spiral Horse Fork— A. D. 1867. 

3 - " " Harpoon Horse Fork — A. D. 1867. 

4 - " " Tilting Horse Fork— A. D. 1870. 

5 - " " Grapple Horse Fork— A. D. 1880. 

6 - " " Harpoon Horse Fork— A. D. 1881. 

7 - " " Hand Fork— A. D, 1882. 

8 - " " Harpoon Horse Fork— A. D. 1884. 

9 - " " " " —A. D. 1884. 



The fork of the husbandman is. shown on Egyptian 
tombs, and is referred to in the Book of Judges, 1093 
B. C. : " Yet they had a file for the mattocks and for 
the colters and for the forks." 



They are classified in the U. S. Patent Office as hay 
forks, proper ; hay forks, corkscrew ; hay forks, grap- 
ple ; hay forks, harpoon ; hay forks, tilting. 




HAY FORKS. 



476 Patents Granted by the United States. 



I 




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Sackett& Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 






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HAY LOADERS 



HAY LOADERS. 

No. 1. Primitive, Hand. 

2. U. S. Patent, Raker and Loader— A D. 1848. 
" —A. D. 1850. 
" Reel Raker and Loader— A. D. 1858. 
" Walking Reel Loader— A. D. 1860. 
" Endless Belt Loader— A. D. 1861. 
" Side Delivering Raker and Loader — A. D. 1864. 
" Lifting Drag Rake Loader — A. D. 1865. 
" Raker and Loader— A. D. 1867. 
" Intermittent Action Loader — A. D. 1868. 
" Spiral Elevator— A. D. 1870. 
" Raker and Loader— A. D. 1876. 
" " " — A. D. 1883. 




Hay is commonly made of grasses, a few leguminous 
plants, and clover. 

Plants are in the best state to be cut for fodder 
.vhen in blossom, or just out of blossom. 

The cutting of grass for hay is done by hand scythes, 
or horse power and steam-propelled machines. 

The swaths are shaken out and exposed to the sun 
by machines called tedders or spreaders. When dry 
the hay is raked together by horse rakes into Jong 



heaps called " windrows." These " windrows" are 
divided and formed into conical heaps and called 
" cocks." 

Horse hay forks were originally used to hoist the 
hay on the wagons and into barns. These hay forks 
are arranged so that by a system of ropes, blocks and 
rods, the hay is lifted from the load upon the forks and 
delivered in any section of the barn. 

The inventive genius of this century has perfected 



a machine after many trials, by which the " windrows" 
are speedily gathered up and lifted through a series of 
spiral attachments to a point above the hay wagon, 
whence it is deposited in the w^gon. 

This invention can be worked either by steam or 
horse power. The work is done with great rapidity 
and thoroughness. In isolated districts the old-fash- 
ioned hay fork is still used, but improvements in the 
shape and capacity of the fork are apparent. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

1 1 943 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 



I860 1880 

111,477,239.00 162,109,668.00 

17,599,960.00 68,640,486.00 

- 5,080.549.00 16,359,610.00 



14,814 



39,480 



STTB GXrASa. 

HAY LOADERS. 

8,957 Manufactured in 1880, 
Capacity— 

Tons per day, 

Hands Employed per day, 

266 Patents Granted by the United States. 




Sacketl& Wilhelms Litho Co New York 



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8 



HAY TEDDERS. 





HAY TEDDERS. 






No. 1. Hand 










2. U. S. 


Patent 


Tedder— A. D. 1855. 






3. " 




" —A. D. 1861. 






4. " 




" —A. D. 1862. 






5. " 




Rake and Tedder — A. 


I). 


1865. 


6. " 


" 


" —A. 


D. 


1867. 


7. " 


" 


" —A. 


D. 


1870. 


8. " 


« 


Tedder— A. D. 1883. 







The hay tedder was invented about 1 8oo by Salmon, 
of England, and is more useful in the humid climate 
of that country than the United States. It consists of 
a pair of wheels supporting a reel, consisting of an 
open cylindrical frame, formed by arms proceeding 
from it and carrying bars set with curved tines point- 
ing outward. This reel may be lifted out of operative 



position when going to and from work in the field, and 
when at work it is rotated by a pinion connection to a 
spur wheel in the hub of one wheel. 

By the use of the modern tedder, which upturns the 
new-cut and half-cured grass as it lies upon the ground 
and promotes its more rapid curing, the risk of expos- 
ures to summer storms is greatly lessened. 




AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

1,943 Manufactories In the United States. 

„ . , _ 1880 

Capital Invested, ... $62,109,668.00 

Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, 

STJB CLASS. 

HAY TEDDERS. 

2,334 Manufactured in 1880. 
Capacity — 

Acres per day, 

Hands Employed per day, 

122 Patents Granted by the United States, 



68,640,486.00 
15,359,610.00 

39,480 



Mods. 

5 

1 



40 

1 



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*■ 



Sackett&Wilhelms LiLho Co New York 




THRASHING AND CLEANING GRAIN. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 



THRASHING AND CLEANING GRAIN. 

No. 1. Egyptian— 1500 B. C. 

2. Roman Tribulum— 100 B. C. 

3. Hand Flail. 

4. Horse Thrashing. 

6. Flail Thrashing Machine. 

6. U. S. Patent, Horse Power, A. D. 1834. 

7, " " Steam Power, A. D. 1883. 



1,943 Manufactories in the United States. 







Oxen were anciently employed in thrashing corn, and 
the same custom is still retained in Egypt and the east. 
This operation is effected by trampling upon .the sheaves, 
and by dragging a clumsy machine, furnished with three 
rollers. A wooden chair is attached to the machine, 
and on this a driver seats himself, urging his oxen 
backwards and forwards among the sheaves, which have 
previously been thrown into a heap of about eight feet 
wide and two in height. The grain thus beaten out is 
collected in an open place, and shaken against the 
wind by an attendant with a small shovel, or, as it is 
termed, a winnowing fan, which disperses the chaff and 
leaves the grain uninjured. 

Horace further tells us that the thrashing floor was 
mostly a smooth space, surrounded with mud walls, 
having a barn or garner on one side ; occasionally an 
open field, outside the walls, was selected for this pur- 



pose, yet uniformly before the town or city gates. | 
Such was the void place wherein the " King of Israel, j 
and Jehoshaphat, King of Judah sat each of them on his- 
throne, clothed in his robes, at the entering in of the I 
gate of Samaria, and all the prophets prophesied before | 
them." 

In the marginal reading we are informed that this 
void space was no other than a thrashing floor ; and | 
truly the area was well adapted for such an assemblage, I 
being equally suited to accommodate the two kings 
and their attendants, and to separate them from the ! 
populace. 

A four-horse power portable engine with six-inch 
cylinder, pressure of steam 45 pounds per square 
incb, revolutions, 140 per minute, has thrashed, under | 
favorable surroundings, 320 bushels per day of ten 
hours ; coal consumed 3 cwt. Another engine, of five- 



horse power, thrashed 400 bushels ; coal consumed 
4 cwt. Another, of six-horse power, thrashed 480 
bushels ; coal consumed 5 cwt. Another, of seven- 
horse power, thrashed 560 bushels ; coal consumed 6 
cwt. Another, of eight-horse power, thrashed 640 
bushels ; coal consumed 7 cwt. Another of ten-horse 
power, thrashed 800 bushels per day ; coal consumed 
9 cwt. 

The economy of these performances is evident at a 
glance, and even if much less work than the above was 
effected, such an engine would, if mounted on wheels, 
prove a most valuable acquisition to any neighborhood 
composed of thrifty farmers, who might, by an equitable 
arrangement, become both the owners and beneficiaries 
of the same. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 



I860 

$11,477,239.00. 

17,599,960.00 

- 5,080,549.00 

14,814 



1880 

$62,109,668.00 
68,640.486.00 
15,359,610.10 

39,480 



SITE OLAS8. 



THRASHING AND CLEANING GRAIN. 



19,527 Machines Manufactured in 1880. 
Capacity — 

Bushels Wheat per day, 

" Oats '• 

Hands Employed per day, 

drain Thrashed, 1883, 1,340,000,000 Bushel*. 
2, 6 15 Patents Granted by the United States. 



Mod*. 

20 

40 

4 



1,000 

2,000 

4 



54 



Sackelt & Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 



--:'.-■ 




WINNOWING AND SIFTING GRAIN. 







WINNOWING AND SIFTING GRAIN. 

No. 1. Primitive Winnowing, Egypt— 1500 B. C. 

2. " " Rome— 100 B. C. 

3. English Fanning Mill— A. D. 1775 

4. U. S. Patent, Fanning Mill— A. D. 1829. 

5. " " " " —A. B. 1879. 
6". " " Air Separator— A. D. 1881. 
7- " " Rolling Screen— A. B. 1884. 
8. " " Cockle Machine— A. D. 1884. 



The winnowing of grain is early mentioned in 
Sacred History. "The oxen likewise and the young 
asses that ear the ground shall eat clean provender, 
which hath been removed with the shovel and with the 
fan. (Isaiah xxx, 24.) "Like as grain is sifted with 
a sieve." (Amos ix, 9.) 

The oldest representations that we have of the 
process of winnowing is on the Egyptian tombs, 
where men with scoops are throwing the grain up in 
the air .so that the passing wind may drive off the 
chaff. 

The Egyptians used sifters made of papyrus, the 
ancient Spaniards of flax, and the Gauls invented 
sieves of horse hair. 

In Britain the use of the hand sieve riddle was the 



only method employed for dressing grain until the last 
century. 

We derive the winnowing machine from Britain, 
which country obtained it from Holland. In 1710 it 
was introduced into Scotland by Meikle, the father of 
Meikle who invented the thrashing machine. 

The English word is derived from the idea of mak- 
ing an artificial blast by means of a fan, and the spe- 
cific mechanical purpose is to separate grain from chaff 
by a blast of wind acting upon the latter, which is 
lighter than the grain. 

It is among the histories of the machine that when 
it was introduced into Scotland certain sensitive per- 
sons pronounced.it an impious device, as " It raised a 
wind when the Lord had made a calm." This is but 



another form of the opposition which met Kepler and 
Galileo. 

Gooch, of England, in 1800, invented the more 
modern machine which embraces the important fea- 
tures of the rotating fan, the shaking riddle and sieves, 
for assorting grain and separating extraneous sub- 
stances. Winnowing machines are frequently attached 
to thrashing machines. 

Winnowing machines, oftener called "fanning 
mills" in this country, are machines in which grain, 
accompanied by chaff, dirt, cockle, grass, seeds, dust 
and straw, is subjected to a shaking action, or riddled 
and sieved in succession. An artificial blast of wind 
is driven against it on and through the sieves as it 
falls. 



WINNOWING AND SIFTING GRAIN. 



1,038 Patents Granted Dy the United States, 







Sackett&Wilhelrns Litho Co New York 



> 



? 






CORN HUSKERS, SHELLERS, AND HOMINY MAKING. 



ILi 



CORN HUSKERS. SHELLERS, AND HOMINY MAKING. 

No. 1. Primitive Corn Husker. 

2. " Hominy Mortar. 

3. " Corn Sheller. 

4. English Hominy Mill— A D. 1715. 

6. U. S. Patent, Corn Sheller— A. D. 1815. 
6. " " " Husker— A. D. 1837. 

Hominy Machine— A. D. 1868. 
" " Corn Shelter— A. D. 1882. 

9 " " Husker— A. D. 1883. 



The North American Indians pounded their maize 
in mortars, to make a coarse meal or hominy. 

Some corn husking machines operate upon the corn 
in the field to husk it off the stalk ; in others the ear 
is simply jerked from the stalk, and the machine tears 
off the husks from the ears. 

In the homitiv mill or machine the corn is subjected 



to a grating or beating action, which removes the cuti- 
cle and the germ, and by persistent and sufficiently 
energetic action, may break the grain as small as may 
be wanted. The sizes are graded by sifting. 

It is said that the old hand process of shelling corn 
would require the entire population of the United 



States 6 days in the week — too days per year — to 
shell the corn crop. 

The cultivating and milling of rice in Louisiana gives 
employment to a large percentage of the population. 
There are about 900 rice plantations in the State. 
New Orleans has twelve mills, with a capacity for 
cleaning 275,000 barrels per annum. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, 

1,943 Manufactories In the United States. 

1800 lss<> 

Capital Invested, • - $11,477,239.00 $62,109,668.00 
Value of Productions, - • 17,599,960.00 68,640,486.00 
Wages Paid, .... 5,080.549.00 15,369,610.00 



Hands Employed, 



14,814 



39,480 



STJB CIASS. 



CORN HUSKERS, SHELLERS. AND HOMINY MAKING. ^ 



Capacity — 

Bushels per day, 

Hands Employed per day, 



682 Patents Granted by the United States, 




Sacketl&Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 






26 



\ 









r 



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6 7 8 

WHEAT, RICE AND COTTON SEED HULLERS. 



#H 



WHEAT RICE AND COTTON SEED HULLERS. 

No. 1. Primitive Rice Mortar. 

2. Chinese Rice Mortar. 

3. U. 8. Patent, Wheat Huller and Simitter— A. D. 1832. 




Cotton Seed Huller— A. D. 1834. 
Rice Mortar— A. D. 1878. 
Wheat Huller and Smutter— A. D. 1883. 
Cotton 8eed Huller— A. D. 1884. 
Rice and Grain Scourer — A. D. 1884. 



The decortication of grain was practiced by the Ro- 
mans, the whole grain being pounded in mortars with 
some abradant, which rasped off the cuticle. 

In the time of Pliny, a mortar was employed for hull- 
ing grain, sand or pieces of brick being placed therein 
to assist the trituration, foreign substances, such as the 
husk and bran, being removed by sifting. 

Mills for the manufacture of pearl barley were in- 
vented in Germany, and first used in Holland in 1660. 

The Scotch pearl barley mill consists of a drum, 
which is rotated by suitable gearing, and within which 
a circular grindstone is caused to rapidly revolve. The 
grain is fed through a hopper, opening axially into the 
drum, and is removed by a sluice at its side. The drum 



is lined with sheet iron, perforated with small holes, 
which serve to remove the skin and a portion of the 
outer substance of the grain, bringing it to a sphe - 
roidal shape. 

Other varieties of machines depend partly upon per- 
cussion. 

Mills for decorticating are known in England as bar- 
ley mills. 

Rough rice has an outer husk and a thin cuticle 
which adheres to the pearly grain with great tenacity. 
The old mode of hulling rice was by pounding in mor- 
tars, which were made of wood, holding from one to 
two bushels. 

Lucas, in 1780, constructed a machine driven by tide 



power, which operated iron shod pestles in cast iron 
mortars, holding five bushels each of rough rice. 

Ewbanks rice huller was one of the first introduced, 
and was patented in England in 1819. 

Steam machines succeeded the hand machines, and 
are now mostly used for hulling rice. 

The cotton seed huller is a modern device, by which 
the hull of the cotton seed is rasped off and sifted from 
the farinaceous and oily matters, which are utilized for 
their oil, and the refuse is used for fertilizers. 



WHEAT, RICE AND COTTON SEED HULLERS, 



613 Patents Granted by the United States. 




Sacketl&WilheirnsUhoCoNewYork 



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1 



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6 





8 



GRAIN MILLS. 




GRAIN MILLS. 

So, 1. Ancient. Quern (Stone Age). 

2. Primitive Disk of the Scriptures. 

3. Pompeian— A. D. 79. 

4. U. S. Patent, Grist-A. D. 1832. 

5. " " Roller— A. D. 1835. 

6. " " " —A. D. 1840. 

7. " " Flour— A. D. 1840. 

8. " " » —A. D. 1884. 



GRAIN MILLS. 



Corn mills are of the greatest antiquity. We read 
in the scriptures that "Abraham caused cakes to be 
baked for his guests of the finest meal, and their manna 
was ground like corn. The earliest instrument used 
seems to have been the mortar, a hollow stone in 
which the grain was pounded. In the course of time 
the mortar was made ridged, and the pestle notched, 
at least at the bottom, by which means the grain was 
rather grated than pounded. When the handle was 
added to the top of the pestle the mortar was con- 
verted into a hand mill. 

Moses forbade the people to place their mills in 
pawn, for that, he says, " is the same thing as to take 
a man's life to pledge." (Deuteronomy xxiv, 6.) 

The grinding of grain was at first the employment of 
women, but afterwards the mills were driven by bonds- 
men, around whose necks was placed a circular piece 



of wood, so that these poor men could not put their 
hands to their mouths or eat of the meal. 

In the course of time shafts were added to the mill, 
that it might be driven by cattle. 

The water mill appears to have been introduced in 
the time of Julius C«esar. In the year 536, Belisarius, 
of Rome, placed boats on the Tiber, on which he erect- 
ed mills that were driven by the current of the river. 

Notices of water mills in France, Italy and elsewhere 
are numerous after the fifth century. The method of 
applying a sieve, in the form of an extended bag, to 
the works of a mill, that the meal might fall into it as 
it came from the stones, and of causing it to be shaken 
by machinery, was first made known in the beginning 
of the sixteenth century. 

The Oliver Evans hopper boy patent, for feeding 
grain to the millstone, was considered of such import- 



ance by Thomas Jefferson, that he thought the patent 
should not be allowed, it being of such necessity to the 
miller. 

The first steam flouring mill was the Albion, erected 
at Southwark, England, in 1783. 

From the hand machines to the patent buhr stones, 
turning out hundreds of bushels of finely ground grain 
in a day, was a great improvement by gradual steps, 
but the day for grinding grain with stones has passed, 
and the roller crusher is now taking the place of stones 
in- mills. 

The weight of an ordinary pair of millstones is from 
1,300 to 1,700 pounds. They measure about 48 inches 
in diameter, are about 10 inches thick, and contain from 
30 to 40 buhrs. 

The flour and grist mill industries of the United 
States aggregate a product of $505,185,712. 



24,338 Flour and Grist Mills in the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, 



Wheat, bushels, 
Other Grain, bushels, 

Total bushels, 



1SGO 1880 

184,585,004.00 $177,361,878.00 

248,580,365.00 505,185,712.00 

8,721,391.00 17,422,316.00 



27,682' 



58,407 

Gronnd In 1SSO. 

- 304,775,737 
234,907,220 



639,682,957 



1,732 Patents Granted by the United States. 



^r: 



31 



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Sackelt & Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 



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8 



HEMP AND FLAX TREATMENT. 



HEMP AND FLAX TREATMENT. 

No. 1. Primitive Treating Flax, Egypt— B. C. 1500. 

2. Scutching Sword and Stand— A. D. 1780. 

3. U. 8. Patent, Hemp Brake— A. D. 1816. 



I 



» 



" and Flax Brake— A. D. 1878. 
Hackling Machine— A. D. 1879. 
Fiber Cleaner— A. D. 1879. 
Ramie Machine— A. D. 1879. 
Breaker and Scutcher— A. D. 1880. 




Hemp is not mentioned in our translation of the 
Hebrew, and but sparingly in the Greek classics. The 
Thracians made garments of hemp, which closely re- 
sembled linen. The Greeks and Romans used hemp, 
but never cultivated it before the Christian era. Cloth, 
made of hemp, became common in Europe in the thir- 
teenth century. 

In Virginia, United States; hemp was raised previous 
to 1648. In 1657 its culture was encouraged by the 
Government 

To separate the fibre, the hemp is dew-rotted or 
water-rotted. In the former process, the hemp is 
spread upon the ground in October, or a month or two 
later, according to the climate ; when the lint readily 
separates upon breaking, a stalk, the process, which re- 
quires about two months, is complete. In water-rot- 
ting, the hemp is immersed in water for ten days or 
more, according to the Season. This !s done in 
streams, in artificial pools made near the margin of a 
river, or in large wooden vats under cover. When 
rotted in vats the hemp is subjected to a partial break- 
ing, which lessens its bulk. After the hemp is rotted 
and dried it is taken to the brake, which is either a rude 
affair worked like a flax brake, or an improved machine 



operated by steam, or other power. After breaking 
the hemp is twisted into bundles and baled for market. 

The principal hemp producing countries are Russia, 
Italy, Holland, Turkey, .Great Britain, the East Indies, 
and the United States. 

Flax is first mentioned in the Old Testament, in Ex- 
odus ix, 3 1 . 

Flax was used to the exclusion of wool for priestly 
garments. Isaiah refers to the fine linen of Egypt. 
The manipulation of flax to render it of use was known 
in Egypt 1 500 B. C. It was exported from Egypt to 
Gaul as late as the Christian era. Henry the VIII, of 
England, ordered it to be grown in Scotland. In 1 750 
a braking or scutching machine was erected and run 
by water power. 

The first process in the preparation of flax fibre is to 
steep the stalks in water until fermentation takes place. 
This causes the glutinous matter, which binds the harl 
or fibrous portion to the woody core called the boon,. to 
be decomposed, and the fibres are then set free. The 
water most suitable for this purpose is soft river water. 

The flax is left freer from color by a stream of water 
flowing over the bundles than if these are steeped, as 
is often done, in a pool. This process is called water- 



retting, or rotting. The result is sometimes obtained 
by exposing the flax or grass plots to the dew or rain. 
The duration of the process is from six to twenty days. 
A more expeditious process was devised by Mr. R. B. 
Schenck, of New York, and introduced in 1847, and 
consists in steeping the stalk in water heated by steam 
pipes to a temperature of about 90 degrees Fah. The 
gummy matter is thus rapidly decomposed, so that in 
about sixty hours the operation is completed. The 
mucilaginous water is then drawn off, and the flax set 
to dry upon frames. 

After the flax has been rotted and dried, it is sub- 
mitted to the process called braking, by which the 
straws are cracked repeatedly across, the effect of which 
is to produce the separation of the brittle, woody por- 
tion, which falls away in pieces from the filaments when 
afterwards beaten by a broad, flat blade of wpod in the 
operation of scutching. 

Flax is also broken upon a large scale by machines 
consisting of fluted rollers variously contrived. Other 
labor saving machines, with rotating blades, have been 
applied to the process of scutching. One end of the 
bundle being hatchelled, it is turned round and the 
other treated in the same way. 



HEMP AND FLAX TREATMENT. 



Hemp and Flax Produced: 



Hemp, tons, . 
Flaxseed, bushels, 
Flax Straw, tons, 
" Fiber, pounds, 



1880 

5,025 

7,170,951 

421,098 

1,565,646 



338 Patents Granted by the United States. 




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CARE OF STOCK. 



CARE OF STOCK. 

No. 1. Feeder. 

2. Salt Feeder. 

3. Grooming 

4. Hen's Nest. 

5. Egyptian Incubator. 

6. U. S. Patent, Sheep Rack— A. D. 1881. 

7. " " Manger— A. D. 1882. 

8. " " Grooming— A. D. 1882. 

9. " " Salt Feeder— A. D. 1883. 

10. " " Incubator— A. 0. 1883. 

11. " " Horse Brush— A. D. 1884. 

12. " " Fodder Cutter— A. D. 1884. 



i 





The care of stock is almost as old as the human 
race. 

In the sculpture of Nimrod is represented a tent 
within which is a groom currying a horse. 

The Arabians are noted for the care they take of 
their horses, and the result of years of kindness and 
attention has produced a breed whose beauty, strength, 
swiftness and endurance have made it both famous and 
valuable. 

The Hebrews cut straw and grain in the sheaf for 
food. 

Hohlfield, of Saxony, about 171 1, invenced a straw 
chopper. 

The chaff cutter of the last century was a trough, in 
which the hay or straw was pushed along by a fork so 
as to be exposed to a knife at the end of the trough, 
and was oscillated by hand. 

Horses and oxen are fed in a trough arranged in 
their stalls. The best stock breeders allow .each animal 
a separate trough for food. Their food is now pre- 
pared for them by being cut up in different kinds of 
machines. Fodder is cut very fine. Corn is taken off 
the ear and the grains are cut in two. Meal for milch 
cows is soaked in hot water. 

Sheep are kept in warmer quarters than formerly, 
and fed in a way which has greatly increased the quality 
and quantity of their wool. 

A sheep rack has been invented which is of portable 
wrought iron and is mounted on four wheels. It has 



a wrought-iron hay rack in the middle, a trough at each 
side, doors at the ends and a corrugated iron roof with 
eave gutters. 

A sheep shearing machine has also been invented, 
which greatiy facilitates that unpleasant operation. 

A device known as a stock feeder automatically sup- 
plies feed to stock in limited quantities at certain times. 
It is an ingenious, but not commonly adopted, device, 
attached to some mangers. 

The eggs referred to in the Old Testament were 
those of wild birds, whilst those in the New Testament 
were ordinary hens' eggs. 

The domestic fowl of to-day is a native of India, and 
is not mentioned in the Old Testament. It was known 
in Palestine at the Christian era, and is supposed to 
have been introduced by the Romans into the coun- 
tries they subjugated. They were common in Greece. 

Egg hatching in Egypt is conducted largely by the 
Copts, an ancient Egyptian race. For such purposes 
they use a building containing 12 or 24 ovens, holding 
1 50,000 eggs. 

The proprietor of an oven collects the eggs from 
the peasants in the vicinity. The eggs are placed on 
mats strewn with bran, and are changed to positions 
nearer to, or further from, the heat, till the expiration 
of six days, four more days in the warmest position, 
and five days in a closed chamber. They are fre- 
quently, changed during the next 5 days, outside air 
being carefully excluded. 



The ancient Egyptian incubators ire mentioned by 
Aristotle, Deodorus, and others. 

Bounewain's incubator, invented in 1777, was heated 
by hot water. Tubes run back and forth through the 
machine containing the hot water, above which the 
eggs are placed. 

In the year 1831 there were 105 of these establish- 
ments in Lower Egypt using 19,000,000 eggs, of which 
1 3,000,000 produced chickens, thus saving the valuable 
time of 1,500,000 hens for three weeks of inactivity an I 
several succeeding weeks of care of their broods. 

Poultry raising may be classed as one of the accom- 
paniments of a stock farm. The raising of chickens, 
in particular, has become an important industry, and 
modern science has contributed no little to the in- 
crease in the number of chickens annually hatched. 

More modern inventors use various methods of 
heating. 

The following table shows the length of time re- 
quired for hatching eggs: Swan, 42 days ; goose, 35 
days ; turkey, 28 days ; peafowl, 28 days ; duck, 28 
days ; common, hen, 21 days ; pigeon, 14 days ; canary 
birds, 14 days. 

Hens' eggs are hatched by being kept at a tempera- 
ture of 104 for three weeks. 

It is estimated that 50,000,000 eggs are consumed 
daily in the United States. 

456,910,916 dozens of eggs were produced in the 
United States in the year 1880 



CARE OF STOCK. 

Live Stook on Farms in the United States. 



Horses, 

Mules and Asses, 
Working Oxen, 
Milch Cows, 
Other Cattle, 



Swine, 



Cattle, 



1800 

6,249,174 

1,151,148 

2,254,911 

8,585,735 

14,779,373 

22,471,275 

33,512,867 



Live Stook on Ranohes and Ranges. 

Not reported. 



Swine, 
Val ue, 



1880 

10,357,488 
1,812,808 
933,841 
12,443,120 
22,488,550 
35,192,074 
47,681,700 

3,750,022 
7,000,000 
2,090,970 



$1,089,329,916.00 $1,500,384,707.00 



1,430 Patents Granted by the United States. 




Sackett&Wilhelms Lilho Co NewYork 




BEE HIVES AND HOUSES. 

No. 1. U. S. Patent, Compartment Hive— A. I). 1830. 



BEE HIVES AND HOUSES. 



BEE HIVES AND HOUSES. 



2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
16. 



ak 



Bee House— A. D. 1836. 
Multiple Hive— A. D. 1842 
Ventilator Hive— A. D. 1843. 
Hive— A. D. 1852. 

Hive Supporting Frame — A. D. 1860, 
Truncated Hive— A. D. 1869. 
Bee House— A. D. 1871. 
Compartment Hive— A. D. 1872. 
Bee Hive— A. D. 1877. 
" " —A. D. 1877. 
Frame Spacing Bars — A. D. 1878. 
Apiary— A. D. 1878. 
Moth Killing Hive— A. D. 1879. 
Compartment Hive — A. D. 1884. 



Varro, j>Q B. C. recommends that hives be made of 
basket work, wool, bark, hollow trees, pottery or reeds, 
also of transparent stone, to enable persons to see the 
bees at work. 

Cork hives are in use in some parts of Europe, and 
in Greece and Turkey earthenware hives are used. 

The ancient English hives were baskets of unpeeled 
willows. 

Pepys, in his diary, 1665, refers to glass hives. 

In I7Q2 movable comb hives were invented. In 
Egypt they transport bees in hives on boats from place 



to place along the Nile, according to the succession of 
flowers. This custom has long been in vogue in Per- 
sia, Asia Minor and Greece, and in Scotland when the 
heather is in bloom. In Poland bees are transported 
from their winter quarters to their summer pastures, 
and back again in winter. 

Greece is said to produce the greatest quantity of 
honey. Near Attica it is estimated that there are ! 
twenty thousand hives. 

A ftoatine bee house has been constructed for use 
on the Mississippi river, large enough to accommodate 



two thousand hives. !t is to be towed up the river 
from Louisiana to Minnesota, keeping pace with the 
blossoming of the Rowers, thus stimulating the honey 
making ability of the bees It is possible that honey 
bee ships might advantageously be sent out in winter 
to the West Indies to cruise for honey after the manner 
above described. 

There are over two million bee hives kept bv bee 
keepers in the United States. 



Honey produced, pounds, 
Wax 



1800 1880 

23,366,357 25,743,208 
1,322,787 1,105,689 



866 Patents Granted by the United States. 




Saekelt&Wtf helms LilhoCo NewYoi-k 






, 



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BEE KEEPING. 




BEE KEEPING. 

No. 1. Worker. 

2. Queen. 

3. Drone. 

4. Bee Tree. 
6. Bee Log. 

6. Pompeian Hive. 

7. Straw Hive. 

8. Metal and Cork Hive. 

9. Upright Gum. 

10. German Hive. 

11. Barrel Hive. 

12. Upright Box Hive. 
10. Octagonal Hive. 

14. Observatory Hive. 

15. Multiple Hive. 



Samson found bees in " the land that flowed with 
milk and honey." Under the Levitical law honey was 
prohibited as an offering on the altar ; the first fruits 
were presented for the use of the priests. 

Honey was a favorite article of food in ancient 
Egypt. 

Eremetius wrote a poem on bees. 741 B. C. 



The Indians call the bee " the white man's fly." j There are two hundred and ninety-two species of the 

The domestic bee was not introduced west of the apis genus. 
Mississippi river before 1797, nor in California before j Reliable authorities place the number of colonies of 
1850. bees in the United States, in 188 J, at three million, 

The first importation of Italian bees into the United and the honey production for the year at more than 
States was in i860. A single colony of bees has been two billion pounds, 
known to give a profit of thirty-five dollars in a season. | 



BEE KEEPING, 



Honey produced, pounds, 
Wax 



I860 1880 

23,366,357 25,743,208 
. 1,322,787 1,105,689 



866 Patents Granted by the United States. 






SackettS Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 



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, "4 ^L-p 




II 12 

SWARMING, HIVING AND FEEDING. 







BEE SWARMING. HIVING AND FEEDING. 



Bes Swarm. 
" Swarming. 
" Hiving. 
Securing Swarm. 

TJ. S. Patent, Comb Frame— A. D. 1852. 
" Bee Feeder— A. D. 1867. 
Comb Bar— A. D. 1868. 
Bee Feeder— A. D. 1874. 
" —A. 0. 1878. 
" Artificial Comb— A. D. 1881. 
" —A. D. 1882. 
" Hiving— A. D. 1884. 



In Central America, wild swarms of bees which 
establish themselves in the hollow limbs of trees, are 
removed to the porches of houses and there suspended 
by thongs. 

In the United States, at the south and west, where 
bee hunting is extensively followed, the method of their 
capture is uniform and simple. The hunter takes into 
the woods a box containing about one-half a pound of 
honey, and if the bees will not come to the honey one 



or two are caught and brought to the box. As the bees 
collect around the box some fly away loaded with the 
honey. The bee always rises and circles around until 
it sees some familiar landmark ; the hunter observes 
the line of its flight, and follows until the tree is found. 
Recently four colonies of bees were shipped from 
California to New Zealand. Each of the boxes was 
provided with an attachment at one side, carrying a 
sponge, by means of which the bees were to be sup- 



plied with fresh water and the atmosphere of the hive 
kept sufficiently humid. Ventilation was provided for 
by openings covered with wire cloth, and fitted with 
sliding doors. A wire covered cage was attached to 
each hive for a cooling place for the bees in case the 
interior of the hive became too warm. 

The food of bees is principally honeyed fluid and 
pollen ; they also eat sirup, treacle and other saccharine 
substances. 



BEE SWARMING, HIVING AND FEEDING, 



Honey produced, pounds, 
Wax " 



I860 

23,366,357 
1,322,787 



I860 

25,743,208 
1,105,689 



866 Patents Granted by the United States. 







i 



i 



racket. L& Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 








CREAMERY AND MILK. 

No. 1. Primitive Hand Milker. 
2. " Dairy. 

" Dutch Deep Setting Creamer. 
V. S. Patent, Vacuum Milker— A. D. 1868. 
" " Aerating Creamer — A. D. 1872. 

" " Centrifugal Creamer— A. D. 1872. 

" " Water Sealed Can— A. D. 1877. 

" " Cabinet Creamer— A. D. 1879. 

" " Elevator Creamer— A. D. 1880. 

" " Centrifugal Creamer — A. D. 1881. 

" " Vacuum Creamer — A. D. 1883. 
" " " Milker— A. D. 1883. 



CREAMERY AND MILK. 



CREAMERY AND MILK. 

3,932 Choese and Butter Faotorles In the United States. 



The Liban (coagulated milk) of the Arabs was the 
usual form in which milk was, and is, used in Arabia. 

The Turks show their Tartar origin in their prefer- 
ence for sour milk. 

The Arabians and Turks have a preparation of cur- 
dled milk called "clan" by the former, and "yaourt" 
by the latter, which they preserve in bags. Fresh 
yaourt is much used by the Turks, and Europeans soon 
acquire a taste for it. 

In olden times one or more cows were kept for the 
general use of a village. 

Houses for die protection of cows were not in gen- 
eral use until the 13th century. 

A writer says that it was the common opinion in the 



Virginia Colony "that housing and milking cows in 
winter would kill them." 

Fresh milk, in Uruguay, is sold by driving cows from 
door to door along the streets, and milking them into 
jars brought out by the customers. 

At the works of the Aylesbury Condensed Milk Co. 
in England, 200 persons are employed, and the milk 
of 1,200 cows is daily evaporated. 

Borden's American process of condensing milk is 
protected by letters patent. 

There are a number of factories for condensing milk 
about New York City, where it is sold from house to 
house fresh from the condensing vats. Thousands of 
gallons of milk are daily prepared to supply the 



demand in the Army and Navy, and for foreign con- 
sumption. 

Colvin's Hydraulic Cow Milker combines a cattle 
stall and compound milking apparatus operated by 
power ; it is said that three machines are sufficient to 
milk 60 cows in the time it would take six men to milk 
them by hand. 

It requires 1 5,000,000 cows to supply the demand 
for milk and its products in the United States. 

The value of the butter, cheese, and milk produced 
in the United States in the single year of 1884 was 
$500,000,000, and the value of dairy products aggre- 
gated something like $100,000,000 more than the en- 
tire wheat crop of the country was worth. 



♦I860 

J8.000.00 

13,400.00 

984.00 



Capital Invested, 

Value of Productions, 

Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 7 

* Cheese only. 

FARM DAIRY PRODUCTS. 



1880 

$9,604,803.00 

25,742,610.00 

1,546,496.00 

7,903 



Milk sold or sent to factories, galls., Not reported 
Butter made, pounds, . 459,681,372 

Cheese made, pounds, 103,663,927 

Capacity — P MTdS" 

Time required to separate Cream and Milk, 24 hrs. 

Loss by imperfect separation, . } 

Gallons Milk separated per hour, 

480 Patents Granted by the United States. 




SackeU&WilhelmsLilhoCoNewYork 











CHURNS. 

No. 1. Primitive Scythian. 

2. " Grecian. 

3. Dutch Mode of Operating. 

4. Plunger. 

5. U. S. Patent, Rotary— A. D. 1807. 

6. " " Vibrating— A. D. 1808. 
" " Working Body— A D. 1835. 

" ' " " —A. D. 1835. 

•' —A. D. 1872. 
Rotary— A. D. 1883. 
" Vibrating— A. D. 1884. 
" " Rotary— A. D. 1884. 



The ancient method of making butter was probably 
the same as that practiced by the Bedouin Arabs and 
the Moors at the present day, the cream being placed 
in a goat skin and agitated by hand or treading upon 
it with the feet. 

The butier and honey mentioned by Isaiah vii, 1 5, is 
to this day an article of food in the East. The butter 
and honey are mixed, and the bread dipped therein. 

It was butter of kine and milk of sheep that made 
Jeshurine "wax fat." 

Abraham took butter and milk, and the calf which 
he had dressed, and set them before three stranger 
visitors. 

Sisera asked water, and Jael, the wife 6f Heber the 
Kennite, gave him milk. She brought forth butter in 
a lordly dish before she hailed him to the ground with 
a tent pin and hammer. 

Job refers to the time when he annointed his feet, or, 



II 

CHURNS, 



as he expressed it, "washed my steps with butter, and 
the rock poured me out oil. Surely the churning of 
milk bringeth forth butter." 

The oldest mention of butter is the account given of 
the Scythians, by Herodotus : " These people pour the 
milk of their mares into wooden vessels, cause it to be 
violently stirred or shaken by their blind slaves, and 
separate the part that rises to the surface, as they con- 
sider it more valuable than that which is collected 
below it." 

At the present time, in Uruguay, South America, the 
dairyman pours the milk, while still warm, into an in- 
flated pig or goat skin, hitches it to his saddle, and gal- 
lops five or six miles into town, with the milk sack 
pounding along on the road behind him. When he 
reaches his destination his churning is over, the butter 
is made, and he peddles it from door to door. 

Churns are classified in the United States Patent 



Office as follows : Double acting, reciprocating, multi- 
ple dasher, single dasher, combined lever and crank 
mechanism, foot mechanism, hand and foot mechanism, 
rocking seat mechanism, diagonal dasher, horizontal 
single dasher, horizontal double dasher, concentric 
shafts, parallel shafts, vertical, &c. 

The motion which is said to give the best results in 
churning is that which produces a thud or shock. The 
swing churn is a small keg or slender barrel, suspended 
in a horizontal position, for making small quantities of 
butter. It has been highly recommended. Various 
wheel churns have been invented. 

From 40 to 60 minutes is the recognized time in 
which to make butter. 

The census of 1880 estimated the production of 
butter in the United States as 806,672,071 pounds 
annually. 



CHURNS. 

3,932 Cheese and Butter Factories in the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, 

* Che«s< only. 

Capacity — 

Pounds Butter per day, 
Hands Employed per day, 



-1SOO 18SO 

$8,000.00 $9,604,803.00 

13,400.00 25,742,510.00 

984.00 1,546,495.00 

7 7,903 



1,776 Patents Granted by the United States, 




Sacketl&Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 






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14 15 

BUTTER PACKAGES. 



16 



BUTTER PACKAGES. 

1. U. S. Patent, Butter Package— A. D. 1867. 



10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 



Air Chambered Shipping Case— A. D. 1868. 

Butter Jar— A. D. 1869. 

Butter Bucket— A. D. 1870. 

Preserving andTransporting Package — A. D. 1872. 

Cylindrical Package — A. D, 1876. 

Butter Tub— A. D. 1878. 

Transporting Package — A. D. 1878. 

Packing Case— A. D. 1882. 

Transporting Package — A. D. 1883. 

Hermetic Closed — A. D. 1883. 

Glass Crock— A. D. 1883. 

Jar Package — A. D. 1884. 

Air Tight Package— A. D. 1884. 

Sealed Butter Package— A. D. 1884. 

Butter Dish and Package — A. D. 1884. 



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Butter is of very great antiquity. A name for the 
substance is found in the writings of the old Hebrew, 
Greek, and Latin authors. This name greatly resem- 
bles in sound our English- word " bruter," and is de- 
rived from a. word which means to "beat" or "strike." 
The same substance is frequently mentioned in the 
Bible. 

Butter is the fatty substance present in the milk 
of the mammalia, and capable of being extracted 
from it. 

The Hebrews, in ancient times, used butter largely 
as an article of food. Witli this people it is still ex- 
tensively used, and largely takes the place of lard in 
their cooking. 

The Greeks and Romans used it only as an ointment 
in their baths. The packages in which it was held for 
this purpose were dainty boxes, of fine workmanship, 
some of which were intended for the toilet tables of 
the belles of ancient Athens and Rome. 

It is probable that some of the finely-wrought metal 
boxes found in the ruins of Pompeii once contained 
butter, to be used as an ointment somewhat as the 
ladies of the present day use vaseline. 

In Southern Europe it is still sparingly used. 

In Italy, Spain, Portugal and Southern France, it is 
sold by apothecaries as a medicinal agent for external 



application. When thus used it is put up in small 
boxes similar to those in which we buy salve or other 
ointments. 

As butter came into more general use it seemed to 
lose its original meaning of "something beaten," and 
the name was applied by chemists to any substance of 
the consistency of butter. It is also applied to certain 
metallic substances, which have an oily. appearance re- 
sembling melted butter. Thus we have butter of anti- 
mony, bismuth, zinc, and tin. 

In this country butter is a very important industry. 
In the past decade the demand for it became so great 
that a bogus butter known as oleomargarine was 
thrown on the market and christened "butter." The 
law interfered during the Forty-ninth Congress, and 
protected the butter buyer from the oleomargarine 
dealer. 

Butter, as its original meaning would indicate, is pro- 
cured from cream by a process of striking or beating, 
called churning. The milk and water are carefully ex- 
tracted from the butter thus produced, salt is added, 
and the article is ready for packing. The most eco- 
nomical and cleanly receptacle for butter is a wooden 
vessel. Wooden butter tubs of every grade and size 
are made for this purpose. The large creameries in 
this country use these tubs almost exclusively. 



A very primitive way of packing butter is still in 
vogue in country houses. This is to pack the butter 
in stone jars, make them air-tight, and keep them in a. 
cool place. 

Another method of packing butter was very com- 
mon during the middle of this century. It was to 
press the butter into glass jars, hermetically seal them, 
and keep in a cool place. 

The wooden butter tub is by far the most economi- 
cal and the most popular, but certain creameries use 
other receptacles. 

A very useful device is in the shape of a square, 
compact wooden box. This box is intersected with 
small compartments of wood, just large enough to 
hold a print of butter weighing one pound or one-half 
pound. 

Another useful form of box for transporting butter 
short distances is a square box with layers of thin 
wooden slats, on which the half-pound prints are placed 
after being covered with a small square of cheese cloth'' 
to prevent sticking together. When one layer of slats 
is filled up a second is placed in the box just above the 
prints. A great many pounds of butter are packed in 
this way every day for the large markets. 

470,000 tons of butter were shipped in the Dnited 
States in 1884. 



BUTTER PACKAGES. 



136 P-ients Granted by the United States. 



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CHEESE MANUFACTURE 



CHEESE MANUFACTURE. 

No. 1. Dutch Vat 
2. " Curing. 

8. U. 8. Patent, Curd Agitator—^. D. 1883. 
4. " " Onring— A. D. 1868. 
6. " " Frame— A. D. 1871. 

6. « " Vat— A. D. 1880. 

7. " " Automatic Stirrer— A. D. 1881. 

8. « « " « — A. D. 1884. 




Hippocrates, 460 B. C. said the mode of preparing 
cheese from milk was discovered by the Scythians. It 
was an article of food among the pastoral nations of 
Canaan and Asia Minor. 

Virgil says cheese was the common diet of the Ro- 
man shepherds. 

Cheese is mentioned three times in the Old Testa- 
ment, but each time under a different Hebrew name. 

Burckstadt says, cheese was coagulated dried but- 
termilk, ground and eaten by the Arabs. 

Jesse sent cheese by the hands of David to the cap- 
tain of the thousand which the brethren of the latter 



served, (1 Samuel, xv, it-18,) and cheese of kinewas 
brought to David. 

Job complains in his anguish "Hast thou not poured 
me out as milk, and curdled me like cheesfi ?" 

The sizes of cheeses vary in different places. Where 
the manufacture is carried on upon a large scale, as in 
Cheshire, England, the cheeses weigh from one hun- 
dred to two hundred pounds each. From twenty to 
sixty pounds are common sizes. 

Some of the most famous varieties are the Parmesen, 
made in the richest part of the Milanese Territory, 
Gruyere, a Swiss variety, the Cheshire, Stilton, and 



Suffolk of England, and the Neufchatal of France. 

Cheese is made of the milk of goats and sheep as 
well as from that of cows. 

The Chinese prepare cheese from peas and beans. 

In Saxony cheese is made from potatoes. 

The imports of cheese into the United States are 
estimated at 2,000,000 pounds, and the exports at 
1 10,000 pounds annually. 

There were manufactured in 1880, in the United 
States, 243,157,850 pounds of cheese. 



CHEESE MANUFACTURE. 



3832 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, 



Cheese made in factories, 
" on farms, 



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$8,000.00 $9,604,808.00 

13,400.00 25,742,610.00 

984.00 1,646,495.00 

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EGG CARRIERS. 




EGG CARRIERS. 

1. V. 8. Patent, Egg Holder— A. D. 1865. 



2. 




Packer— A. D. 1865. 
Transporting Case— A. D. 1867. 
Carrier— A. D. 1868. 

" —A. D. 1869. 

" —A. D. 1871. 

" —A. D. 1872. 

" —A. D. 1876. 

" Box— A. D. 1878. 

" Pail— A. D. 1882. 

" -A. D 1883. 

" —A. D. 1884. 



The largest eggs of which we have any account were 
found in 1 850, in Madagascar. They belonged to a bird 
which has become extinct. Two of these eggs are 
preserved in the French Academy; one of them meas- 
ures 13; inches in its largest diameter and 8; in the 
shortest; the shell is about one-eighth of an inch thick ; 
the capacity of the egg is about 8; quarts. The size 
of the boxes necessary to carry this size of eggs could 
hardly be considered. 

The immense increase in the hens' egg industry of 
late years has made a convenient method of transport- 
ing them a necessity. In 1880 the number of eggs 
reported was 456,910,916 dozens. This number has 
been steadily increased. 

Many devices have been patented for the conven- 
ience of the consumer and the tradesman. One of 



these is the egg assorter, by which eggs are assorted 
according to quality, being so placed that a strong light 
is brought to bear upon them when stuck into holes 
in a board. Their comparative translucency is then 
observed, and is accepted as an evidence of quality. 

Another apparatus, known as the egg detector, was 
invented for the same purpose. In this the eggs are 
placed upright in the holes in the lid of a dark cham- 
ber, and their transmitted light is observed upon a 
mirror. Their quality is determined by their trans- 
lucency, as evinced by the relative transmission of 
light. An egg becomes opaque and cloudy as it be- 
comes spoiled. 

A simple appliance for holding eggs is a pair of 
tongs, not unlike sugar tongs, into which the wider 
part of an ordinary egg usually fits. There are two 



designs of an egg glass ; one is for holding the egg 
while eating it, the other is a sand glass, which runs 
three minutes, the proper time for boiling an egg to 
render it more digestible. 

Egg packers, transporting cases and carriers are in 
many varieties of shape, size and material. The most 
useful case for packing is a wooden box, divided into 
squares just large enough to hold one egg. These 
squares are made of thin brown pasteboard, and are 
packed in layers until the box is full. 

In one invention frames are supplied with cloth 
pockets for carrying the eggs. This, however, is too 
expensive to be used, on a large scale. 

A primitive method, but one still practiced at the 
present time, is to pack eggs in a box with sawdust or 
salt, strewn in so as to prevent contact. 



EGG CARRIERS. 



Eggs Produced in 1879, doz., 



466,910,916 



238 Patents Granted by the United States. 




SackeU&Wilhelms Litho Co.New York 













SLAUGHTERING AND MEAT CUTTING 




SLAUGHTERING AND MEAT CUTTING. 

No. 1. Primitive Scalding. 

2. English, Catching and Suspending — A. D. 1808. 

3. U. S. Patent, Meat Chopper—A D. 1874. 

4. t " " Catching and Suspending — -A. D. 1881. 

5. " " Meat Slicer— A. D. 1881. 

6. " " Scalding— A. D. 1882. 

7. " '" Catching and Suspending— A. D. 1882. 

8. " " Scalding and Scraping— A. D. 1882. 
" " Cutting and Mincing— A. D. 1883. 



In the sculptures at Thebes butchers are repre- 1 
sented sharpening their knives on a round bar of 
metal, which is suspended from their girdles or from 
the hem of the apron. This was evidently a steel. 

The daily provision of meat for King Solomon's 
household was ten fat oxen and twenty oxen from the 
pasture. 

The Romans established regular colleges, or com- 
panies, composed of a certain number of citizens, 
whose office was to furnish the city with the necessary 
cattle, and to superintend the butchers in preparing 
and vending the meat. 

Nero built a noble market for the sale of butchers' 
meat. 

Butchers' sheds, for the sale of meat, were first 
erected at Dunstable, England, in 1279. 

In the middle ages the right of a common slaughter 
house, where the inhabitants might have their beasts 
killed, was a feudal privilege. 

The old plan of making sausage was to cut the meat 



by means of cleavers, one in each hand. In early 
times, in the West, sausage was cut on the block by 
an axe. This was much slower than the handy little 
pair of cleavers, which were kept for the purpose and 
went-the round of a settlement when hog butchering 
began. 

The earlier forms of sausage machines used cleavers, 
which were at firs't on levers tripped by cam movement 
from the main shaft. 

Afterward knives were made to reciprocate verti- 
cally by means of crank and shaft. The tub usually 
rotates beneath the knives so as to bring the meat in 
succession beneath die cutters. A scraper lifts the 
meat and turns it over so that the knives shall not re- 
peat the blow in the same place. 

The favorite domestic form of sausage cutter is a 
compact little machine. It is either a spiral row of 
steels, projecting radially from a barrel and forcing the 
meat between knives projecting inwardly from the cas- 
ing ; or, it has a scries of radial knives on each of a 



pair of cylinders, placed so as to make a shear cut 
against each other ; or the single barrel has knives 
which cut against opposed edges inside the case. 

In each case the spiral vane forces the meat 
through the machine, which is cut as it passes along, 
and is discharged at the end opposite that at which it 
was fed. 

Slaughtering apparatus for beeves usually consists 
of a mode of hauling the animal up to die place where 
it is stunned by a pole axe, and then bled. Also of a 
hoisting tackle, by which it is lifted while the skin and 
viscera are removed, and then swung clear of the floor 
to be washed and left, to cool. 

The slaughter of cattle in the United States pet- 
year is estimated at 8.500,000 head, and of hogs at 
4.500,000. 

One of the great industries connected with the sup- 
ply of food, vi>... slaughtering and meat packing, yields 
an aggregate product of 303,562,413 pounds per year 
in the United States. 



SLAUGHTERING AND MEAT CUTTING. 

872 Slaughtering and Meat Packing Establishments in the United 
States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 



1870 i SS0 

$22,124,787.00 $49,419,213.00 

62,140,439.00 303,562,413.00 

2,007,101.00 10,508,530.00 



Hands Employed, . . ^435 27 2SI7 

401 Patents Granted by the United States. 




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PRUNING IMPLEMENTS. 




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S. Patent, Pruning Implement — A. D. 1859. 
Pruning Hook— A. O. 1863. 
Pruning Knife and Staff— A. I). 1866. 
Pruning Shears— A. D. 1869. 
Pruning Shears -A. D. 1871. 
Tobacco Plant Cutter— A. D. 1873. 
Pruning Knife— A. D. 1874. 
Pruning Hook— A. D. 1877. 
Hooked Blade Pruning Implement — A. I). 1879. 
Pruning Hook— A. D. 1881. 
Pruning Shears— A. D. 1882. 
Tobacco Plant Cutter— A. D. 1884. 



PRUNING IMPLEMENTS. 



Reference is made to pruning in the Scriptures. In each instance where the pruning hook is 
mentioned it refers to 'its conversion into a spear or from a spear. It was a much heavier tool than the 
pruning knife, and cut by a blow, like a bill or machete. 

Pruning implements of the present day are, principally, the pruning chisel, pruning hook, pruning 
knife, saw, mallet,. bill hook, shears. 



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PRUNING IMPLEMENTS. 



205 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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ADVERTISING DEVICES. 




ADVERTISING DEVICES. 

N". 1 U. S. Patent, Changeable Door Plate— A. D. 1814. 
" R. R. Time Indicator— A. D. 1860. 
" Wagon— A. D. 1868. 
" " Barber's— A. D. 1872. 

" Clock— A. D. 1876. 
'• '■ Tobacconist — A. D. 1877. 
" » Revolving— A. D. 1878. 
Reflective— A. D. 1882. 
'.' " Luminous Door Plate — A. D. 1884. 



The ancient Greeks made their public announce- 
ments by writing. The Romans also largely adver- 
tised private and public matters by writing as well 
as by word of mouth; they had criers who, in ad- 
dition to their other public duties, announced the 
times and the places of sales of goods, and cried things 
lost. 

Street advertising in its most original form was de- 
rived from the Romans. 



The first advertisement in newspapers appeared not 
more than 200 years ago. 

Advertising seems to have become general among 
the French towards the close of the 16th century. 

The first known newspaper advertisement, something 
like the present form, app« >red in 1652, in the " Mer- 
curius Politicus," an Engiisi publication. 

The earliest articles adve tised were books. 

Advertising had become general m the year 1 700. 



The first advertising agency in the United States 
was established in 1828. 

In 1865 a single number of the "London Times" 
contained 2,575 advertisements. 

The largest advertising publishing house in the 
United States employs 40 persons and has files of 
6,000 periodicals. 

In 1867 Government taxes were collected on nearly 
$10,000,000 worth of advertisements. 



ADVERTISING DEVICES. 



1,227 Patents Granted by the United Stales. 



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ADVERTISING METHODS. 




ADVERTISING METHODS. 

JJo. 1. Chinese— B. C. 3000. 

2. Egyptian Papyrus— B. C. 2000. 

3. English, Bell Man— A. D. 1600. 

4. " Periodical— A. D. 1688. 
6. " Tombstone— A. D. 1800. 

6. '« Wall— A. D. 1830. 

7. U. S. Patent, Balloon— A. D. 1863. 

8. " " Banner— A. D. 1868. 

9. " " Electric Reflector— A. D. 1884. 



Advertisements,' ill some form, have existed from 
time immemorial 

Signs over shops seem to have been the first effort 
in this line. 

The signs of Herculaneum and Pompeii appear to 
have been made of stone or terra cotta relievo, and set 
into the pilasters or the sides of the open shop fronts. 
Thus there have been found a goat, the sign of a dairy, 
and a mule driving a mill, the sign of a baker, etc. 

In the middle ages, the houses of the nobility, when 
the family was absent, were used as hostelries for trav- 



elers. The family arms always hung in front of the 
house, and the most conspicuous object in those arms 
gave a name to the establishment amongst travelers, 
who, being unacquainted with the mysteries of her- 
aldry, called a lion gules or azure by the vernacular 
name of the " Red or Blue! Jon." From this source 
the inn keepers adopted tli= hanging out of red lions 
and green dragons as thf best way to acquaint the 
public that they offered foud and shelter. The trades- 
men used typical objct , as a knife for the cutler, a 
hand for the glover, and . pair of scissors for the tailor. 



etc. Every shop had its peculiar sign suspended in the 
street, and thus, by obstructing the free circulation of 
the air, it is said to have been one of the causes of the 
frequent epidemical disorders in London. 

All kinds of devices are in use at the present time 
for advertising purposes, such as automatic smoking 
and other figures, miniature balloons, revolving show 
stands, reflecting signs, clocks, picture exhibitors, cigar 
lighters, umbrellas, casters, hats, pincushions, mirrors, 
wagons, show cards and card racks. 



ADVERTISING METHODS. 



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BAGGAGE CHECKS AND SEALS. 



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No. 1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 



Baggage Check— A. D. 1858. 

" —A. D. 1865. 
Seal— A. D. 1869. 
Metallic Baggage Seal— A. D. 1875. 
Baggage Check— A. D. 1877. 

" —A. D. 1878. 

" —A. D. 1880. 

" —A. D. 1882. 

" —A. D. 1882. 
Metallic Seal— A. D. 1883. 
Baggage Guard-^A. D. 1884. 
Check— A. D. 1884. 



BAGGAGE CHECKS AND SEALS, 



Baggage Checks and Seals are of modern invention ; they consist of tags or labels made of metal 
to be attached to trunks, boxes, cars, etc., to indicate their destination and points of departure, and the 
name of railway or steamboat company, or stage line attaching the check. 



BAGGAGE CHECKS AND SEALS. 



117 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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BREWING. 

No. 1. Primitive English Boiler. 

2. Early Mnsh Tub. 

3. " Cooler. 

4. " Fennenting Tub. 

5. Modern Fermenting Room. 
" Storage Cellar. 

7. TJ. S, Patent, Fermenting Apparatus— A. D. 1883. 

" Mash Boiler— A. D. 1884. 
9. " " Boiler and Mash Tun— A. D. 1884. 



Herodotus wrote, four hundred and fifty years be- 
fore the Christian era, that " the Egyptians prepared a 
beer from barley not much inferior to wine." 

Ale and ale houses are mentioned in the laws of lna, 
King of the Saxons, A. D. 728. 

According to an ancient Saxon dialogue, wine was 
with them the drink of the "elders and the wise," 
while the common people drank "ale if they, had it, 
water if they had it not." 

Ale and beer were first made without hops, which 
were not raised in England until 1524. English beer 
was reputed to be the best in Europe. It was brewed 
in March, and, by persons of consequence, was not 
used until a year old. 

The Laureate Warton, in his ode to Oxford ale, in 
1748, laments the declining popularity of a beverage 



BREWING. 



which he is not alone in representing to be the salvation 
of the British nation. 

Among the outfits to New England, in 1629, in addi- 
tion to four hundred weight of hops, were forty-five 
tuns of beer to go in the Talbot, provided she had one 
hundred passengers and eighty-five mariners. 

At the time of the settlement of America, tea, coffee 
and chocolate were almost unknown in England, their 
places being supplied by fermented liquors. 

The earliest mention of a brew house in the colonies 
is that of Capt. Sedgwick, in Boston, about 1637. 

The price at which the best quality of beer was sold 
in New England, in 1667, was ijd. per quart. 

Pale ale and porter were first made in the United 
States about 1774. 

Seventy-five years ago, brewing, both public and 
private, was in a very rude state. 



In 1870 there were 2,862 breweries in the United 
States, and 2,671 in England. 

The amount of liquor brewed in the United States, 
in 1871, was estimated at 7,159,440 barrels. 

Bavaria stands foremost of all countries in the pro- 
duction of beer. 

The consumption of grain and hops by the breweries 
of the United States, for the year 1883, is estimated at 
$50,000,000. 

Beer brewing in the United States is no longer a 
trade, but has become one of the great industries of 
the country. The foreign demand for American malt 
liquors is rapidly increasing. 

It is estimated that nine and one-half gallons of beer 
are consumed per capita of the population of the 
United States. 



BREWING. 

2,191 Manufactories of Malt Liquors in the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, 



1800 tsgo 

$15,782,342.00 $91,208,224,00 

21,310,933.00 101,058,385.00 

2,305,970.00 12,198,053.00 



325 Patents Granted by the United States, 




Seckett&WilhelmsLithr 



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COTTON-HAND CULTURE AND TREATMENT. 



COTTON-HAND CULTURE AND TREATMENT. 




No. 1. Planting. 

2. Hoeing, 

3. Gathering. 

4. Packing. 

5. Shipping. 



The name "Cotton" is derived from the Arabic 
JCoton. 

The plant is found growing in both the New and 
Old Worlds. 

The earliest notice of cotton is by Herodotus, 450 B. 
C, who speaks of die trees of India bearing- fleeces 
more delicate and beautiful than sheep, and of the 
Indians using them for making cloth, 

Though the Chinese consume immense quantities, its 
use and cultivation do not appear to have been known 
previous to the nth century, and their own crop still 
falls short of supplying their wants. 

In the New World the manufacture and cultivation 
of cotton appear to have been well understood by the 
Mexicans and Peruvians before the discovery of these 
countries by Europeans. 

Cortes gathered it in abundance at Trinidad, and used 
it to quilt the jackets of his soldiers. 



Columbus found the plant growing wild in Hispaniola. 

Cotton seed was first planted in the United States 
in J 621, though its culture was unimportant till after 
the Revolution. 

The first Sea Island Cotton was raised on the coast 
of Georgia, U. S., in 1 786, and the first successful crop 
at Hilton Head, South Carolina, in 1789. 

The use of cotton seed oil for food was introduced in 
the year 1799. 

In 1821 the culture of cotton was commenced in 
Egypt. 

In the early part of the present century die export of 
cotton from Brazil exceeded that of any country except 
the United States. 

Japan produces a coarse fibered cotton. 

Hindoostan produces largo quantities. 

Burmah also produces a considerable amount. 

'Hie soil of Africa is well adapted for its cultivation, 



The growth and manufacture of cotton commenced 
in the United States about 1800. 

The first cotton factory in Virginia was erected In 
1S27, at Petersburg. 

The cotton States proper are Texas. Louisiana, 
Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South 
Carolina, and a portion of North Carolina and die west- 
ern section of Tennessee. 

It was a theory long held that only slave labor could 
produce cotton, and it was generally believed diat all, 
or nearly all, of the cotton produced before the War 
was die result of negro labor. This was not true, as 
an examination shows that even during die existence 
of slavery more than one-half the cotton of the country 
was made by the labor of white men. 

In the year 1880 there were 14,480,019 acres of 
cotton under cultivation in the United States and 
5.755.359 bales were raised. 



COTTON-HAND CULTURE AND TREATMENT. 



Area in aorea cultivated, 
Bales raised, 



1SOO 18N0 

Not reported. 14,180,019 
6,387,052 3,755,359 



29 Patent? Granted by the United States, 




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COTTON GINNING AND CLEANING 




COTTON GINNING AND CLEANING. 

No. 1. Hindoo Foot Roller. 

2. " Churka Gin. 

3. Chinese Cleaner. 

4. Hand Pulling. 

5. U. S. Patent, Saw Gin— A. D. 1794. 
" Roller Gin— A. D. 1881. 

" " Cotton Whipper— A. D. 1882. 

" " Gin Feeder and Condenser — A. D. 1883. 



In ancient times the natives of India literally sepa- 
rated cotton wool from the seed with their feet, and 
then cleaned it with their hands. 

The foot roller has almost vanished, and the machine 
used is the churka. This simple implement is only one 
step in advance of the foot roller. 



Until the invention of Whitney the separation of the | providing a mode of putting it into merchantable order 



fibre from the seed was entirely performed by hand. 
The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney, of Massa- 
chusetts, United States, in 1794. This invention revo- 
lutionized the culture and manufacture of the fibre by 



at a reasonable price. 

Many improvements have been made, but the orig- 
inal form of gin is still in use, and is said to meet all 
requirements. 



COTTON GINNING AND CLEANING. 



Capacity — 

Pounds per day, 

Hands employed per day, 



7,500 
1 



470 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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COTTON PRESSES AND COMPRESSES, 




COTTON PRESSES AND COMPRESSES. 

No. 1. Wooden Compass. 

2. U. S. Patent, Bottom Screw— A. D. 1870. 
Hand— A. D. 1871. 
Steam— A. D. 1876. 
Self Feeder— A. D. 1882. 
Portable— A. D. 1882. 
Hand— A. D. 1883. 
Compress— A. D. 1884. 



The old form of cotton press was a screw which 
ascended vertically from the follower and worked in a 
nut in the upper cross-beam. It was rotated by a 
sweep. 

The forms of cotton presses are known as the screw, 
toggle, beater, revolving, hydraulic, portable, double- 
acting, windlasfs, rack and pinion, repressing, and roll- 
ing pressure. 

Cotton is first pressed in ordinary screw presses into 
bales of 450 to 550 pounds in weight. These bales 



are from 4 to 5 feet long, 3; feet wide and 2; feet 
thick. 

The iron screw press is the latest invention, and is 
generally run by horse power. 

When cotton is collected in large quantities for ship- 
ping, the hydraulic compress is used, and the bales 
are reduced to about one-half the original size. 

The following are the dimensions of a cotton press 
with non-condensing engine : 

For one thousand bales in twelve hours — cylinder. 



fourteen inches in diameter by four feet stroke ; pres- 
sure, forty pounds per square inch at full stroke ; revo- 
lutions, sixty per minute; boilers, three, plain cylindri- 
cal, without flues, thirty inches in diameter by twenty-six 
feet in length ; grates, thirty-two square feet ; presses, 
four, geared six to one, with two screws each of seven 
and one-half inches diameter by one and five-eighths 
inches pitch ; shaft, wroUght-iron ; journal, eight and 
one-half inches : fly-wheel, sixteen feet diameter, weight, 
four tons. 



COTTON PRESSES AND COMPRESSES. 

Bales per day, 15 1,000 compressed. 

Hands employed per day, 8 8 " 

1,259 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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48 



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COTTON BALE TIES. 

No. 1. English— A. D. 1736. 

2. IT. S. Patent, Hook— A. D. 1856. 







6 





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19 



COTTON BALE TIES. 





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20 




Buckle— A. D. 1858. 
" —A. D. 1859. 
Link— A. D. 1861. 
Key— A. D. 1866. 
Buckle— A. D. 1866. 
Slot Lock— A. D. 1866. 
Ridge Lock— A. D. 1866. 
Notched Slot Lock— A. D. 1867. 
Wire Rope— A. D. 1867. 
Grooved Ring Wire — A. D. 1867. 
Cleft Lock— A. D. 1870. 
Ridge Lock— A. D. 1871. 
Anti-Slipping Lock— A. D. 1871. 
Wire— A. D. 1875. 
Lug Lock— A. D. 1879. 
Ball— A. D. 1880. 
Wire— A. D. 1880. 
Wire— A. D. 1884. 



Cotton bale ties are devices for fastening the ends of 
loops, by which bales of cotton are held in compact 
form. 

Almost all cotton bales are now bound with iron ties 
made of steel iron of great tensile power. 



One of the simplest ties used is that of turning back 
about an inch of each end of the tie, lapping these into 
each other, and slipping a band of the same material in 
the tie, over the lap. 

It is stated that about 75,000 miles of hoop iron will 



be required to bind the cotton crop of the year 1885, 
if it reach the number of bales predicted by statisticians 
as 6,000,000. Six bands are used to a bale. They are 
made about 11 feet in length, and 1,200 bands weigh 
a ton. 



COTTON BALE TIES. 

6 Manufactories In the United States. 

Capital Invested, 

Value of Productions, 

Wages Paid, ..... 

Hands Employed, ... 

750 Patents Granted by the United States, 



I880 

$70,500.00 

262,351.00 

38,069.00 

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BALE BAND TIGHTENERS. 



BALE BAND TIGHTENERS. 

No. 1. U. S. Patent, Rope— A. D. 1848. 



BALE BAND TIGHTENERS. 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12.. 



Grapple Lever— A. D. 1858. 
Rope— A. D. 1861. 
Grapple Lever— A. D. 1866. 
Stretcher— A. D. 1872. 
Toggle— A. D. 1876. 
Hoop Tightener— A. D. 1876. 
. Steam Power— A. D. 1879. 
" —A. D. 1879. 
Re-tying— A. D. 1879. 
Steam Power— A. D. 1880. 
Gripper— A. D. 1884. 



Bale band tighteners have been invented of many 
varieties. One of the latest tighteners consists of a 
lever with a forked claw or hook, by which the bale tie 
is drawn to its utmost tension. 

The average quantity of cotton contained in each 



kind of bale is as follows : United States, 444 pounds ; 
Brazil, 162 pounds ; Egypt, 492 pounds; Turkey, 345 
pounds; West Indies, 180 pounds ; Surat, 382 pounds ; 
Bengal, 300 pounds. The general average is, there- 
fore, 400 pounds. 



81 Patents Granted by the United States, 




SackettS Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 



ft 




DISTILLATION. 




DISTILLATION. 

No. 1. Primitive English Still. 

2. English Still, 16th Century. 

3. Thibet Still. 

4. Cingalese Still. 

5. Tahiti Still. 

• i. Peruvian Still. 

7. Irish Poteen. 

8, ! r . ti Patent, Distillery- A. D. 1884. 



The first mention of the distillation of a fluid is of 
fresh water from sea water, and is found in the Com- 
mentaries of Alexander. 

Zozamus, 400 B. C, described the operation of purify- 
ing water. The Arabs called the apparatus "an alembic." 

Rhayas. the chief surgeon of Bagdad, A. D. 860, 
discovered absolute alcohol by distilling spirits of wine. 

Europe owes iis knowledge of the art of distillation 
to the Arabs. Alcoholic spirits were never used by 
the Mahommedans 



Distillation from grain is of much later origin. Con- 
tinuous distillation was carried out first by Bagholi, and 
improved by Blumenthal and Derosny. Downs' still 
was one of the earliest invented, and is still used in 
Germany. 

The art of distilling whiskey is said to have been in- 
troduced into Great Britain by the soldiers of the 
Scotch army, stationed during the rule of Cromwell in 
the north of Scotland. They brought the product 
down amonf;- the lowlanders and sold it as whiskey. 



The first United States patent for distilling apparatus 
was granted Aaron Putnam, January 29, 1791. 

The cereals which are used for distillation are barley, 
rye, rice, wheat, oats and corn. 

There are six operations indispensable to fit grain 
for the process of fermentation: 1st, steeping; ;d, 
germination ; 3d, drying the sprouted grain ; 4 th! 
grinding; 5th, mashing; 6th, infusion. 

Alcohol is also made from sorghum cane, figs and 
rice. 



DISTILLATION. 

84d M ,„ufao*or le s of DWW t.quor, ,n the United St.te, 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 



Hands Employed. 



$11,548,675.00 $24,247,595.00 
26,768,225.00 41,063,663.00 
1,763,446.00 2,663,967.00 




Sackett S Wilhelms LiLho Co New York 



51 




DRIVE CHAINS. 



No. 1. Non-Detachable— A. D. 1724. 

2. TT. S. Patent, Knife Edged Link— A. I). 1860. 




Cog Chain— A. D. 1867. 
Elevator— A. D. 1874. 
Conveyor— A. D. 1880. 
Log Carrier— A. D. 1881. 
Friction Chain Belt— A. D. 1881. 
Spring Metal— A. D. 1882. 
Endless Metal Belt— A. D. 1882. 



DRIVE CHAINS 



The drive chain consists of a detachable link chain 
used in connection with sprocket wheels to drive ma- 
chinery ; each link has a hook and bar at its respective 
end, and these may be connected in certain relative 
positions, but cannot be detached when stretched. 



DRIVE CHAINS. 



129 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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10 



II 
EDUCATIONAL APPLIANCES. 




12 






1. u 

2. 

3. 

4. 

6. 




EDUCATIONAL APPLIANCES. 

Patent, Letter Block Apparatus — A. D. 1876. 

Blackboard— A. D. 1877. 

Teaching History— A. D. 1878. 
" Teaching Involution and Evolution — A. D. 1878. 
" Showing Aeration of Water — A. D. 1879. 
" Sliding Cover Slate Frame— A; D. 1880. 
" Index Sheet Maps— A. D. 1880. 
" Drawing Slate Attachment — A. D. 1882. 
" Slate Frame Muffler— A. D. 1883. 
" Interchangeable Chart Frame — A. D. 1884. 
" Finger Guide & Holder for Writing — A. D. 1884. 
" Instrument for Spelling & Reading — A. D. 1884. 



Teaching, like everything else, came from the East, 
descending from the Hindoo Kosh with the migratory 
waves of population, which spread from those periods 
of time commencing so far back that history loses itself 
in tradition. 

The Egyptians, even before the time of the Shep- 
herd Kings, had regular school houses and school 
appliances, such as their advancement in civilization 
required. A celestial globe was taken from Egypt to 
Greece by the returning legions of Alexander the 
Great, made, possibly, by the men who constructed the 
pyramids of Cheops. 

The Moors and Arabs were teaching geography 
from globes in their schools at the time the Romans 
and the descendants of their conquering' legions were 
holding that the earth was flat, and it is possible that 
Columbus obtained the ideas from their schools that 
caused him to venture forth westward in search of the 
" Kastefn Indies and Cathav." or he might have visited 
the school at Rheims, where Pope Sylvester II, in the 



year iooo A. D., taught geography from a globe 
brought from the Moorish school at Cordova. 

The primitive log cabin, with dirt floor, wooden 
benches, and common blackboard, has given way to 
the well constructed school house built after the best 
rules of architectural science, well lighted and heated. 
The benches are gone, the blackboard is a work of art, 
and covers one entire side of the school room, and the 
only other appliances of the old log school house, the 
master's formula and a bundle of willow, hickory or 
birch switches, are nowhere to be seen, but in their 
place we find many modern appliances. 

Opposite the Principal is a school thermometer. A 
gbnce from teacher or scholar across the room will tell 
the temperature — whether it has risen or fallen from 
the proper degree. Upon the wall near it are raised 
maps, showing the countries of the world, with their 
mountain ranges, &c. Instead of the old smooth ball, 
with clumsily defined lines upon it, there stands a globe, 
with each section of the world raised up out of the 



waters that surround it. Near it is another globe 
made of slate, on which the student can draw with a 
slate pencil any portion of the earth's surface. 

A cabinet near by, with doors which fold in and are 
fitted with shelves, contains specimens of various min- 
erals, whilst the doors and shelves show varieties of 
woods. The walls of the building are covered with 
maps, on which are raised figures of animals, birds and 
fishes, all in proportion. 

Another cabinet contains the figures and demonstra- 
tions of mathematical problems, and still another, ana- 
tomical specimens. 

Modern globes are made of paper or plaster, neither 
of which is affected by changes of temperature, also of 
gutta-percha and paper pulp. 

Even the blind are provided for, in these modern 
appliances, with raised type, and maps and globes with 
raised figures. 



EDUCATIONAL APPLIANCES. 



479 Patents Granted by the United States. 




Sacked & Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 







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PENS. 

No. 1. Stylus 0. 

2. Writing Brush, Japanese. 

3. Reed, Egyptian. 

4. Quill. 

— 5. First Steel— A. D. 1803. 

6. TJ. S. Patent, Fountain— A. D. 1843. 

7. " " Stylographic— A. D. 1850. 

8. " " Fountain— A. D. 1881. 

9. '• " Stylographic— A. D. 1881. 





The earliest pen was a kind of iron bodkin or dag- 
ger, and it is still in use for writing on leaves of ivory 
and for transferring drawings. By the word pen, in 
the translation of the Bible, we are to understand an 
iron stylus. The ancients used the stylus which was 
made sharp at one end to write with, and blunt and 
broad at the other to erase and correct with easily. 

The Romans forbade the use of the metal stylus, 
because many persons used them as daggers, and sub- 
stituted those made of the bones of birds. 

Pens made of reed were in use forty centuries ago 
for writing with a fluid on papyrus. Quills are said to 
have been introduced in the fifth century. 

The first metallic pens were introduced for sale by 
Mr. Wise, of London, England, in 1803 ; they were in 
the form of a barrel, adapted to slip on a stick ; they 
were not popular and were very expensive. 

In 1820, Joseph Gillott, of England, commenced the 
manufacture of steel pens of high finish and temper. 



8 

PENS. 



Doughty first made gold pens in 1825. 

Perry obtained patents in 1830 and 1832 for develop- 
ing the elasticity of pens. 

Fountain pens were first introduced in 1835. 

The quill pen maintained its position until 1836, and 
even later remained the favorite with many. 

Poland and Russia raise immense flocks of geese for 
their quills, and Russia has furnished England as many 
as 27,000,000 quills per year. 

To render the quills fit for use they are dried in hot 
sand, stripped of the outside skin, and hardened in 
boiling alum or diluted nitric acid. 

About 1840, Levi Brown, of Detroit, Michigan, suc- 
ceeded in making and introducing gold pens. 

In 1844, John Rendell, in the employ of Mr. 
Brown, invented machines for making gold pens, and 
to his invention the American gold pen is principally 
due. 

The manufacture of gold pens is carried to the highest 



perfection in the city of New York, whence they are 
sent to all parts of the world. 

Twenty years ago most of the steel pens used in the 
United States were imported. At the present time 
great quantities are made in the United States, and 
comparatively few are imported. The American steel 
pen has become famous in all parts of Europe, and 
large quantities are exported yearly. 

Early attempts to compete with English manufac- 
turers were unsuccessful. 

Thirteen hundred tons of steel are consumed annually 
in the manufacture of pens. 1,000,000,000 are pro- 
duced yearly in England. 

It is estimated that about 1,000,000,000 pens are 
worn out every year in the United States. 

The modern fountain pen has obtained much favor ; 
the ink is contained in a hollow handle, the pressure in 
writing carrying the fluid to the point as required. 



PENS, 

19 Manufactories of Pens In the United States. 



Capital Invested, . . . , 

Val tie of Productions, . . . , 

Wages Paid, .... 

Hands Employed, . . . . . 

350 Patents Granted by the United States. 



1880 

$552,650.00 
697,061.00 
265,707.00 

544 




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8 
ELECTRIC ILLUMINATION AND MOTORS. 



ELECTRIC ILLUMINATION AND MOTORS. 

1. Electric Lighting— A. D. 1813. 

2. Electric Motur— A. D. 1838. 

(1848. 

3. U. S. Patent, Incandescent Lamps— A. D.\ 1873. 

1 1878. 

4. " " Magneto Machine and Arc Light — A. D. 1850. 
6. " '-' " " " —A. D. 1871. 

6. " " Magneto Generator & Electric Candle — A. D. 1877. 

7. Electric Railway— A. D. 1880. 

8. Dynamo— A. D. 1883. 

9. Transmitting Energy from Distant Sources of Power 

for Lighting, &c.— A. D. 1883. 




Electricity is derived from the Greek elektron, mean- 
ing amber, that being the first substance in which the 
existence of an electric fluid capable of being excited 
and accumulated was observed by Thales, of Mile- 
tus, in 6oo B. C. 

Electricity as a science, however, was first written of 
by William Gilbert, a London physician, A. D. 1600. 

Boyle, about 1670, discovered that a diamond be- 
came electrical, and emitted light in a dark room, when 
friction was applied to it; and Hawkshaw, in 1709, 
discovered the electrical properties of glass. 

The first electrical machine was made by Otto de 
Giierricke, of Magdeburgh, in 1660. It was a globe 
of sulphur, but glass cylinders were soon found to be 
more powerful. 

Up to 1 750, however, the friction was applied by the 
dry hand of the experimenter, until the cushion and 
silk floss were invented by Wihckler, of Leipsic. 

Metallic conductors originated with Stephen Gray in 
1734, and though the accumulation of electric power 
in coated jars was discovered in 1745 by M. Von 
Kleist, Dean of the Cathedral in Corunna, the subse- 
quent experiments of Cuneus, of Leyclen, have been 
preserved in the Leyden jar. 

The electrical battery was discovered by Gralable, a 
German electrician. 

Electricity was first applied to medical purposes by 
Kratzenstein, at Halle, in 1744. 

In 1752 Franklin demonstrated the identity of light- 



ning with the electric spark, and drew electricity from 
the clouds. 

The first patents for electricity in the U. S. Patent 
Office were issued to D. Harrington, of Philadelphia, 
in 1833, '34, and '35, to cure disease. 

The electric light was first brought into notice in 
this country by Greener & Straite, who took out a pat- 
ent in 1846 for a light generated by the combustion of 
two carbon points. 

The magneto-electric light was first applied for illu- 
minating purposes at the lighthouse at Dungeness, 
England, in 1862, and was introduced at La Heve, 
France, a year or two later. 

In this country the first patent for a dynamo was 
issued to Moses G. Farmer in 1875, which was similar 
In its construction to the series wound reactionary 
dynamos now found in general use. 

Brush, with his dynamo and improvements upon arc 
lamps, came two years later. 

The first patent for an improvement in the arc 
light was granted to Collier & Baker in May, 1S58. 
It consisted of two electrodes of carbon ; the upper car- 
bon was prevented from contact with the lower by a re- 
taining diaphragm of metal, through which a point pro- 
jected. It acted by a mercurial feed, the carbons being 
forced forward by the mercury in which they were im- 
mersed. As a practical lamp, it was not a success. 

The electric light may be said to have been in 
general use in this country since 1878. 



In .'838 Jacobs propelled a small shallop on the river 
Neva, near St. Petersburg, in Russia, at the rate 
of four miles an hour, three miles against the stream. 
He had four fixed electro-magnets, and thesame number 
of revolving ones, to which the axle that carried the 
paddle wheels was attached. His battery, consisting 
of sixty-four pairs of platinum plates, each presenting 
a surface of thirty-six square inches, was charged with 
nitric and sulphuric acid on Grove's plan. 

In 1849 Prof. Page propelled a car on the tracks of 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from Washington to 
Bladensburg— a distance of six miles— at the rate of 
nineteen miles an hour. 

The patent for the Page motor was granted January 
21, 1854. I" this motor the two armatures consist of 
long cores of wire, which are adapted to slide with an 
oscillatory motion through two pairs of solenoids, made 
up of successive sections, which are brought into action 
by sliding commutators actuated by rods from eccen- 
trics on the fly wheel shaft, being entirely analogous to 
the cut-off mechanism used in a steam engine. 

The use of electricity as a motor is not general, as 
it has not yet been sufficiently demonstrated that it is 
cheaper than coal. 

Prof. Ayrton, however, states that the cost of coal 
for producing power is /79°,ooo a year in Sheffield 
alone, and that electricity can supply this want; and 
according to Sir William Thomson, the source of 
power by this means would be 133 times as cheap. 



l^ 



ELECTRIC ILLUMINATION AND MOTORS. 

Denoting the cost of Electric Arc Light of the intensity of 

one standard candle by , 

The cost of wax candles of the same intenaity is . 75 

■ stearin » « __ 

. 00 

" 0il " " . . 16 

" gas " " 8.; 

1,366 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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TELEGRAPHY. 



TELEGRAPHY. 

No. 1. Indian Signal. 

2. Franklin's Experiment — A. D. 1752. 

3. Semaphore Signal — A. D. 1776. 

4. Electric Telegraph— A. D. 1809. 

6. U. S. Patent, Electro Magnetic Telegraph— A. I). 1840 



L 



Quadruple* 



-A. D. 1884. 



This is from two Greek words, Ulos, far distant, and 
graphein, to write. 

The first patent granted for a telegraph in the United 
States was to J. Grant, of Massachusetts, in 1800. 

The first telegraph erected in this country was on 
Long Island, by Harrison Gray Dyer, who used prac- 
tical electricity, and dyed marks on chemically-pre- 
pared paper by means of electric sparks. 

Although Prof. Morse is generally considered to be 
the father of the telegraph, as a matter of fact, Messrs. 
Wheatstone & Cook, of England, obtained a patent for 
their electro-magnetic telegraph on the totli of June, 
1 840, while Prof. Morse's patent followed only ten days 
later. The Wheatstone & Cook apparatus was cum- 
bersome, and never found a place among the practical 
inventions of the art in this country. It was, primarily, 
to Morse's apparatus, based upon his code of signaling 
and the use of a single line wire with his well-known 
recorder, that we owe success in telegraphy. 



The first line of telegraph erected by Morse was in 
1844, between Baltimore and Washington, which con- 
sisted of 40 miles of line and no wires. 

Prof. Morse's invention consisted of a copper wire, 
insulated by means of a hempen strand, coated with 
tar pitch and India rubber. Morse could never have 
proved the utility of his invention if he had not had a 
patent to sell in shares to secure aid in introducing it. 

The first patent for a printing telegraph was issued 
to Royal E. House in 1 846, and this was the parent of a 
large class of inventions known as printing telegraphs, 
among which may be mentioned the Bain automatic 
telegraph, which was designed to avoid the Morse 
patent, and which resulted in a long litigation. 

In April, 1868, Prof. Page obtained a patent, which 
was afterward, in 1871, reissued to his assignees, the 
Western Union Telegraph Company, in such broad 
terms as to include all telegraphic apparatus when a 
main circuit is caused to operate or control a local 



circuit, and also the use of a retractile spring to an 
armature of an electro-magnet. It consisted of a well- 
known form of induction apparatus, with an automatic 
circuit breaker, and was invented by Prof. Page many 
years before he took a patent, which was granted by 
special act of Congress, he being an employee in the 
Patent Office, and, therefore, disqualified by law to 
take an interest in any United States patent, except by 
inheritance or bequest. 

In 1848 there were 2,000 miles of line and 3,000 
miles of wire. In i860 there were 17,582 miles of 
line and 26,375 mi 'es of wire. In 1870, 53,403 miles 
of line and 107,245 miles of wire, and in 1880, 142,364 
miles of line and 350,018 miles of wire. 

These figures give some idea of the rapid progress 
of the telegraph in the United States. 

In 1880 50,000,000 messages were sent, and the 
various companies employed 24,000 persons, and had 
14,000 offices. 



TELEGRAPHY, 



No. of Offices or Stations, 
Miles of Line in Operation, 

" Wire 
No. Messages Transmitted during the year, 
" Hands Employed, 
Wages Paid, .... 



12,510 

110,727 

291,213 

. 31,703,181 

14,928 

#4.886,128.00 



1,006 Patents Granted by the United States. 



i 



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Seckelli Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 



?* 




TELEPHONES, 




TELEPHONES. 

No. 1. Primitive. 
2. Musical. 
8. U..S. Patent, Magneto— A. D. 1876. 



Electrical Contact^A. D. 1876. 
Electrical Exchange System— A. D. 1879. 
Radiophone— A. D. 1880. 



This is from two Greek words — tetos, far distant, and 
phones, sound. 

The instruments by which articulate sound is now 
conveyed were invented by Alexander Graham Bell, of 
Boston, to whom a patent was granted March 7. 1876, 
for a speaking telephone. This gentleman had been 
studying the subject of conveying sound over an elec- 
tric wire since r867. His experiments were patiently 
conducted for nine years, often under discouraging 
circumstances ; but he was rewarded in the end, and 
is one of the few inventors who lias reaped large pecu- 
niary returns from his invention. 

The first public exhibition of the telephone was at 
the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in July, 1876. 



The first lines for general use were erected in the early 
part of 1877. 

The telephone was found to be incomplete without 
some means of calling the person at the odier end of 
a distant line. Various kinds of call bells were tried 
and failed, and many inventions made before the mag- 
neto-bell, which is now in general use, was devised. 

Patents were granted for transmitters to E. Berliner, 
Thomas A. Edison, and Francis Blake. All these were 
on the same general principle, but the Blake transmit- 
ter is the one generally used. 

Single lines connecting two or three persons were 
soon found to be of limited value, and exchanges were 
organized, composed of subscribers, all of whom had 



lines running to a central office, so that any subscriber 
could communicate with any odier subscriber to the 
exchange through the central office. 

The first exchanges were. starter' early in the year 
1878, and at about the same time, in Chicago and New 
Haven. 

Many inventions of great value have been made in 
switch boards and other machinery for the central 
office, 

The telephone was early introduced into England 
and on the continent of Europe, and is now in use in 
every part of the civilized world. 

No invention was ever made which came into such 
general and universal use so rapidly as the telephone. 



TELEPHONES. 



Number in use in the United States, 

" Manufactured, 

" Exported, 
Total Number in Use, 



376,691 

584,104 

98,015 

477,344 



1,472 Patents Granted by the United States. 



^Jr 



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GRAIN CONVEYORS. 



GRAIN CONVEYORS. 



No. LU. 



S. Patent, Elevator— A. D. 1834. 
Screw— A. D. 1869. 
Elevator— A. D. 1882. 
Portable— A. D. 1882. 
" Pneumatic— A. D. 1883. 
Transfer— A. D. 1883. 




The first elevator, disconnected from milling, for 
transferring and storage of grain, was built by Joseph 
Dart, of Buffalo. N. Y., U. S., in 1843. 

There are many forms of grain conveyers, which 
generally agree in that they afford means of exposing 
a shower of grain to a current of highly dried and 
heated air. The following kinds may be cited, and it 
must be understood that there are many varieties and 
modifications of each. 

In the conveyer system the grain from the spout 
passes consecutively through the cylinders, in each of 
which is a rotating screw conveyer driven by cog- 
wheels, having for axles hollow perforated tubes, 
through which die damp air passes from the grain, 
being drawn by the exhaust fan. The cylinders con- 
nect by the spout, and the lower one discharges by 
the spout. The heated air from the furnace rises into 
the chamber above and surrounds the cylinders. 

In the revolving cup system, the grain enters upon 
a heated cone, and thence passes to a revolving Hanged 
disk, which distributes it, to be again collected by the 
hopper, and fed to other disks, and so on, in descending 
series, to the discharge spout. A current of heated 
air ascends through the chamber and envelopes the 
grain at all times. 

In the zigzag incline system, the grain descends from 
a hopper, and is shifted over from side to side by the 



alternate inclines, which are perforated plates in a flue 
occupied by an upward current of heated air. 

The annular drum system consists of a vertical, 
double cylindrical chamber with conical ends. The 
space between the inner and outer casing is the one 
traversed by the grain, which enters at the apex of the 
upper, and departs at the apex of the lower cone. 
The inner and outer casings are all perforated with 
holes, about 2,300 to the square foot, the punching be- 
ing from without, inward ; the slight roughness has a 
tendency to turn the grain which rubs against the pro- 
tuberances, giving a sort of stirring action thereto, 
and aiding the exposure of its whole surface to the 
stream of heated.air. The heat is generated by a stove 
in the interior of the chamber, and the heated air 
passes through both casings and the body of grain 
contained between them. The apparatus stands on 
legs, so as to elevate the discharge opening, that the 
falling grain may be received into sacks for shipping. 

The spiral flue system consists of a long spiral tube 
traversed by a flue from a stove. The sides of the 
tube are full of fine perforations, and the draft is 
upward between the two surfaces, and outward through 
the perforations, carrying the moisture from the grain, 
which descends in a shower between the flue pipe and 
the perforated casing. , 

The traveling belt system consists of a furnace, air 



box, and traveling belt, which receives its grain from a 
hopper. Grain from the hopper falls on a belt which 
travels over the grated top of the box, which is heated 
by air from a fan and tubes which form the box and 
basket grate of the furnace. After passing the length 
of the box the grain is caught between the belts and 
returned to the hopper for a repetition of the opera- 
tion, or as it descends is intercepted by a spout. 

In the rotatory drum system an inclined cylinder of 
wire contains the grain, which tumbles over and over, 
and is eventually discharged at the lower end of the 
cylinder, which rotates in a heated chamber. 

The largest grain elevator in the United States, and 
probably in the world, is situated in Brooklyn, New 
York. It has a storage capacity of 2,500,000, bushels, 
besides superior transfer facilities and dockage for 
half a dozen vessels, which can be loaded at one 
time. The machinery in the elevator can take 
grain at the rate of 8,000 bushels an hour from the 
barges or vessels at the pier. The grain is elevated, 
sifted and fanned, weighed, stored, put in bins, and 
then transferred to vessels at the pier. There are 
about five miles of belting, called conveyers. These 
conveyers travel at the rate of about 600 feet a minute, 
and carry to its destination 2\ bushels of grain a 
minute. 



GRAIN CONVEYORS. 



Capacity — 


Primitive 
Mods. 


Praiert 
Machinal 


Bushels per day, 


1,000 


80,000 


Hands Employed per day, 


10 


10 



184 Patents Granted by the United States. 




Sackeli&WilhelmsLilhoCo New York 



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ICE ELEVATORS. 







ICE ELEVATORS. 

No, 1. U. S. Patent, Ice Elevator— A. D. 1858. 
" Inclined Track— A. D. 1872. 

Elevating Chain— A. D. 1874. 
" Inclined Track— A. D. 1876. 
Endless Chain— A. D. 1880. 
" Horse Power— A. D. 1884. 



The methods of gathering and storing ice are en- 
tirely of American origin. In the year 1805 the first 
cargo of ice was shipped from Boston, Mass., to the 
Island of Martinique. 

Mr. Tudor, of Boston, Mass., first conceived the idea 
of collecting and preserving ice for human consump- 
tion. Beginning in the smallest manner, in the winter 
of 1805, he gathered ice from Fresh Pond, a lake near 
Cambridge, Mass., improving the necessary implements 
for handling, &c. In 1820 he shipped a cargo of ice 
to New Orleans, La., and the story is current that, the 
cargo arriving during the prevalence of yellow fever, 
so alarmed the population, who were ignorant of the 
precise purpose and character of the shipment, that 
a riot ensued, during which the entire cargo was 
destroyed. Subsequent shipments, however, made 
known the value of ice in that city, where it has com- 



manded, at different seasons, according to the supply, 
from $15 to $100 per ton. 

The present manner of gathering ice is as follows: 
When the ice becomes 8 or 10 inches thick the cut- 
ting is begun. 

A "marker" drawn by a horse is then run across 
the pond or river, one side having sharp cutting irons, 
the other simple guide bars that run in grooves made 
by the cutters at the previous cut. These grooves are 
then intersected at right angles in the same way 22 x 
36 inches, and about an inch deep. Then follows the 
ice plow, having a deeper blade with a series of chisel 
points, which sinks the groove to a depth of from 3 to 
5 inches, depending upon the .thickness of the ice. 
Then a gang of men, with heavy chisel bars, bar off 
rafts of these blocks in such shape as to admit their 
passage through a canal which has previously been cut 







from the house to the pond, and through which the ice 
is either towed by horses or pushed along by men with 
long pike poles to the hoisting aprons at the dock. 
Reaching the apron, the ice is in solid blocks ; these 
are caught by a series of buckets or cleats, which are 
secured to an endless chain, which is moved over an 
incline run by steam power. Thus the ice ascends 
this incline in a continuous stream, whence it is run on 
galleries, and then is slid into the various rooms by its 
own gravity on descending runs. 

The endless chain elevators are of modern invention, 
and they have entirely revolutionized the process of 
housing ice. Six hundred tons of ice have been taken 
out and stored in an ice house in one hour by means 
of the inclined plane elevators, operated by steam 
power. 



SacketlS Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 











8 



PASSENGER AND FREIGHT ELEVATORS. 




PASSENGER AND FREIGHT ELEVATORS. 



U. S. Patent, Safety Catch— A. D. 1876. 
11 " Twine Stair— A. D. 1876. 

" Freight— A. D. 1879. 
" —A. D. 1880. 
" " Electric Safety Stop— A. D. 1882. 

" " Automatic Stop— A. D. 1883. 

" " Safety Appliance— A. D. 1883. 

" Hydraulic— A. D. 1884. 



A primitive hoisting machine is used in the Convent 
of St. Catherine, at the foot of Mount Sinai, to raise 
travellers to a door in the second story. 

A form of elevator used in mines is called the "man 
engine." 

At the Trevesan mine, in Cornwall, England, a man 
engine has been constructed for lifting the miners and 
lowering them to their work, a depth of 240 fathoms. 



The St. Louis Union Depot Elevator Co. uses a 
rubber belt 260 feet long, 48 inches wide ; weight, 2,390 
pounds. 

Without the elevator we would have been de- 
prived of the most striking structures of New York 
City ; for instance, the Equitable, Mutual Life, Wells, 
Western Union, Potter, Morse, Field and Tribune 
buildings. 



PASSENGER AND FREIGHT ELEVATORS. 



Capacity — 

Pounds raised 550 feet, 
Hands Employed per day, 



!•,:,„ i;iv,, 
Modi. 


PrBienl 

Machine. 


600 


10,000 


1 


1 



732 Patents Granted by the United States, 



i 



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ARCHITECTURE. 




ARCHITECTURE. 

No. 1. Aboriginal Dwelling. 

2. Primitive Door and Window. 

3. Emigrant Cabin. Window. 

4. U. S. Patent, Rolling Slat Shutter— A. D. 1835. 
6. " " —A. D. 1878. 

6. " " Sliding Door— A. D. 1878. 

7. " " Portable House— A. D. 1879. 

8. " " Removable Window Sash— A. D. 1883. 

9. Modern Villa. 



Architecture is the art of inventing and drawing de- 
signs for buildings, or the science which teaches the 
method of constructing any edifice for use or orna- 
ment. It is divided into civil, military and naval. 

Civil architecture was among the earliest inventions, 
and its works have been commonly regulated by some 
principles of hereditary imitation. Whatever rude 
structures the climate and materials of any country 
have obliged its early inhabitants to adopt for their tem- 
porary shelter have, with all their prominent features, 
been afterwards, in some measure, kept in view by 
their refined and opulent posterity. 

The ancient colossal ruins abounding in Siam, Japan, 
the islands of the Indian Ocean, and the wonderful 
tombs, temples, and pyramids of Egypt proclaim the 
early knowledge of architecture. 

To Greece we are indebted for the invention of the 
three principal orders — the Doric. Ionic and Corin- 
thian—Rome added the Tuscan and the Composite. 
Each of these orders has a particular expression, so 
that a building may be solid, neat, delicate or gay, ac- 



cording as the Tuscan, the Doric, the Ionic, the Corin- 
thian or the Composite is employed. 

The columns of the several orders are easily distin- 
guishable by the ornaments that are peculiar to their 
capitals. 

After the destruction of the Roman Empire die clas- 
sic architecture of Greece and Rome was lost, but was 
revived by the Italians at the time of the restoration 
of letters. All the debased styles which sprang from 
vain attempts to imitate the ancients, and which flour- 
ished from the destruction of the Roman Empire till the 
introduction of the Gothic, have been united under one 
term, the Romanesque. The origin of the Gothic style is 
a matter of great uncertainty. The Saxon and Norman 
styles were so called because they were respectively 
used by the Saxons in England before the conquest, 
and by the Normans after it, in building their churches. 

The Saxon and Norman continued to be the pre- 
vailing modes of building in England until the reign of 
Henry the Second, when the modern Gothic, or pointed 
style, was introduced. 



In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Greek and 
Roman architecture were revived and brought the five 
classic orders again in use. 

The following are the dates of the erection of a few 
celebrated edifices: 

Pyramids, B. C. 1500; Solomon's Temple, B. C. 
1004; Jupiter Capitolus. B. C. 616; Parthenon, B. C. 
438; Pantheon, A. D. [3; Coliseum, A. D. 70; St. 
Sophia, A. D. 532; Mosque of Omar, A. D. 637; St. 
Peter's, Rome, A. D. 1616; St. Paul's, London, A. D. 
1710. 

The Gothic order gained ascendency in England in 
1840, when it was adopted for the new houses of par- 
liament. 

The Bartholdi Statue of Liberty is in principle a du- 
plicate of the Colossus of Rhodes. It is erected on 
Bedloe's Island, New York Harbor. The total height 
is 328 feet and 11 inches; the statue proper is 151 feet 
2 inches. 

The Washington Monument is the highest structure 
in the world, being 555 feet high. 



ARCHITECTURE. 



9(184 Establishments in the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 



1800 1880 

$3,251,357.00 $19,441,358.00 
12,646,392.00 94,152,139.00 



3,868,672.00 
9,006 



Hands Employed, 

1,261 Patents Granted by the United States, 



24,582,077.00 
54,138 




backeLUWilhelms Lnho Co NewYork 







kell&WilhelmsLil.hoCoNewYork 







HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING. 



HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING. 

Nn. 1. Primitive Pile Driver— A. D. 1725. 

2. " Canal Lock— A. D. 1725. 

3. U. S. Patent, Canal Gate— A. D. 1827. 



4. " 


' Hydraulic Lock— A. D. 1874. 


5. " 


Mining— A. D. 1878. 


6. •' 


" " —A. D 1879. 


7. " 


Ship Railway— A. D. 1881. 


8. " 


' Sleam Pile Driver— A. D. 1883 


9. " 


1 Standard U. S. Dry Duck. 



r 




The Phoenicians, who were the earliest tribes on 
record, moie than 1200 B. C. settled upon the coasts 
of the Mediterranean, built Sidon, Tyre and other coast 
Lowns, and formed moles and harbors for the protec- 
tion of their shipping. 

The defence and siege of Tyre, 332 B. C, furnished 
other interesting records of early engineering. 

When we turn to Ancient Egypt we are again met 
with most remarkable remains of early engineering 
skill. One of their monarchs, Menes, actually diverted 
the course of the Nile, and, by cutting water courses 
and raising embankments, converted the immense 
marsh, which existed upon both sides of the river, into 
the finest agricultural district in the world. 

The city of Rhodes owed its beauty to 1 lippodamus, 
a celebrated Greek engineer. 

Philon and Calibrates were Greek engineers, who 
lived about 400 B. C. 

According to Herodotus, Necas attempted to open 
a communication between the Nile and the Red Sea 
by means of a canal, but was prevented from complet- 
ing it by the advice of the Oracle, after having lost 
120,000 men in the enterprise. It was resumed and 
carried on by Darius, son of Hystappas, who relin- 
quished the undertaking on representation being made 
to him by unskillful engineers that the Red Sea, being 
higher than the land of Egypt, would overwhelm and 
drown the whole country. Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
however, finished the undertaking and constructed 
in the most convenient part of the canal a dam, or 
sluice, ingeniously contrived, which could be open- 
ed to give passage to the water as occasion might. 
require, and is, therefore, the origin of modern locks 
to canals. 

This mode of inland navigation was introduced into 
England by the Romans, who constructed a canal from 
the river Nyne to the river William, three miles south 
of Lincoln. 

Wir a period of 440 years the Romans contented 



themselves with the waters of the Tiber and the wells 
and fountains in the city, but when the number of 
houses and inhabitants was augmented they were 
obliged to bring water from remote places by means of 
aqueducts. This was effected by Appius Claudius in 
442. Some of these aqueducts were paved, and others 
conveyed the water through a natural channel of clay. 
Water was also conducted by pipes of lead into reser- 
voirs of the same metal, or into troughs of hewn stone. 

Trontinus, who had the direction of the aqueducts 
under the Emperor Nerva, mentions nine aqueducts 
which emptied themselves through 13,594 pipes an 
inch in diameter. 

Modern engineers, have followed the plan adopted 
by the Romans, of forming breakwaters by the immer- 
sion of large blocks of stone or concrete, piling them 
up without regard to order until they appeared above 
the water. 

In the spring of 1776 New York was supplied with 
water conveyed through pipes in the streets ; a reser- 
voir was constructed on the east side of Broadway, 
near Pearl street, into which water was raised by pump- 
ing from wells sunk on the premises." 

The principal docks in England are the East and I 
West India, the London, the St. Katherine, Commer- 1 
cial and Victoria. 

In the United States are to be found the finest docks 
in the world. The largest is the Granite clock at the 
Brooklyn Navy Yard. There are also numerous float- 
ing docks at New York City, the principal of which \ 
are the balance docks, the floating sectional and the 
hydraulic screw docks, besides the dry docks. 

New York possesses several basins called the Atlan- 
tic and the Erie, situated in Brooklyn City. The Erie 
basin is said to be the largest in the world. 

The imperial Canal, of China, is over 1,000 miles j 
long. ) 

In the year 1681 was completed one of the greatest 
undertakings of the kind in Europe, viz., the Canal of 



Languedoc, to connect the Atlantic with the Mediter- 
ranean ; its length is [48 miles. 

The largest ship canal in Holland is the Great North- 
ern, completed in 1S25, which extends 51 miles. The 
Suez is a little short of too miles in length. 

The longest canal in the United States is the Erie, 
of New York, viz., 350; miles. 

Artificial basins with locks, enabling ships to lie 
afloat while loading or unloading, were first constructed 
in Liverpool, England, in the commencement of the 
eighteenth century. 

The earliest dam builders were the beavers ; their 
dams, in districts long since deserted by them, remain 
as monuments of their wonderful sagacity. 

Probably the largest dam in the United States is that 
completed in 1849 at South Hadley Falls, Mass. ; it is 
1,007 feet long, and 28 to 32 feet high. The structure 
consumed about 4.000,000 feet of lumber. 

Probably the highest ever constructed is in the prov- 
ince of Alicante, Spain ; its height is 156; feet ; it was 
built in the year 1 594. 

The operative power in hydraulic mining is derived 
from a reservoir of water placed at a high elevation 
above the point of action, whence the water is con- 
veyed through a hose and projected with terrific force, 
under a pressure of from 80 to 200 feet, against the 
dirt above the bed rock. The effect is equal to the 
combined labor of several hundred men ; the force 
exerted being literally equivalent to the removal of 
mountains, as the superincumbent masses of earth and 
rock frequently come tumbling down in quantities of 
hundreds of tons at a time. The dirt thus loosened is 
conveyed into and washed down the sluice. 

To fortify the hose to withstand the fearful pressure 
of the water, it should be stoutly banded with strong 
galvanized iron rings, about 2 inches broad, secured 
around the hose at intervals of about 2 inches apart. 

The quantity of water required by a hydraulic claim 
varies from 50 to 300 inches. 



HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING. 



631 Patents Granted by the United States. 




beckeU&WilhelmsLilhoCo New York 






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SackeU&WilhelmsLiLhoCo New York 



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IRON TRUSS BRIDGES. 



IRON TRUSS BRIDGES. 



No. 1. U. S. Patent, Iron Column— A D 1862 



2. 



Arch Beam— A. D. 1873. 



^£l 



3. " ' Box Beam— A. D. 1873. 

4. » - Center Pivot Swing— A D. 1882. 

5. Pittsburgh Suspension. 

6. Niagara Cantilever. 

7. St. Louis Iron. 

8. East River Suspension. 



The first iron bridge built in England was an arch of 
cast iron sections, erected in 1799, over the Severn 
river. 

Iron suspension bridges are of modern date. The 
first was constructed in England, in 1819, across the 
river Tweed. 

The bridge over the Menai Strait was built in 
i8i9-'25. Its span is 580 feet. 

The Wheeling bridge, United States, was built in 
1848. One of the finest structures in the United 
States is the Niagara railway bridge over the Niagara 
river. It was completed in 1853, and its span is 82: 
feet. 

Of wrought iron bridges the Britannia and Conway 
tubular, are widely celebrated. The Victoria railway 
bridge over the St. Lawrence, at Montreal, is construc- 
ted after the plan of the Britannia, and is over two miles 
long. 



Ten truss bridges cross the Mississippi river, above 
St. Louis, United States. Seven of them have spans 
as long as the celebrated Tay bridge, of Scotland. 
Those at Winona, LaCrosse. Dubuque. Keokuk and 
Hannibal have spans of 240 feet ; that at Rock Island 
250 feet. 

Across the Ohio river, at Steubenville, there is a 
truss bridge with a span of 320. and one at Parkers- 
burg of 350 feet. The Cincinnati bridge has a span of 
515 feet, the longest truss yet built. The proposed 
bridge over the Hudson, at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., is to 
have five spans of 500 feet each, with piers 135 feet 
above high water. 

There is a truss bridge over the Vistula, in Europe, 
with twelve spans of 300 feet each. The truss bridge 
at Lessart, in France, has a span of 314 feet, and was 
pushed across from one abutment to the other after be- 
ing put together. The Kuhlenburg bridge, of Hol- 



land, was the monarch truss before the construction of 
the Cincinnati bridge, and has a span of 492 feet. 

Cast iron bridges are of recent origin. A remark- 
able one is that constructed for the purpose of carrying 
the Washington Acqueduct over Rock Creek, between 
the cities of Georgetown and Washington, D. C. The 
peculiarity is that its arches are constructed of cast iron 
pipes, which carry the roadway and water supply at 
the same time. Its span is 200 feet. 

The greatest bridge now in existence is the suspen- 
sion bridge over the East river, New York, connecting 
the cities of New York and Brooklyn. It is 3,475 feet 
in length. 

The bridge in course of erection for the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad, over the Susquehanna river, at 
Port Deposit, Md., when completed will be the largest 
railroad bridge in the world. It will be 6.830 feet long. 



IRON TRUSS BRIDGES. 



75 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 



Hands Employed, 



1800 1HHII 

$61,500.00 $4,058,649.00 

192,500.00 8,978,122.00 

51,720.00 1,882,179.00 




Sackell&Wilhelms LilhoCo New York 










TIMBER AND STONE BRIDGES. 










TIMBER AND STONE BRIDGES. 

No. 1. Ancient Pontoon. 

2. Peruvian Rope. 

3. Cifssor's Timber. 

4. Primitive Log. 

5. " Stone. 

6. English Winch Bridge. 

7. IT. S. Patent, Timber— A. D. 1817. 

8. ■• " Lattice— A. D. 1820. 

9. •• " Timber Truss— A. D. 1840. 
10. " " " Arch Brace Truss— A. D. 1846. 



The ancient bridge across the Euphrates, at baby- 
Ion, consisted of wooden spans, supported by stone 
piers. Ccesar's bridge over the Rhine was of wood, 
built upon piles, and was erected 55 B. C. 

The bridge of Trajan, across the Danube, had 
twenty-two wooden arches and twenty-three piers. 

Wooden bridges of the middle ages were generally 
supported upon piers composed of one or more rows 
of piles. The celebrated wooden bridge over the 
Rhine, erected in 1757, had a span of three hundred 
and sixty-four feet. 

The widest span ever formed of timber was over the 
Limmat, in Switzerland, and was built about the eight- 
eenth century. The span of its wooden arch was 
three hundred and ninety feet, with a rise of forty-three 
feet. 

The lattice bridge has generally, in practice, been 
combined with the arch when great strength and rigid- 
ity are required. 

The widest single span wooden bridge built in the 
United States is over the Schuylkill,, at Philadelphia. 
Pa. The span is three hundred and forty feet. Bridge 



building was one of the arts brought to perfection dur- 
ing the civil war in the United States. The Rappa- 
hannock river bridge, Va., during the war was rebuilt 
in nineteen working hours ; it was six hundred and 
twenty-five feet long, and thirty-five feet high. The 
Potomac Creek bridge, four hundred and fourteen feet 
long, eighty-two feet high, was rebuilt in forty work- 
ing hours. That between Tunnel Hill and Resaca. 
twenty-five miles of permanent way and two hundred 
and thirty feet of bridges, was constructed in seven 
days. 

Stone bridges originated among the Romans, who 
were the first to employ the arch on an extended scale ; 
one with six arches, which was commenced by Augus- 
tus, and finished by Tiberius, still exists at Rimini. 
The first stone bridge was built in England, in 1 1 18. 

The old London bridge was built in 1 176, burned in 
1212, and restored in 1300. The new bridge was 
opened in 1831 ; the original piles of the old bridge, 
which were of elm wood, were found to be but partially 
decayed. 
Later, the plan of sinking caissons to form pier 



foundations was introduced ; the coffer dam succeeded 
these, to be itself succeeded by the pneumatic caisson. 
In the construction of stone bridges, when the pneu- 
matic caisson is used, the river bed is excavated until 
firm bottom is reached ; the abutments and piers of 
masonry are built up to the springing points of the 
arches, which are then turned up on the wooden center- 
ings which serve as a former for the arch, and support 
for its weight, until the keystone course is laid. 

The arch of the Washington Aqueduct, over Cabin 
John Creek, Md., has two hundred and twenty feet 
span, is four hundred and fifty feet long, and twenty 
feet, four inches wide. The elevation of the roadway 
above the bed of the stream is one hundred feet, and 
is the largest span of a stone bridge in the world. 

The next largest is the Chester, over the river 
Dee, at Chester, England, the span being two hundred 
feet. 

Most of die three hundred and thirty-nine bridges 
in Venice are of stone. 



TIMBER AND STONE BRIDGES. 



75 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 



I860 1880 

$61,500.00 $4,058,649.00 

192,500.00 8,978,122.00 

51,720.00 1,882,179.00 



Hands Employed, 



96 



4,293 



706 Patents Granted by the United States. 



m 



SackelL* Wilheims Lilho Co NewYork 









/ 










RAILWAY SYSTEMS. 



A. D. 1831. 



RAILWAY SYSTEMS. 

1. Primitive English Railway — A. 1). 1676. 

2. •' Coal Wagon Road— A. D. 1790. 

3. First Train from Albany to Schenectady. N. Y. 

4. U. S. Patent, Saddle Bag Railway— A. D. 1825. 

5. " " Street Railway— A. D. 1831. 

6. " " High Speed System— A. K. 1838. 

7. " " Underground Cable System— A. D. 1876. 

8. " " Elevated Railway— A. D. 1880. 
" " Inclined Wire and Suspended Car — A. D. 1882. 
» " Bridge Traction System— A. D. 1884. 
" " Pneumatic Despatch System — A. D. 1884. 

" Standard Railway Track— A. D. 1884. 




The first legislative act of England authorizing a 
public railroad was granted by Parliament in 1801, to 
the Surrey Iron Tram Road, nine miles long, on which 
horse power was used. 

The first public road on which steam was applied 
was the Stockton and Darlington, twenty -five miles 
long, opened September 26, 1825. 

In 1826 a railroad was constructed in the United 
States from the quarries at Quincy, Mass., to tide 
water, a distance of three miles. 

The Baltimore and Ohio laid the first stone for 
their road on July 4, 1828. 

One of the most wonderful feats of railroad engi- 
neering is the road from Lima to Callao, in Peru. It 
runs through a section of country abounding in rich 
silver mines. It was conceived and built by an Amer- 
ican (Meiggs), to the crest of the Andes Mountains. 

The railway mileage of the United States and Can- 
ada is about 1 20,000 miles. 

The distances traversed by some of the principal 
roads are as follows : 



Missouri Pacific, - 6,045 

Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul, - 5,804 
Chicago and Northwestern, - 5.645 

Pennsylvania, 4.807 

Union Pacific, 4.748 

Central Pacific, 4. '94 

Wabash, St, Louis and Pacific, - - 3,507 

Vanderbilt roads, - 3,066 

Grand Trunk, 2,950 

Atchison, Topeka and Santa F6, - - 2,799 

, Southern Pacific, 2,789 

Baltimore and Ohio, - 2,737 

Northern Pacific, - - - - -' 2,548 
Louisville and Nashville, - - - 2,366 
The United States was the first country to introduce 

Street Railways for Passenger Cars, and the first 

street railway was established in 1850. 

There are in the United States and Canada 415 

street railways, employing 100,000 horses and 8,500 

men. 



Rope railways are used on inclined planes in mining 
districts. They have recently come into use on street 
railways, the cars being drawn by wire ropes wound 
around drums rotated by stationary engines. 

I Among the latest inventions is the store service or 
warehouse railway. 

The American Code of Railway Signals adopted and 
universally understood are: one whistle of locomotive 
means " down brakes :" two whistles, " off brakes ;" 

] three whistles, "back up;" continued whistles, "dan- 
ger ;" a continued succession of short whistles is the 
"cattle alarm." The conductor's signal, given by a 
sweeping motion of the hand on a level with the eyes, 
means " go ahead ;" a downward motion of the hand, 
"stop:" a beckoning motion, "back." A lantern raised 
and lowered vertically, "start ;" swung at right angles 
or across the track, " stop ;" swung in a circle, " back." 
A red flag waved on the track, " danger ;" hoisted at 
a station, "stop;" stuck upon the roadside, -"danoer 
on the track ahead ;" carried unfurled on an engine, 
"another engine is on its way." 



RAILWAY SYSTEMS. 



1,017 Railroad Companies in the United States. 



Miles of Road Operated, 
Capital Invested, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, 



1880 

. 87,781 

$5,182,445,807.00 

195,350,013.00 

418,957 



3,740 Patents Granted by the United States, 




SackelliWilhelms Lilho Co New York 






f 



I 
















RAILWAY TRACK APPLIANCES. 




RAILWAY TRACK APPLIANCES. 

1. Primitive Snake Head Hail. 

2. " Point Switch. 
Stub Switch. 

" Chair Joints. 
0. 3. Patent, Fish Joint— A. D. 1854. 

" Uncut Miiin Rail Swilch— A. D. 1871. 
•■ Frog— A, D. 1874, 

Fish Joint—A. D. 1879. 
" " Switch and Signal Interlocking— A. I). 1880. 

" " Hydraulic Buffer—A. D. 1.881. 

" Safety Switch— A. D. 1882. 
" " Steel Rail- A. D. 1884. 



The Egyptians learned, in moving the great stones 
from the quarries for their pyramids, the advantage of 
solid trackways ; and the remains of such, formed of 
blocks of stone, are said to have been found on the line 
of the great roads they constructed for this purpose. 

Wooden rails were laid at Newcastle, England, in 
1602. ..The rollers of the carts were made to fit the 
rails." They consisted of timber laid exactly straight 
and parallel. 

The Coalbrook-Dale iron works, in 1767. laid down 
lint cast iron rails. 

Cast iron rails on wooden sleepers were used at the 
Duke of Norfolk's colliery, near Sheffield, England, 
in 1776. 

Edge rails were introduced in 1789. 

The fish-bellied rail was introduced in 1805, and the 
Hanged in 18 16. 

In the construction of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road, in 1828, longitudinal rails were used, pinned 
down to wooden cross ties ; upon the rails were fas- 



tened flat iron bars ; this method was generally adopted 
upon early American roads. 

The ends of the rails becoming loose were occa- 
sionally caught by the wheels and forced up into the 
bottom of the cars, and were thus termed snake-head 
rails. 

Grimes' English patent, of 1831, specifies a hollow 
rail charged with steam from stationary boilers at inter- 
vals of two or three miles to keep the rails clear of ice 
and snow. 

The first steel rail was made in 1857. The substitu- 
tion of steel for iron rails has worked a great change 
in the condition of ways. 

The average life of an iron rail is said to be five 
years. 

The average width of rails is from two and one-fourth 
to three inches. The usual gaaige of rails in England 
and the United States is four feet eight and one-naif 
Inches. 

It is estimated that there are 591,000,000 railway 



ties in use in die U, S., and that there are about 
200,000 miles of railway tracks in the world. 

Railroad track appliances are classified in the U. S. 
Patent Office as follows : 
Car Replacers. Track. 
Chairs. Track Fastenings. 

Crossings. Track Portable. 

Deadening Noise. Track Stringers and Ties, 
Frogs. Track Cleaners. 

Foot Guards. Track Cleaners, Centrifugal. 

Foot Bridges. Track Cleaners, Dumping. 

Rails. Track Cleaners, Elevators. 

Rail Joints. Track Cleaners, Melters. 

Single Rail. Track Cleaners, Snow Plows. 

Switches. Track Cleaners, Wheel and Fender. 

Automatic Rail. Track Layers. 
Pneumatic Rail. Track Platforms. 
Tramway Rail. Transfer Tables. 
Switch Stands. Turntables. 
Interlocking:. 



RAILWAY TRACK APPLIANCES. 



1,017 Railroad Companies In the United States. 



Miles of Road Operated, 
Capital Invested, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, 



1880 

. 87,781 

4(5,182,445,807.00 

196,350,013.00 

418,957 



3,740 Patents Granted by the United States, 







SacketliWilhelms Litho Co New York 






'■ 



1 



« 




ROAD MAKING MACHINES. 



ROAD MAKING MACHINES. 



NTo. 1. Primitive Leveller. 

2. " Carrying Scraper. 

3. U. S. Patent, Sulky " - 



■A. D. 1831. 



i. » 


' Wheel " —A. D. 1839. 


5. " 


• Drag " —A. D. 1850. 


6. " 


' Self- Loading Cart— A. D. 1850. 


7. " ' 


' " " —A. D. 1867. 


8. •■ 


' Revolving Scraper — A, D. 1879. 


9. " « 


1 8elf-Loading Cart— A. D. 1881. 


10. " 


' Road Builder— A. D. 1883. 


11. " 


1 Wheel Scraper— A. D. 1884. 



r 




The Cartlugcnians invented paved roads. The Ro- 
mans paved their roads on a foundation of rough stones 
consolidated in a mass of mortar, which became solid, 
making a smooth and lasting road. These roads were 
built into the most distant provinces for the purpose 
of facilitating the march of their soldiery and the 
transportation of supplies. Isidore, a Greek architect 
of the sixth century, says " the Romans made roads 
almost over the known world." 

Twenty-nine great military roads centered in Rome, 
which was divided into eleven regions, one hundred 
and thirteen provinces, and traversed by three hundred 
and seventy-two great roads, with a length of fifty-two 
thousand, nine hundred and sixty-four Roman miles. 

The first of the great roads was the Appian Way, 
which was constructed by Appius Claudius Caucus. 3$ 1 
1). C. ; the stones were hewn and closely fitted. 
Although more than twenty centuries have passed since 
its construction it is still entire in many places. 

During the last African war a paved road was con- 
structed through Spain and Gaul to the Alps. These 
roads connected the Capital with Savoy, Dauphine, 
Province of Germany and all parts of Spain, Gaul, 
Constantinople, Hungary, Macedonia and the mouth 
of the Danube on the other sides of the intervening 
waters : these roads extended into Sicily, Corsica, Sar- 
dinia, England, Asia and Africa, The Roman roads 
were distinguished by the names Via, Actus, Iter, Sem- 
iter, frames. Callais. eta 



The Via was eight feet wide, and was considered 
the best. 

The Via Militore, near Rome, was double width, or 
sixteen Roman feet: the middle was paved and. divided 
from the sidewalk by a curb two feet wide and eighteen 
inches high. The middle was for the infantry and the 
margin for carriages and equestrians. 

The Actus was four feet wide, and was used for 
single carriages. 

The Iter was for horsemen, pack animals and pe- 
destrians, and was three feet wide. The Semiter was 
eighteen inches wide. 

The Callais was a mountain path. 

Roman military roads were made with four strata 
with composite thickness of about three feet. The 
statumen consisted of two courses of flat stones laid in 
mortar ; the sudus was a rubble of broken stone, 
mixed with one-third the quantity of quicklime well 
rammed. The nucleus was a mixture of brick, broken 
tiles and one-third the quantity of lime or gravel, and 
the stated proportion of lime laid on while hot from 
slacking. 

In Persia the royal roads ran beside the common 
roads, and were used only by the King; they were 
kept in much better order than other roads, and were 
called "the King's highway." 

The Moguls constructed roads in India widt " dis- 
tance stones" at the end of every Koss. 



The Grand Trunk road connecting Calcutta with 
Pcsliawur on die borders of Afghanistan was built by 
the British. 

The Roman roads of England were built in the sec- 
ond, third and fourth centuries, criminals and Roman 
soldiery being employed thereon. The four princi- 
pal were from Kent, via London, to Cardigan Bay in 
Wales ; from St. Davids. Wales, via Birmingham, 
Derby and York to Tynemouth; from Cornwall to 
Lincoln, and from St. Davids to Southampton. The 
Britons neglected the roads built by the Romans. The 
English government made litde attempt to improve 
the roads till the reign of Charles II. 

Highways were first made public in England by the 
Romans. Edward I ordered the roads widened and 
cleared of trees widtin two hundred feet of the road to 
prevent robberies. 

The road built by Napoleon, from Geneva to Milan, 
cost the French Government diree million, two hun- 
dred and fifty diousand dollars. 

" Macadamized roads," are named from the inventor. 
MaeAdam, who used small, angular broken stone of a 
hard variety. He was made Surveyor General of die 
roads of Bristol. 

The National road of the United States, from Balti- 
more across the Alleghanies. extends six hundred and 
fifty and five-eighths miles, and is macadamized Tor 
thirty feet of its width. 



ROAD MAKING MACHINES. 



466 Patents Granted by the United States. 




Sackell&Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 









69 




1 



MINING STONE AND COAL. 



MINING STONE AND COAL. 

No. 1. Primitive Mining. 

2. " French Mining. 

3. TJ. S. Patent, Mining Machine— A. D. 1865. 



Coal Mining Machine — A. D, 1865. 



Digging 


' —A. I). 1870. 


Boring 


• —A. D. 1873. 


Cutting 


' —A. D. 1877. 


Mining 


' —A, D. 1883. 


" 


' —A. D. 1884. 




The -,iones for building the Obelisk and Colossi of 
Egypt ware taken from the limestone hills which border 
and inclose the valley of die Nile. The largest stones 
in any known building are those of the temple plat- 
form al Baalbek, The Egyptian mode of quarrying 
was by uncovering the stratum of the stone, leveling 
the surface, and working out an area sufficient to yield 
the amount of stone squares. Around this was cut a 
deep trench, and cross trenches at right angles divided 
the whole area into squares of such a size as was re 
quired. Layer after layer was then removed. The 
masses of granite may have been detached from their 
beds in the same manner as is now practiced in the 
Ease. After the stone is surrounded by a trench it is 
healed by fire built upon it; the ashes being swept off, 
water is poured into the groove by a large number of 
men simultaneously, when the fracture takes place 
through the whole line. Wooden pins inserted into a 
row of holes and swelled by water was another method. 

Newcastle coal was known and used as fuel more 
than 8oo years ago. Anthracite was first made known 
to the white settlers ol Pennsylvania in 1768. 

In 1784 coal mining began in the vicinity of Pitts- 
burgh. In 1791 the Mauch Chunk coal lisenvcrics 
were made, and soon afterwards the Lehigh Coal Min- 
ing Co, was organized. 

There seem'- to have been tor a long tiine :-• pregu 
dice against anthracite, but the war of 1812, which 
raised tile price of bituminous coal, called renewed at- 



tention to the Pennsylvania coal and to means of min- 
ing and transporting it, 

In 1S20 the anthracite coal busines may be said to 
have really begun, by the shipment of 325 tons by the 
Lehigh Coal and Navigation Co. to Philadelphia. 

Coal, according to its location, and the lay or dip of 
the strata, is often worked by quarrying into the side 
of a hill or mountain, or, when the beds are deep, shafts 
are sunk, galleries are formed by taking out the coat, 
and tracks laid down for llie transportation of the coal 
from the different parts of the mine to the shafts, where 
it is hoisted. 

The miners use picks, and huge masses of coal are 
thrown down by wedges driven into long grooves 
made into the vein, and sometimes by light charges of 
powder. Columns of coal are left and timbers set up 
to support the roof. Steam power does the hoisting 
and lowering and runs the breakers which break the 
coal brought up from the mines. The coal is sepa- 
rated by screens into lump, egg. broken stone, and pea 
sizes. 

In the granite quarries, near Seringapatam, the mosl 
enormous blocks are separated from the solid rock by 
the following simple process ; The workman, having 
found a portion of the rock sufficiently extensive, and 
situated near the edge of the part already quarried, 
lays bare the upper surface and marks a line on it in 
the direction of the intended separation, along which a 
groove is cut, with a chisel, about two inches in depth. 



A narrow line of fire is then kindled above this groove 
and maintained till the rock below is thoroughly heated, 
when a line of men and women, each provided with a 
pot full of cold water, suddenly sweep off the ashes 
ami pour the water into the heated groove, when the 
rock at once splits, with a clean fracture, Square 
blocks, of six feet in the side and upwards of eighty 
feet in length, are sometimes detached by this method, 
or by another equally simple and efficacious, but not 
easily explained widiout entering into particulars of 
miiieralogical detail. 

The compendium of the tenth census contains some 
figures which will serve to give an idea of the magni- 
tude of the quarrying interests of the country, which 
in 1880 gave employment to 39,723 men, 8,059 horses 
and 851 mules ; had 339 machines for quarrying, 2,290 
machines for hoisting, 1,308 machines for dressing, and 
used $192,175 worth of explosives. The capital in- 
vested is given at $35,-1 1.1,497, and the value of the 
product in the census year at 518,356,055, there being 
1,5:5 quarries in all. Marble and limestone lead the 
list with 65,523.965 cubic feer, followed by the sand- 
stone quarries with 24,776,930 cubic feet; crystalline 
siliciuus rocks with 5,188,998 cubic feet; and slate with 
457,267 squares, or 4.572,670 cubic feet. Probably 
the most extensive quarries of red, free or brown stone 
in tl e world are on the Connecticut liver at Middle- 
town. These quarries have been worked since 1645. 



MINING STONE AND COAL 



178 Patents Granted by the United States, 



m 



SackeLliWilhelms LiLho Co New York 



/ 






1 



-/ 







ROCK DRILLING, 



ROCK DRILLING. 




No. 1. Primitive Stone Working. 

2. " " Drilling. 

3. U. S. Patent, Stone Drilling Machine— A. D. 1850 
'! " " —A. D. 1868. 

•• ■ !' " " —A. D. 1871. 

" Submarine Hock Drill— A. D. 1876. 

Drilling— A. D. 1879. 
" Steam Uock Drill— A. D. 1880. 
■' Compressed Air Drill— A. U. 1880. 



It has been surmised that the use of the "diamond" 
for rock boring and cutting was known to the ancients. 
By referring to ancient writers, we find that diamonds 
formed an important adjunct to the " Hewers of stone" 
as well as the lapidary. 

Martin Weigcl. mine superintendent of Freiberg, 
proposed drilling and blasting in mining in 1613. 

it is snid that prior to 1673 but one hand drilling 
machine had been introduced. 

In 1724 drilling and blasting were introduced into 
Sweden by German miners. 

For a period of one hundred and thirty-six years 
prior to 1 749. all drilling had been done by means of 



crown and hand drills. In this year Hungarian miners 
first introduced the chisel bit and drill. 

In 1813, Richard Trevethick, the distinguished 
English engineer, is said to have suggested ruck drill- 
ing by machinery. 

In 1K49, J. J. Crouch, of Philadelphia, Pa., patented 
the first percussion rock drill. 

Among the most noted of modern rock drills, and 
the principal one employed in excavating the Hoosac 
Tunnel, is the " Burleigh drill." It is what is called a 
■percussion drill." and is usually propelled by com- 
pressed air. 

The Ingersoll drill is especially effective in excavat- 
ing in open cuts. 



The American diamond drill is a revolving tool 

which is driven by steam or compressed air. This 

I drill is much used in deep boring, and was used by the 

1 United States Government in deepening die channel 

of the James River below Richmond, Virginia. 

By the use of the pneumatic drill the Mount Cinis 
Tunnel, seven miles in length, was bored through ilic 
I Alps. 

The Hoosac tunnel in Mass., five miles in length, 
1 was cut hy the same means. 

J Compressed air was also used in the St. Godiard 
tunnel in Switzerland, also in the operations at Hell 
Gate, Fasi River. New York. 



ROCK DRILLING. 



713 Patents Granted by the United States. 




Sackelti Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 



71 









' ' '■ ' '' : - 









WELL BORING AND DRILLING. 




WELL BORING AND DRILLING. 

1. Primitive, Well Drilling. 

2. " Horse Power Prilling. 

3. Steam Power Drilling. 

4. U. S. Patent, Hand Driving Wells— A. D. 1868. 
Pile Driving Wells— A. D. 1868. 
Rotary Diamond Drilling— A. D. 1881. 
Portable Steam Drilling— A. D. 1884. 
Hydraulic Drilling— A. D. 1884. 
Driven Well System for Cities— A. D. 1884 



Jacob's well, at Sychar. was 9 feet in diameter, 
105 feet deep, and was made entirely through solid 
rock. 

The well of Joseph, at Cairo, is the most remarkable 
work of its kind. It is excavated in the solid rock, with 
a section 18 x 14 feet, to the depth of 165 feet, where 
an enlarged chamber is found, in which is cut a reser- 
voir for the water brought up from below. From the 
front, another shaft, not in the same vertical line with 
the upper one. is sunk to a further depth of 130 feet, 
when a bed of gravel is reached, from which the water 
is obtained. The total depth is 297 feet. 

The Chinese mode of boring wells has been prac- 
ticed in that country from the earliest time. Some of 
these wells are from 1.500 to i,Soo feet deep, and from 
five to six inches in diameter. 

Artesian wells were first introduced in the province 
of Artois, France. 

The artesian well at Kissengen, Bavaria, was begun 



in 1832. In 1850 water was reached at a depth of 
1,878 feet. 

The artesian wells at Chicago, United States, are 700 
feet deep, and discharge 1,250,000 gallons daily. 

Petroleum in any vast quantity was unknown in the 
United States until 1845, when oil was obtained while 
boring for salt near Pittsburgh, Pa. 

In August, 1859, operations were commenced at 
Titusville, Pa., by boring. At the depth of 71 feet, 
a fountain was reached which yielded about 1,000 gal- 
lons daily. 

Before the close of the year i860, the number of 
borings and wells was estimated to be about 2,000. 

In May, 1856, the work of boring wells in the Des- 
ert of Sahara was commenced. Water was reached 
June 19th, and 1,060 gallons per minute were dis- 
charged, of a temperature of 79 degrees Fah. 

Several wells in the United States bored for oil have 
developed fine flows of mineral water. 

One of the most celebrated artesian wells is at Gren- 



elle, near Paris, France. It took seven years to com- 
plete it. It is 1,802 feet deep. When the water bear- 
ing strata were reached, the water was discharged at 
the rate of 880,000 gallons in twenty-four hours, and 
the force was so great that water was carried 1 20 feet 
above the surface. 

The deepest well in the world is said to be near Ber- 
lin, Germany. Its depth is 4, 1 70 feet. 

The invention of the drive well was made in 1861 
by Nelson W. Green, an officer of a New York regi- 
ment, during the late civil war. He conceived the idea 
of driving into the earth small tubes of iron perforated 
at the bottom, and of attaching a pump at the upper 
end of the tube. His invention was adopted for the 
use of the United States army. Its use quickly spread 
to foreign countries, and it is now an adjunct of the 
military equipment of all nations, and is common 
throughout the world. 

2,890 petroleum wells were put down in 1S83. 



WELL BORING AND DRILLING, 



Capacity — 


PrtalflM 
Mud*. 


Prc.n 
Michii, 


Feet Drilled per day, 


6 


60 


Hands Employed per day, 


2 


2 



791 Patents Granted by the United States. 




SackettSWilhelms Litho Co New York 



. 



72 




i 



• 






/ 



: 



^ 






3 






4 



5 



6 






8 
CARTRIDGES 



CARTRIDGES. 



No. I. U. S. Patent, Paper— A. D. 1858. 




Gut— A. D. 1862. 

Outer Paper Case— A. D. 1862. 

Fibrous Stopper— A. D. 1863. 

Charged— A. D. 1863. 

Interior Fire— A. D. 1866. 

Paper Reinforced— A. D. 1869. 

Electric— A. D. 1883. 

Paper Shell and Metal Base— A. D. 1884. 



Cartridges are of modern invention. The original 
custom was to use loose powder and ball. Gustavus 
Adolphus in 1632 made up the first cartridge with a 
measured quantity of powder and ball attached. Sir 
James Turner, in the time of Charles II of England, 
speaks of cartridges used by horsemen carried in 
a patron. Subsequently cartridges were carried in 
cases suspended from bandoliers. Still later the 
cartridge box was adopted, and in modified form is still 
in use. 



Round ball and buck, and ball cartridge are now 
out of use. They were made of a paper cylinder, 
which was partially filled with powder and choked near 
its mid-length by twine, the powder occupying one end 
and the ball the other ; Colt covered his cartridges with 
tinfoil, and afterwards with paper saturated with nitrate 
of potassa. The American process of drawing out the 
blanks for metallic cartridge cases into tubes has been 
adopted in the European service. The use of metal 
for this purpose originated with the French. In 1826 



Cazalt patented a cartridge of this kind; one of the 
earliest cartridges was patented by Roberts, of Paris, 
in 1834. Smith & Wesson took out patents in 1854 
and 1 860. The fulminate in the first of these was con- 
tained in a capsule at the base, in the latter in an an- 
nulus within the flange surrounding the base of the 
cartridge, secured in place by a pasteboard disk. 

The metallic cartridge is generally in use throughout 
the United States and Europe. 



CARTRIDGES. 



311 Patents Granted by the United States 






:• ~ " <: 




SacketL&Wilhelms Litho Co New York 




I 
1 



73 



W 







2 












8 



9 






10 



II 
PROJECTILES 



12 



PROJECTILES. 



No. I. Primitive Bound Musket Ball. 




Minie Hall. 

U. S. Patent, Projectile— A. I). 1847. 

Ellipsoidal— A I). 1863. 

Nitroleum and Gun Cotton— A. 1). 1861! 

Taileo-A. t). 1870. 

Projectile— A. D. 1876. 

Rifled Projectile- A. D 1879. 

Bomb Lance — A. D. 187S). 

Fragile Inner Case Projectile^- A. 11. 1883. 

Dynamite Shell— A. D. 1884. 

Projectile— A. D. 1884. 



Projectiles are missiles thrown from a gun by the 
expansive force of air, gas, or steam. Stones were 
formerly used as projectiles for cannons. 

Balls of copper were used in South America. 

Henry VIII, A. D. 1418. issued an order to his clerk 
of ordnance for making stone balls for his cannons of 
various sizes. The use of stone was not abandoned in 
England until the time, of Charles I. 

The French used iron balls toward the close of the 
fourteenth century. 

English historians do not mention their use until 

r 55°- 

Attempts were made to ascertain the velocity of 
projectiles as early as 1 740. 



The Turks used stone as late as 1827. 

Elongated bullets for rifled cannon, termed by the 
English, "bolts," are made angularly pointed to per- 
forate iron plating. 

Shells are hollow projectiles. 

Case shot are thinner than shells. 

Grenades are small shells thrown by the hand. In 
the French army the right company of each battalion 
was formerly composed of the tallest men, armed with 
hand grenades, hence the term "grenadiers." 

The Orsini grenades, with which an attempt was 
made to assassinate Louis Napoleon, are said to be an 
English invention. 

The most prominent makes of shell used by the 



United States during the late war were the Parrott, 
Hotchkiss, and Shrapnel. 

At the present time cast iron is universally used for 
cannon balls. 

By the use of the Schultz chronoscope the intervals 
of time of projectiles can be measured from 30 seconds 
to 1-5,000 part of a second. 

Guns have been tested at Sandy Hook, in the course 
of experiments, up to a pressure of 107. 000 pounds 
per square inch. The average pressure on a gun was 
40,000 pounds to the square inch. 

The velocity of projectiles from large guns ranged 
from 600 to 2,400 feet per second. 



PROJECTILES. 



1,028 Patents Granted by the United States. 




SacketL&Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 



Ifc* 



■ 






74 




\ 
















r 






,? r ':^7&^^-'' ::; - 











IS: end 

■ ..■.'.. " ■■■■■. 










8 
FIRE ARMS. 



9 



FIRE ARMS. 




No, 1, German'Elint Lock Pistol, 16th Century 

2. Match Lock, 16th Century. 

3. Muzzle Loader, 19th Century. 

4. U. S. Patent, Revolver— A. D. 1850. 
Magazine Gun— A. I). 1865. 
Breech Loader— A. U. 1875. 
Revolver— A. D. 1882. 
Electric Gun— A. 1) 1883. 
Breech Loader— A D. 1884. 



The invention of Portable Fire Arms is attributed 
to the Italians, and the year 1430 has been named as i 
the time of their introduction. The earliest record of i 
their introduction into England is in 147 1, when Ed- I 
ward IV landed at Ravenspur with 900 Flemings, 
armed with hand guns. 

The Dutch invented the apparatus for striking fire 
by the friction of a small steel wheel against a piece of | 
iron pyrites. This was known as the wheel lock. 

The flint lock was introduced during the reign of j 
Queen Elizabeth, about 1692, and was superseded by 
the percussion lock in 1807. 

An interesting model, showing the revolving cylinder 
of a fire arm (upon which the Colt's principle of the 
Colt revolver is based,) is to be seen in the Museum 
at the Washington Navy Yard, such model having been 
presented by the British Government, and is said, to 
have been made during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 



Henry VIII, of England, took great interest in fire 
arms, and two weapons made during his reign are still 
in existence, and are said to resemble the modern 
Snider rifle. 

Among the curiosities of this branch of invention is 
Pickles' English Patent of 1718, wherein is described 
the use of " round bullets for Christians and square 
ones for Turks." 

The first U. S. patent granted for a breech loader 
was to Thornton and Hall, May 21st, r8n. Between 
that time and 1839 over 10,000 of these arms were 
made and issued to the troops in garrison on the 
frontier. 

Prior to the war of 1861-65 the principal breech 
loaders were known as Sharps, Burnside, Maynards, 
Merrills and Spencers. 

The Martini gun was invented by a Swiss. 

The Chassepot is a French invention. 



The United States has adopted the Springfield pat- 
tern of gun, manufactured at the Springfield Arsenal, 
Mass., after the systems of Allen and of Stillman ; 
England the Snider improved ; France the Chasse- 
pot : Belgium the Albini: Holland the Snyder; Aus- 
tria the Wanzel ; Turkey the Remington and Win- 
chester ; Sweden the Hagstorm ; Russia the Laidley 
and Berdan ; Switzerland the Winchester ; Portugal 
the Westley Richards ; Prussia the Needle Gun. 

Breech loaders purchased by the United States be- 
tween 1 86 1 and 1866 were of the following kinds and 
numbers of each: Spencer, 94,156; Sharps, 80,512; 
Burnside, 55,567 ; Smith, 50,062 ; Starr, 25,603 ; Gal- 
laher, 22,728; Maynard, 20,002; Remington, 20,000; 
Merrill, 14,495 ■ Joslyn, 11,261 ; Cosmopolitan, 9,342 ; 
Warner, 4,001 ; Hall, 3,520; Gibbs, 1,052; Ballard, 
1,500; Ball, 1,002; Palme/. 1,001; Snyder, 892; 
Wesson, 151. 



FIRE ARMS. 



39 Manufactories in the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 



Hands Employed, 



$466,000.00 $8, 1 15,489.00 

891,344.00 5,736,936.00 

95,016.00 

308 



2,446 Patents Granted by the United States, 




SackeUAWilhelms Lilho Co New York 



mmmmmmsmm 



I 

i 



I 



75 




ORDNANCE. 



0,#« If. 



ORDNANCE. 

No. 1. Primitive Greek Catapult. 

2. Muzzle Loader, " Mens. Meg,'' 16th Century 

3. Breech Loader, " Mary Ross," — A. D. 1545. 

4. U. S. Patent, Breech Loader— A. D. 1853. 

5. '• " Machine Gun— A. D. 1872. 

6. •• » » (' —A. D. 1879. 

7. " '-' Pneumatic Gun- A. D. 1883. 

8. " " Machine Gun— A. D. 1884. 

9. •• •■ Multicharge Gun— A. D. 1884. 



SSI' 



Cannon were doubtless invented by the Chinese. 
They were used in Spain as early as 1 1 18. 

In the eleventh century, Alphonso VI says: "The 
vessels of the King of Tunis, in the attack on Saville, 
had on board iron pipes, out of which volumes of thun- 
dering fire were discharged." 

No mention, is made of cannon in Hindoo books till 
the 13th century, but during the next hundred years 
they were in general use throughout India. 

Ferdinand took Gibraltar from the Moors, by the aid 
of cannon, in 1309. 

Prior to the 15th century cannon were made by 
welding bars of iron longitudinally, and binding them 
by rings, which were shrunk on over them while hot. 
Some of the ancient guns were breech loaders. 

James II. of Scotland, met his death in 1460 by the 
bursting of a hooped gun. 

The first mortar was made in England, in 1543. 

Frederick the Great made extensive use of howitzers. 

In 1818. Col. Romford, of the LP. S. army, intro- 
duced a chambered gun. called " die Columbiad." 
This was modified, in 1822, by Col. Paixhans, of the 
French army. 

About 1847, Gen Rodman developed his theory of 
initial tension, and in 1850 Admiral Dahlgren proposed 



a new system of casting guns nearly cylindrical, and 
turning down to the required shape. 

In r850, Louis Napoleon devised a light cannon, 
known as the "gun-howitzer, or Napoleon gun." It was 
successfully used in the Crimean war, and was adopted 
into the United States and several European services. 

The first Armstrong gun was made in 1855, and 
patented in 1857. 

Whitworth commenced his experiments in 1855. 

The Armstrong and Whitworth are the most cele- 
brated English guns. 

Mallet constructed a mortar, in 1857, which took a 
charge of powder of seventy pounds, and threw a shell 
weighing 2,550 pounds one and one : half miles longi- 
tudinally, and three-quarters of a mile high. 

Rilled cannon were first successfully used by Louis 
Napoleon, in 1859, in his Italian campaign. 

The "General James" was the first introduced into 
the U. S. service, in )86i. The Parrott gun soon fol- 
lowed the James. 

Mortars in the If. S. service are divided into three 
classes, viz : Sea Coast, Siege and Goehorn, 

Among the largest mortars known are those in the 
Island of Malta. Sea coast and siege mortars are of 
cast iron. 



The Krupp breech-loading, rifled cannon were used 
by Prussia in the last war with Austria, and in the 
Franco-Prussian war in 1S70. Seven hunched and 
fifty of these guns were used at Sedan. 

The Krupp system has been adopted by nearly all 
the leading European nations, as well as by China and 
Japan. 

Twenty-inch muzzle loading rifle cannon have been 
made at Krupp's works, at Essen. Prussia, weighing 
over 1 20.000 pounds. 

Following is a list of the most noted guns and their 
weights : 

"Duile Griete." of Holland, A. D. 1430. 29,120 
pounds ; wrought iron gun, Edinborough. A. D. 1460. 
12,768 pounds ; bronze cannon of Mahommed II, 1464, 
41,888 pounds; great bronze gun of ISijapoor. India, 
1548, 89,600 pounds; great bronze gun of Moscow, 
I 1586, 86,200 pounds; Mallet's mortar, 1S57, 93.840 
pounds ; English wrought-iron muzzle loader. 48,400 
I pounds. 

The first successful machine gun was invented by 
Dr. Gatling, an American. 

The French initralleuse was the first machine gun 
I used in service in the field. 



ORDNANCE. 



577 Patents Granted by the United States. 




SackettiWilhelms Lilho Co New York 



76 






*f 






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6 









8 
CHEMICAL FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 



it* 



CHEMICAL FIRE EXTINGUISHERS. 

No. ] . Bomb Extinguisher— A. D. 1688. 

2. " " —A. D. 1693. 

3. " " —A. D. 1723. 

4. U. S. Patent, Chemical Engine— A. D. 1867. 

5. " " Portable Chemical Extinguisher — A. I). 1870. 

6. " '• Chemical Engine — A. D. 1872. 

7. •• " Chemical Engine for Oil Tanks— A. D. 1875. 

8. " " Chemical Engine for Buildings— A. D. 1881. 
y. • " Hand Grenade— A. D. 1884. 



Chemical fire extinguishers are portable apparatus 
for extinguishing fires either by ejection of water, saline 
solution, or carbonic acid gas. The vessel contains 
chemicals whose reaction when brought into contact, 
releases a gas which presses upon the surface of the 
water and ejects it at the nozzle. The chemicals may 
be contained in two chambers ; inversion of the appar- 
atus or the breaking of a bottle of acid mixes the in- 
gredients, and the chemical reaction evolves a gas which 
passes upon the water. Chemicals may be mixed in the 
water and generate the pressure which is immediately 



available when the nozzle is opened and air admitted. 
The water is saturated with gas, as in the soda-fountain. 

The receptacle has two vessels, one containing an 
acid, and the other an alkali. In some of these appar- 
atus water is ejected with carbonic acid, whilst others 
generate sufficient heat to evaporate the water. 

Chemicals used are phosphate of lime, nitrate and 
chlorate of potash, carbon, sulphur, and various other 
materials in a multitude of combinations. 

The devices refer particularly to modes of construc- 
tion, the acid and alkali chamber, and the manner of 



precipitating the former upon the latter to gain the de- 
sired result. 

Phillips, in 1 849, patented a fire extinguisher which 
had a compound of sugar and chlorate of potash, so 
placed as to receive the contents of a bottle of sulphuric 
acid which is broken by striking a plug on the top of the 
can when a fire occurs. 

There are numerous fire extinguishers. 

The most noted and in use in the United States are 
the American, National, Babcock, and the Harden Hand 
Grenade. 



CHEMICAL FIRE EXTINGUISHERS. 



250 Patents Granted by the United States. 




Sacketl & Wilhelms Liiho Co New York 







77 




FIRE ENGINES 




FIRE ENGINES. 

No. I. Primitive Water Bucket. 

2. " Fire Syringe, Buckets, &c.. 2d and 3d Centuries 

3. " " —A. D. 1568. 

4. •' Single Acting Pump— A. D. 1600. 

5. " Air Chamber Engine— A. D. 1633. 

6. " Detachable Section Hose— A, I). 1672. 

7. Hand Fire Engine— A. D. 1725. 

8. Steam " " —A. D. 1829. 
U. 8. Patent, Hand Fire. Engine— A. D. 1834. 

" Steam " « —A. D. 1868. 
" AVatcr Tower— A. D. 1860. 
Horse Power— A. D. 1882. 



The oldest known Engine is that of Herod, 150 
H. C, and from the description it might stand for the 
ordinary form of hand engine used in modern times. 
The engine had two single acting pumps worked by 
one beam by means of brakes. The streams united in 
a common discharge pipe passing up a trunk in which 
was an air chamber and out at a nozzle which was ca- 
pable of being presented in any direction. 

The Fire Brigade of Imperial Rome consisted of six 
hundred firemen, organized by Ca?sar 732 B. C 

The " Sipho " of the Romans is referred to by Pliny. 

Strabo alludes to the siphons which were kept in 
houses in preparation for accidental fires ; frequent 
references are made to this device, but its construction 
seems to be unknown. 

Appolodonus recommended a leather bag containing 
water, with hollow cones for nozzles. 

The first notice of the fire engine in modern times 
is drat-jf the Water Syringe, which was in use in 1518. 
It was mounted on wheels and worked by levers. 

The fire engines of Nuremberg were mounted on 
sleds four by ten feet, and drawn by two horses : they 
had cisterns two by eight feet deep, in which were two 
horizontal cylinders : the brakes were worked by 
twenty-eight men, and the combining streams from the 
cylinder issued at a one-inch orifice and reached the 
height of eight)' feet. 
Thomas Grant obtained an English patent in 1632. 



Van DerHeyden, of Amsterdam, is credited with 
having brought the machine in 1663 to the present 
form of hand engine. 

Leathern Hose in detachable sections was invented 
by the brothers Van DerHeyden in 1670. 

Hooks and fire ladders came into historic notice 
about 1699, although it must be assumed that they 
were long before in use. 

Fire plugs were first introduced in the streets of 
London in 17 to. 

Towards the close of the seventeenth century the 
double cylinder portable pump with air chamber was 
introduced into England by Newsham. The applica- 
tion of steam power to work fire engines was first 
attempted in 1830. The Newsham engine was im- 
proved from time to time, and was still used in London 
in 1832. 

Steam power for extinguishing fires was in use in 
manufactories many years before it was employed on 
portable machines. 

Captain Ericsson built and exhibited a portable steam 
fire engine in London about the year 1830. In 1841 
a steam fire engine was built in New York City ; its 
great weight, however, proved to be a fatal objection 
to its use. In 1842 or 1843 Capt. Ericsson produced 
an engine in New York which was tested, but not 
brought into regular service . it delivered nine thousand 



gallons of water an hour, to a height of ninety feet, 
through a seven-eighth-inch nozzle. 

The city of Cincinnati, Ohio, was the first to adopt 
steamers as a permanent portion of its fire department. 
These engines, and its system, have been copied in the 
principal cities of the world. The steamer " Citizens' 
Gift" was built in 1853. and in 1866 gave the following 
record : time of raising steam, three minutes and forty 
seconds ; size of nozzle, one and one-half inch : dis- 
tance thrown, three hundred and ten feet, measuring 
from the end of the nozzle to the place where solid 
water fell ; size of steam cylinder, ten inches bore, 
twenty-four inches stroke; pump, six inches bore, 
twenty-four inches stroke ; length of hose, one hundred 
feet ; steam, one hundred pounds to square inch ; 
pressure on water cylinder, two hundred and forty 
pounds to square inch ; speed of engine, one hundred 
and ten revolutions, two hundred and twenty strokes 
of pumps ; grate surface, sixteen feet ; heating surface, 
five hundred and sixty feet 

The Metropolitan Fire Department of New York 
City numbers thirty-four steamers, of about fifty horse 
power each. Five hundred and fifty men are employed, 
including die twelve hook and ladder companies. 

Among the best known steam fire engines of the 
present day are the Amoskeag, Silsby, Clapp & Jones, 
and Gould. 



FIRE ENGINES. 



MARINE FIRE BOATS. 

Capacity — 
Gallons Water per minute, . 
Distance Thrown, feet, . 
Size Jet, inches, .... 
Hands Employed, .... 

LAND ENGINES. 

Gallons Water per minute, . 

Distance Thrown, feet, .... 

Size Jet, inches, . . . 

Hands Employed, .... 

Three men with one pair of horses and engine, therefore, do more 
work than one hundred men by manual power. 



3,600 
260 
2 to 3 
12* 



800 

275 
II 
2 



621 Patents Granted by the United States, 



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SackeU* Wilhelms Litho Co New York 



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FIRE ESCAPES. 




FIRE ESCAPES. 

No. 1. English Hoist— A. D. 1767. 

2. " Balcony— A. D. 1791. 

3. " Lazy Tongs— A. D. 1840. 

4. U. S. Patent, Escape Ladder— A. D. 18.57 

5. " " Hoist— A. D. 1868. 

6. " " Tower— A. D. 1878. 

7. " " Hoist— A. D. 1883. 

8. " " Escape Ladder— A. D. 1884. 

9. " " Portable Friction— A I). 1884 



In 1784. Daniel Maseres, of England, invented a '• chutes, down which excited firemen are to shoot them, 
machine called a fire escape, which, being fastened to or ropes, with hooks and loops, in which persons are to 
the window, would enable anyone to descend to the J tie or hang, and lower themselves from the burning ! 
street without injury. [ buildtigs. 

Fire escapes have been constructed of many forms, ; There are portable ladders, to be carried in trunks 
and of every possible material, from iron ladders at- { and satchels ; nets fastened upon poles, to be hoisted 
tached to windows, down the heated rungs of which I up to windows, and others for persons to jump into. 
frightened women are expected to escape, to canvas I Some of these may be useful, and in many instances 



i accomplish great good, but it rarely happens that an) 
' one in the upper stories of a high building, with a fire 
surging beneath, is collected enough to follow the in- 
I structions which make these fire escapes of value. 
The future and most sensible fire escape will be at- 
tained when laws are enacted which will provide two or 
more fire proof stairways in every large building where 
there are many people congregated. 



FIRE ESCAPES, 



1,099 Patents Granted by the United States. 




Sackelti Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 




BEDSTEADS. 



BEDSTEADS. 



So, 1 . Primitive 

2. Queen Anne. 

3. English— A. D. 1772. 

4. Wardrobe. 

5. U S. Patent, Sola Bedstead.— A. D. 1831. 




a. D. isiso. 

Combined Desk .'mil Bedstead— A. U ]w7l. 
Bed Lounge— A. D. 1872. 
Cabinet Bedateuil— A. D. 1874. 
Wardrobe » A I). 1876. 

—A. I>. 1882. 
etteo— A. D. 1883. 



Bedsteads were common in Egypt, and among the 
later Greeks. 

They were only used by the wealthy classes ; many 
ornate bedsteads arc represented in the tombs at va- 
rious points along the Nile. 

The iron bedstead of King Og, of Bashan, who is said 
to have lived before the flood, was nine cubits long and 
four broad. 

The bedsteads of the Greeks ted four rails, legs, 
straps to support the mattress, a head board, and some- 
times a footboard. 

They were made of solid maple or boxwood ; some- 
times veneered with costlier wood, tortoise-shell or 
ivory, and sometimes had ornamental feet of silver. 
The mattress was of linen, woollen cloth, or leather, 
stuffed with straw or wool. Round and square pillows 
were used, and the covering consisted of soft woollen 
blankets and sheets. 



The sleeping arrangements of the wealthy Greeks 
seem to have been good, but the Asiatics said " the 
Greeks do not know how to make a comfortable bed." 

The Roman bedsteads were costly and beautiful. 
The wear;' climbed on them by stepladders, on the open 
side, the other side being closed by a sideboard. The 
beds were stuffed with wool or feathers, and had 
canopies, but no mention is made of curtains or test- 
ers. 

The famous ancient bedstead of Ware, alluded to by 
Shakespeare, is still in existence. It is twelve feet 
square and was probably constructed A. D. 1500. 

Many innovations and improvements have been made 
on the old-fashioned four-post bedstead which was pro- 
vided widi four high posts and tester, forming, with the 
curtains around it. a complete canopy by which the 
sleeper, if so disposed, could be fully protected against 
fresh air. It was formerly the praclice'to make the bed- 



bottom of coarse canvas having eyelet-holes along its 
edges, through which cord was passed, and thence over 
pins in the side, top and bottom rails, which supported 
the bed-bottom. This arrangement admitted of lacing 
the canvas as tightly as desired. 

Various arrangements of slats and springs have su- 
perseded the old style and many improvements have 
been made in the manner of putting the posts together, 
so that the bedstead can beset up and taken down with 
great rapidity. 

Invalid bedsteads are made with rising sections, so 
as to bring the body to a reclining or sitting posture. 

Wardrobe, sofa, trunk, table and piano bedsteads are 
modes of concealing beds when not occupied, and also 
combine, with the bedstead, die other article of furniture 
which gives each its distinctive name. 

Amongst the latest inventions is the hydrostatic, or 
water bed, used for medical purposes. 



FURNITURE, 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions 
Wages Paid, 



5,227 Manufactories in the United States. 

1.100 1SSO 

$13,629,526.00 $44,946,128.00 

2.5,632,293.00 77,845,726.00 

8,909,998.00 23,695,080.00 



Hands Employed. 



27,106 



59,304 



etTB CLASS. 

BEDSTEADS. 

3,345 Patents Granted by the United States, 







Sackelt&WilhelmsLithoCo New York 






/ 







CHAIRS AND STOOLS. 




CHAIRS AND STOOLS. 

No. 1. Primitive Scat. 
2. " Stool. 

3. 

4. " Chair. 

5. Egyptian Stool. 

6. " Chair. 

7. Cr.ude Rocker. 

8. U. S, Patent, Rocker— A. D. 1840. 

9. " " Opera Chair— A. D. 1865. 
10. " " Rocker— A. D. 1868. 

11. — A. D. 1884. 

12. " " Folding Seat— A. D 1884. 



The Egyptians were among the first to make chairs. 
On the tombs at Thebes are found representations of al- 
most all the kinds of chairs which modern ingenuity has 
devised. Thrones, couches, sociables, folding, reclining, 
lazy back, leather seated, cane seated, split bottomed 
chairs, with curved backs, sides and legs with claw feet 
and foot pads, and upholstered with gorgeous coverings. 

The Egyptians, being an Asiatic race, it is presum- 
able from the squatting posture in their paintings and 
bas reliefs, that the introduction of the chair came in 
the progress of refinement. The Egyptian chairs and 
stools were from loj to 28 inches high. 



Alexander gave a feast to 6,000 of his captains, and 
made them sit in chairs and couches of silver with pur- 
ple covers. 

Although chairs were not unknown to the Greeks 
and Romans, yet they seldom used them except on 
state occasions. 

The curule chair was made of or adorned with ivory, 
and was introduced into Rome by Tarquin, from Vit- 
erbo, in Etruria. Two of them, made in the shape of 
our portable folding chairs, were discovered at Hercu- 
laneum. 

The Anglo Saxons had rich curule chairs of state, 



similar to the Romans, and wooden and rush bottom 
chairs were common with them. 

The sedan chair was first made use of by the Duke 
of Buckingham, in the reign of James I, to the great 
indignation of the people, who exclaimed that "he was 
employing his fellow creatures to do the work of 
beasts." A license for letting them out was granted 
Sir Saunders Duncomb, in 1634. 

Modern chairs are classified under the following 
heads : Barber's, convertible, dentist's, folding, invalid, 
nursery, opera, oscillating, reclining, revolving, rock- 
ing, step ladder, surgical, and tilting. 



CHAIRS AND STOOLS. 

384 Chair Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 



isso 

*6,276 ( 364.00 

9,807,823.00 

3.311,286.00 



Hands Employed, 



10,575 



2,596 Patents Granted by the United States 




SackeU&Wilheims Litho Co New York 






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81 



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CORK EXTRACTORS 



CORK EXTRACTORS. 





No. 1. Primitive Hand. 

2. " Teeth. 

3. " Nail. 

4. " Double Fork. 

5. Cork Screw. 

6. " " Brush Attachment. 

7. U. S. Patent, Cork Screw— A. D. 1867. 

8. " " Cork Extractor and Cutter— A. I). 1867. 
" Cork Extractor— A. D. 1882. 



The corkscrew was unknown to our forefathers two 
hundred years ago. 

Various methods of extracting corks were resorted 
to in olden times, such as winding a cloth or handker- 
chief tightly around the cork, and with a peculiar jerk 
pulling the stopper out of the bottle ; breaking the 
neck of the bottle was a common practice, and many 
persons became very expert in removing corks with 
the teeth. 

The earliest mention of the corkscrew is in an amus- 



ing poem entitled " 1%e Tale of the Bottle Screw," in 
a collection of poems by Nicholas Amhurst, published 
in 1723. Bacchus is described in the poem, and among 
other things, it is said of him : 

" This hand a corkscrew did contain, 
And that a bottle of champagne." 

Yet at that time "bottle screw" appears to have 
been the common name of this useful article, for the 
poet concludes his taie with the following lines : 



" By me shall Birmingham become 
In future days more famed than Rome ; 
Shall owe to me her reputation, 
And serve with bottle screws the nation." 

The modern corkscrew came into use about the be- 
ginning of the last century, and was for many years 
called a " bottle screw." 

Corkscrews, like corks, are to be found, in some 
shape or other, in all parts of the Civilized world. 



CORK EXTRACTORS. 



116 Patents Granted by the United States. 




SackeU&Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 



; '---•.'. 






j 





m,. 





IRONING. 

So, 1, Flat Iron. 

2. U. S. Patent, Sad Iron— A. D. 1832. 

3. " " Smoothing Iron — A. D. 1873. 
" " Ironing Machine— A. D. 1878. 
' " — A. D. 1879. 

" — A. D. 1882. 
" " Cuff and Collar Ironor— A. D. 1882. 
•' " Smoothing and Fluting Iron— A. D. 1882. 
" " Ironing Machine — A. D. 1884. 



A wooden tool of the same shape as the common 
flat iron has been discovered in Thebes. It was used 
for smoothing and pressing cloth, and is about six 
inches in length, and made of very hard wood. 

The ordinary flat iron, heated before a fire, or on a 
stove, with which the laundry maid, by muscular force, 
ironed out clothing, has become almost a thing of the 
past. Even where the iron is now used, it is generally 
heated either by a flexible tube from the gas jet, or by 



IRONING 



a fire inside of the iron itself. Even the mangle has 
given place to improved ironing machines, some heated 
by steam, which iron with equal facility the most 
delicate piece of lace or the coarsest fabric worn, whilst 
the fluting attachment does away with the fluting scis- 
sors and the deft fingers which used them. 

In the latest improved devices, the article which re- 
quires washing, no matter how elaborate its make-up, 
is simply passed through a series of machines and 



comes out washed, starched, fluted, ironed and polished. 

The first steam laundry in the United States was 
started in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1853. Several, 
located in New York city, employ from- 100 to 150 
hands each. 

The Empire laundry turns out more than 100,000 
pieces per month. It is said that from ten to twenty 
thousand persons are employed in New York city alone 
in laundry work. 



IRONING, 

Capacity — 

Doz. Cuffs or Collars per day, 
Hands employed per day, 



■Mi. 

GO 600 

2 2 



551 Patents Granted by the United States. 




SackettiWilhelms Lilho Co New York 




SCHOOL FURNITURE, 



SCHOOL FURNITURE. 




No. 1. Primitive Bench. 

2. " Desk and Bench. 

3. " Seat and Desk. 

4. U. S. Patent, Adjustable- Seat^-A. D. 1859. 
" Combined Seat and Desk — A. D. 1868. 
" Folding Desk and Seat— A. D. 1869. 
" " '■ —A. D. 1869. 
" Combined Desk and Seat^-A. D. 1883. 
" Folding Desk and 8eatr-A. D. 1884. 



Desks, resembling those now in common use, have 
been discovered at Herculaneum, though the ancients 
usually wrote upon the knee, as is still customary in 
Asia and Africa. 

Plato taught his scholars upon the Acropolis, in a 
grove of palm trees, standing himself, whilst the pupils 
stood, reclined upon the earth, or leaned against the 
numerous statues which adorned the grove and were 
the only "furniture" of this, the most magnificent 
school house either of ancient or modern times. 

Fixed stone seats were provided in some of the 



ancient school houses. Then came movable wooden 
benches. 

The Egyptian, who was taught to write on papyrus, 
was stretched prone upon the earthen or stone floor, 
resting upon his left arm or elbow, with the roll of 
papyrus also upon the floor within reach of his hand. 

The Roman scholar, who learned to write upon 
parchment, reclined upon a bench, whilst the Hebrew 
sat up, with a table before him. 

At the revival of literature, as light began to dawn 
from the night of the dark ages, schools were estab- 



lished where seats and tables were given to the pupils. 

Seats and tables, or more latterly desks, are still the 
only form of school furniture. Modern times have re- 
quired that these seats and desks should combine, as 
far as practicable, an easy and comfortable seat for the 
scholar, as great economy of space as is practicable, 
and durability. 

The most common form is the seat composed of an 
iron frame and wooden seat, with a desk attached to 
the back, for the use of the scholars in the next rear 
row, with desk and seat both arranged to fold. 



SCHOOL FURNITURE. 



2,257 Manufactories In the United States. 



1880 1880 

Capital Invested, - $13,629,526.00 $44,946,128.00 

Value of Productions, - 25,632,293.00 77,845,725.00 

Wages Paid, - . 8,909,998.00 23,695,080.00 



Hands Employed. - - . 27,106 

271 Patents Granted by the United States, 



59,304 




Sacketl&Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 



nmmmmmm 






f 




WASHING MACHINES. 



WASHING MACHlHES. 




No. 1. Primitive Indian Dhobees. 

2. Colonial. 

3. Hand. 

4. U. S. Patent, Vertical Rubber— A. D. 1869. 
Boiler— A. ». 1874. 
Vertical Pounder— A. D. 1878. 
Rotary Steam— A. 1). 1880. 
Oscillating Rubber— A. D. 1882. 
Rotary " —A. D. 1883. 
Vertical " —A. D. 1883. 
Inclined " —A. D. 1883. 
Vertical Pounder— A. D. 1884. 



a a 



Clothes were formerly washed by rubbing or stamp- 
ing upon them in water, or beating them against rough 
bodies. 

The following modes of washing by machinery are 
embraced in the modern machine : 

ist, Churning: the clothes are beaten by a pounder 
in a tub. ad, the Dash Wheel. 3d, Sluicing, the hot 
water being driven through the clothes. 4'h. Centrif- 



ugal.. 5th, Twisting. 6th, Squeezing. 7th, Rolling. 
8»h, Rubbing. 9th, Rocking. 

Millions of washboards are made and sold in the 
United States every year, and at least 7, 200,000 are 
sold yearly. 

There are two factories in Cleveland which turn out 
200 dozen washboards a day, and one in Toledo which 
turns out over a million a year. 



There are at least twenty different varieties of wash- 
boards, and the best are made in the West. 

The Eastern factories make their washboards of 
pine. 

The best wood for washboards is cotton wood or syc- 
amore ; pine is loo soft, and white pine is too expensive. 
The best are made with dovetailed heads, with wire 
nails driven across the grain of the wood. 



WASHING MACHINES, 

81 Manufactories In tho United Stales. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, - 

Hands Employed, 

Capacity — 

Shirts per day, 

Hands employed per day, 

2,458 Patents Granted by the United States. 



IKOO 18SO 

134,700.00 J6S2.549.00 

87,565.00 1,182,714.1X1 

29,124.00 176,287.00 



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HYDRAULIC MOTORS. 



HYDRAULIC MOTORS. 




No. 1. Undershot Water Wheel. 

2. Breast Water Wheel. 

3. Overshot Water Wheel. 

4. Barker's Mill. 

5. C. S. Patent, Overshot Water Wheel— A. D. 1831. 



Turbine 



—A. D. 1856. 
—A. D. 1864. 
—A. D. 1884. 



The current wheel is perhaps the first application of 
the force of water in motion in driving machinery. 

The Horia or water wheel has been in use for thou- 
sands of years in Egypt, Persia, Arabia and Syria, and 
was introduced by the Romans or Saracens into Spain. 
Hundreds of these wheels are working day and night 
the year round in the rivers and streams of Syria and 
Palestine. 

In the first century B. C. water wheels for driving 
mills were used in Asia Minor. They were used on 
the Tiber on a large scale by Belisarius during the siege 
of Rome, when the supply by the aqueduct was cut 



off by the Goth Vitiger, in the reign of Justinian, 
A. D. 536. 

The tide and current wheels erected first in the 
vicinity of the north end of London Bridge, and sub- 
sequently under its northern arch, were erected by 
Peter Morice, a Dutchman, in 1582, and operated force 
pumps, which supplied a part of London with water. 

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the 
works were extended from time to time and occupied 
one after another of the arches. 

The first practical turbine water wheel was invented 
by Fourneyron, of France, in 1834. The turbine was 
introduced into general use in France in 1827, and 



soon after by Fairbairn in England, and by Boyden in 
the United States. 

At the Boyden nail works. Troy, N. Y., the under- 
shot wheel furnishing the power required is sixty feet 
in diameter and twenty-two feet in breadth. 

The largest water wheel in the world is probably one 
employed in the working of a lead and silver mine in 
the Isle of Man. 'fTi' s is an overshot wheel seventy- 
two feet six inches in diameter, six feet in breadth, 
with a crank stroke of ten feet. It is estimated to give 
two hundred horsepower, and pumps two hundred 
gallons of water a minute, four hundred yards high. 



HYDRAULIC MOTORS. 



1,346 Patents Granted by the United States. 




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BREAD AND CRACKER MACHINES, 



BREAD AND CRACKER MACHINES. 

No. 1. Primitive Bread Making, Hand. 
2. U. S. Patent, Cracker— A. D. 1826. 



BREAD AND CRACKER MACHINES. 




3. •' 


• —A. D. 1841. 


4. •• 


' " —A. D. 1844. 


5. " 


" —A. D. 1848. 


6. •' 


Bread Machine— A D. 1848. 


7. " 


Cracker Machine— A. D. 1869 


8. •• 


Cake Machine — A. D. 1869. 


9. " 


Bretfwl Machine — A. D. 1883. 



Bread making is mentioned both in the Old and New 
Testaments ; this duty was performed by the mistress 
of the house. 

The Israelites ate leavened bread, except on special 
occasions. 

The Arabs baked pastry, bread on pans or griddles, 
and called it fritters, as at the present time. 

The Egyptians, like English bakers, kneaded bread with 
their feet; this practice is probably more general among 
the bakers of this country-than we would like to know. 

Ching-Noung first taught the art of making bread 
from wheat, and wine from rice, 1998 B. C. A few 
years subsequently, 191 3 B. C, Melchisedeck brought 
out wine and bread to Abraham, and blessed him. 

A few years'iater Abraham gave strangers bread to 
stay their hunger, while his wife prepared hot cakes 
made of fine meal, which were served with butter. 

The Hebrews baked bread on the hearth ; the cakes 
were flat. 



In the time of Pliny bread was made from a variety 
of grains, wheat being held in the highest estimation. 
The wheat of Italy ranked first in whiteness and weight ; 
that of Sicily stood third. 

The Romans leavened their bread with a preparation 
known as salt rising, instead of yeast. The Roman 
leaven is described as '' being made from millet mixed 
with grape juice, which will keep a year." 

Wheat bran was also used. This kind of leaven could 
only be made during the vintage : they made another 
kind of barley and water which could be prepared at 
any time. This was made into cakes of two pounds, 
which were baked until they became of a reddish-brown 
color, when they were put in close vessels and allowed 
to sour ; when wanted they were steeped in water. 

In the maritime districts the flour was mixed with salt 
water to economize salt. 

In one kind of bread Pliny says, " they used a kind 
of chalk found in the hills between Naples and Puteoli, 



for imparting whiteness and crispness." There were 
no professional bakers in Rome until after the war with 
King Perseus, more than five hundred years after the 
city was built. The occupation originally belonged to 
women. Boaz said unto Ruth. " Eat of thy bread, and 
dip thy morsel in the vinegar." Vinegar was a regular 
ration issued to the Roman soldiery to dip their bread 
into. 

After the conquest of Macedon, 148 B. C, Greek 
bakers came to Rome and monopolized the business. 
English bakers made bread with yeast in 1634. It was 
first made by machinery in England in 1858. 

Aerated bread was made in the United States prior 
to 1859. 

The bread making machine of Dauglish is mentioned 
favorably. 

The largest sets of cracker machinery with oven of 
the present time will bake from 50 to 70 barrels of flour 
into crackers in 10 hours. 



isso 

$10.1. r >5,286.00 

65,824.896.00 

9,411,328,01) 



6,396 Bread and Cracker Manufactories In the United States. 

18<I0 

Capital Invested, . 13.909, 189.00 
Value of Productions, 16,980.012.00 
Wages Paid, . . 2,086,148.00 
Hands Employed 6,514 

BREAD MACHINES. 

Capacity — 

Bbls. Flour Baked per day, 
Hands Employed per day, 

CRACKER MACHINES. 

Capacity — ' 

Bbls. Elour Baked per day, . 
Hands Employed per day, 

372 PatBnts Granted by the United Stales 



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BRICK MACHINES. 



BRICK MACHINES. 






No. 1. Primitive Egyptian, 

2. U. S. Patent, Screw— A. D. 1841. 

3. " •' \ Rotary— A. D. 1868. 

4. " " " —A. D. 1883. 

5. " " Screw and Plant— A. D. 1883. 



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Bricks are first noticed in the building of the tower 
of Babel: "And they said one to another, go to, let us 
make brick, and burn them thoroughly. And they had 
brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar." (Gen. 

xi. 3-) 

Travelers on the Euphrates furnished accounts of the 
mounds of brick at the supposed site of Babylon. 

The buried palaces of Nebuchadnezzer have for a 
long time furnished the brick for buildings erected in 
that section, there being scarcely a house in Hillah 
which is not built with them. His name was stamped 
on each brick used during his reign. Although these 
colossal structures fell to ruins, the materials remained, 
and were used to build later cities. In the walls of the 
modern city of Bagdad traces of that royal signature 
are to be found. 

The Roman brick makers had their special marks. 
Roman bricks have been found in England. 

Egyptian bricks were of the following proportions : 
Thothmes III, length 12 inches, width 9 inches, thick- 
ness 6* inches, weight 37,™ lbs. One in British 
Museum, length 11.3 inches, width 5.8 inches, thick- 
ness 63 inches, weight 13^ lbs. One from the Pyra- 
mids, length 17 inches, width 8.8 inches, thickness 3.8 
inches, weight 48,° lbs. 



Enameled bricks, brightly colored, are abundant in 
the mounds in Mesopotamia. 

The mud of the Nile is die only material used in 
Egypt, and the modern process of making is the same 
as the ancient. Brick making in Egypt was a royal 
monopoly. 

Strabo mentions brick made of earth so light that 
they floated in water. 

The Romans used large, thin bricks. 

Chinese potters work up the clay provided by 
their fathers, and lay up a store to ripen for their 
children. 

Brick making in Greece was placed under legal 
supervision. 

The Palaces of Crcesus, 548 B. C. j Mausolus, 325 
B. C. ; the Bath of Titus, A. D. 70 ; and the Pillar of 
Trojan, A. D. 98, were of brick. 

The conquerors of Peru found brick making in a 
flourishing condition in the Empire of the Incas, and 
also in the more northerly countries of Yucatan and 
Mexico. 

Bricks were made in England by the Romans, 
and under the direction of Alfred the Great, in A. D. 
886. 

The first bricks in the colonies were made in 1612. 



The earliest brick kiln in New England was erected 
in 1629, at Salem, Mass. 

The account books of the Patroon Van Renselear, 
i show that yellow bricks, die product of the colony, sold 
for fifteen florins per thousand, between 1630 and 
1646. 

The Massachusetts Court, in 1667, appointed a com- 
mittee to frame a law to regulate the size and manu- 
facture of bricks. 

William Penn's instructions to his agents, in 1684, 
were to build principally of bricks, for which end he 
sent a person qualified to make them. 

The first United States patent for brick machines was 
granted George Hadfield, in 1800. 

The manufacture by machinery was successfully 
commenced in the United States in 1829. Machine- 
made brick within the last ten years have taken the 
place of hand-made. 

A brick machine, operated by twenty horse power, 
turns out twenty-five thousand bricks per day, and 
another makes fifty thousand every ten hours. 

The finest pressed brick are made by machinery. 
Most of the Government buildings in the United States, 
which have been erected withi.i the past few years, are 
faced with machine-made pressed brick. 



BRICK MACHINES. 



5,631 Manufactories of Briok and Tilo in the United State*. 



Common Brick. 
3,822,362,000 



Mnituractiirctl In iK.sn. 
Fire Brlok. 
163,184,000 



Capital Invested, 

Value of Productions, 

Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, 

Capacity — 

Number Bricks per day, 
Hands Employed per day, 



1,102 Patents Granted by the United States 




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BOTTLING AND FILLING. 

No. 1. Primitive Bottle Filler. 
2. 

3. Ancient Corking Machine. 

4. 

5. U. S. Patent, Corker and Filler— A. D. 1856. 

3. " " " " —A. D. 1862. 

7. •' " " '< —A. D. 1883. 










BOTTLING AND FILLING. 



The bottles mentioned in the Bible were made of the 
skins of animals, and such vessels are still used for 
carrying water in Asia and Africa. 

The Egyptians made their bottles of leather. 

In Spain, wine bottles made of goat skins are used 
at the present time. 

The glass used in the manufacture of bottles is of a 
coarse quality. 



The siphon filling apparatus is for filling siphon bot- 
tles with aerated liquids. 

Liquors are now bottled by machinery. 

For ordinary bottling the machine is very simple ; 
the bottle stands in a metallic cylinder, an inverted 
funnel depressed by a spring; the liquor is first 
introduced through a funnel, the cork then inserted 



in the vertical tube of the funnel, and driven 
through it into the bottle. A closed apparatus 
is used for charging bottles with liquor under pres- 
sure, such as those which contain carbonic acid 
gas, &c. 

It is estimated that France uses annually over 
60,000,000 bottles for wine alone. 



SODA AND MINERAL WATER. 



512 Manufactories in the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, 



I860 

$585,860.00 

1,415,420.00 

241,292.00 

727 



1880 

$2,569,561.00 
4,741,709.00 
1,065,633.00 

2,726 



STTB CLASS. 

BOTTLING AND FILLING. 

Capacity — P 

Dozens per day, 
Hands Employed per day, 

183 Patents Granted by the United States, 



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COAL GAS MANUFACTURE. 



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COAL GAS MANUFACTURE. 

No. 1. Primitive Gas Generator — A. D. 1805. 

2. U. 8. Patent, Gas Generator— A. D. 1813. 

3. Gas Works— A. D. 1816. 

4. U. 8. Patent, Regenerator Gas Retort Bench— A. D. 1882. 
6. Complete Gas Works— A. D. 1884. 





Lord Dundonalcl, of Scotland, took out a patent in 
1 787 for making coal gas. He also obtained a quan- 
tity of coal gas which was burnt in Culcross Abbey, 
and was considered a great curiosity. 

The first street lighted with gas was Pall Mall, Lon- 
don, in the spring of 1807, and the first gas company 
established was chartered. Its title was originally in- 
tended to have been "The Grand National Light and 
Heat Company for Lighting and Heating the Whole 
Kingdom." Its originator was Mr. Winsor, who wit- 
nessed his sublime scheme dwindle to the more simple 
and practical plan of lighting the cities of London 
and Westminster and the borough of Southwark. 
Mr. Winsor is generally supposed to have been the 
original inventor of gas ; but the engineer, who also 
invented the first plan of a steam locomotive engine, 
Mr. William Murdock, a Scotchman, preceded every- 
body else in the application of coal gas to illumina- 
tion. 

In 1 792 he began experiments and found that when 
coal was heated in an iron retort an inflammable gas 



was given off, and with this gas he lighted his resi- 
dence. 

In 1809 Mr. Murdock was examined by a Parlia- 
mentary committee, when a member asked the ques- 
tion : "Do you mean to tell us that it will be possible 
to have a light without a wick ?" " Yes, I do, indeed," 
said Mr. Murdock. "Ah! my friend," said the legis- 
lator, "you are trying to prove too much." This is 
about a fair specimen of the fate of the men who have 
introduced light into this prejudiced world. 

Gas was introduced in the United States at Balti- 
more, Md., in 1821, at Boston in 1822, and in New 
York in 1827. 

The best coal for gas manufacture is Boghead, Par- 
rot and Cannel. 

The following different volumes of gas have been 
obtained from various kinds of coal : Cannel coal, 
15,000 cubic feet; Wigan cannel, 15,426; Boghead 
cannel, 13,334; Cape Breton, "Cow Bay," etc., 9,500; 
Pictou and Sydney, 8,000; English mean, 11,000; 
Newcastle, from 9,500 to 10,000; Pittsburgh, 9,520: 



Scotch, from 10,300 to 15,000; Wallsend, 12,000; 
Virginia, 8,960; Western, 9,500. Pine wood will 
evolve 11,000 cubic feet per ton; resin, 15,600; oil 
and grease, 23,000 cubic feet. 

Each retort should produce about 600 cubic feet of 
gas in 5 hours, with a charge of 1 4 cwt of coal, or 
2,800 cubic feet in 24 hours. One ton of coal should 
produce about 9,000 cubic feet of gas, 1 chaldron of 
coke, and about 1 1 gallons of tar, and 9 ammoniacal 
liquor. 

Dry purifiers require 1 bushel of lime to 10,000 
cubic feet of gas; and wet purifiers an admixture of 
water 48 bushels and lime 1 bushel for each 10,000 
cubic feet of gas. 

One per cent, of carbonic acid in gas diminishes its 
illuminating power one-tenth. 

Defective burners should be changed without delay, 
as all smoking, roaring, irregular, ragged and pronged 
flames cause a great waste of gas with deficient light. 

A smoky flame indicates loss of gas as well as loss of 
light. 



COAL GAS MANUFACTURE. 

Capacity — mjhWm ?<*•»! 

Cubic Feet per day, . 10,000 30,000 

Per cent, of Fuel Saved in Heating, . .30 

1,892 Patents Granted by the United States, 



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FISHING. 

No. 1. U. S. Patent, Harpoon— A. D. 1862. 

'• Fish way— A. I). 1866. 

", Hatcher— A. D. 1867. 

" Oyster Nursery— A. D. 1872. 

" Automatic Reel — A. D. 1878. 

» Fishway— A. I). 1879. 

" Current Wheel— A. D. 1881. 

" Oyster Dredge— A. D. 1883. 



Among the ancients, fisheries were carried on exten- 
sively, ^and formed a valuable branch of industry. 

The favorite fish of the Romans was caught in great 
abundance in the sea around Sicily. 

The fisheries of Egypt were celebrated, but were 'rill 
inland in 'lakes, canals, and the River Nile. The rev- 
•enues arising from the fisheries of Lake Moeris Svere 
•givcin to the 'Queen of Egypt for pin nrtone^, and are 
said "tb'have amounted to #470,000 anHtially. 

The earliest -mention of the 'herring fishery dates 
from A. ID. 709. 

The disc6very l ih'the ; 'fiftWnm'century of Newfound- 
land and its fisheries gave the greatest impulse to the 
business. 



FISHING. 



The "French Were the first Europeans who engaged 
in the American cod fishery. The first English voy- 
agers 'in '^uest of fish came to America in 1517. 

At the beginning of the seventeendi century it is 
estimated that two hundred English ships went annu- 
ally to Newfoundland, and that they employed not less 
than ten thousand men and boys in catching and cur- 
ing fish. 

Capt. John Smith, in 1614, on the coast of Maine, 
took and dried, or pickled, forty-seven thousand fish, 
the profits from which, and from the furs he bought of 
the Indians, amounted to seven thousand dollars. 

In 1670 the profits of the fisheries of Cape Cod, 
Mass., were granted to found a free school. 



FISHING. 

Statistics of the Fisheries in the United States In 1880. 



In 1852 serious troubles broke out on the fishing 
grounds between American fishermen and the British 
authorities ; in :8"54 a reciprocity treaty was agreed 
upon. 

The Egyptians 'Use fish skins for soles of shoes, and 
the inhabitants of the eastern coast of Central Asia 
clothe themselves with the canned skin of the salmon. 
The skins of sharks and allied fishes are largely em- 
ployed, under various trade names, for polishing woods 
and for coverings for boxes, cases, &c. 

The census of 1880 shows that one hundred and 
thirty-one thousand four hundred and twenty-six men 
were employed in the fisheries of the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 

Hands Employed, 



1880 

$37,955,349.00 
43,046,053.00 

131,426 



Number, 
Tonnage, 
Value, 

Number, 
Value, 



Vessels Employed. 



Bouts Kni|»IO)'e<l. 



412 Patents Granted by the United States 




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GLASS MAKING. 



GLASS MAKING. 

I. Primitive Egyptian Glass Blowers. 

. 2. Glass Furnace, 17th Century. 

3. Put Furnace. 

4. French Bottle Making— A. I). 1876. 

5. U. S. Patent, Regenerator Furnace— A. D. 1872. 

(5. " " Machinery for Handling "Blow Pirws — A- H. J880. 

7. " " Oval Tank Furnace— A. D. 1880. 

8. " " Blowing Bottles into Molds— A. 1). 1883. 

9. " •' Continuous Furnace — A. D. 1884. 




The earliest accounts of glass-making attribute its 
manufacture to the inhabitants of Tyre and Sidon. 

Glass-making appears to have been known in Egypt 
before the year 1800 B. C. 

The Egyptians were not only acquainted with glass- 
making, but knew how to stain it of various colors. 

The art of depriving it entirely of color and render- 
ing it as transparent as crystal was a subsequent im- 
provement. 

Glass was introduced into India by the Europeans, 
and it is said that the Chinese to this day are only able to 
make glass vessels out of broken glass made in Europe. 

In the third century articles of glass were in common 
Use. 

The first positive allusion to the use of glass in win- 
dows was made by Lactantius near the close of the 
third century. 

The Venetians were the first Europeans who excelled 
in the manufacture of glass. 

One Benault brought the art into England. 

In the year 1567 the glass casements of Alnwick 
Castle were only put in when the proprietor visited the 
place, and were taken out and put aside for safety when 
he was absent 

In Scotland as late as 1661 the windows of ordinary 
houses were not glazed, and only the King's palaces 
could boast of this advantage. 

There are four kinds of glass in common use, flint, 
window, plate, and bottle, or common green. 



Mirrors of glass were, first manufactured by the 
Venetians. 

Colored glass is perhaps as ancient as the material. 
Egyptian mummies are found decorated with colored 
glass beads, which must be three thousand years old. 

Plate glass was made by Venetian artists in 1673. 

The British Plate Glass Co. was established in 177.?. 

James Chase perfected the process of grinding and 
polishing sheet glass. 

Glass cutting was invented at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century by Casper Lehman. 

One of the first attempts at manufacturing, within 
the limits of the thirteen original colonies, was the 
production of glass. 

The vessel which brought Captain Newport to the 
colony of Virginia on his second voyage in 1608, also 
brought eight Poles and Germans to make pitch, tar, 
glass, etc. 

Between the arrival of Captain Newport and the 
return of his vessel in 1608 or 1609, some glass was 
made, and part of the return cargo, the first that con- 
veyed any exports of manufactures from what is now 
the United States of America, was the trials of glass 
thus made. 

The house in which the glass was manufactured 
stood in the woods about a mile from Jai lestown, Va., 
and it is supposed clear glass bottles only were made. 
The next account of glass works in Virginia is of one 
in existence in 1 787. at Alexandria. 



In 1796 preliminary steps were taken toward the 
erection of a glass house at Pittsburgh, Pa. 

The firs! attempt to manufacture flint glass, west of 
the Alleghanies, was made in Craig & O'Hara's window 
glass furnace in September, 1800, at Pittsburgh, Pa. 

In 1808 Mr. Thomas Bakewell and Mr. Page pur- 
chased the works of Robinson and Ersell, of Pittsburgh, 
Pa., and to Mr. Bakewell is accorded the honor of 
erecting and operating the first successful flint glass 
house in the United States. 

About 1853 the first plate glass manufactory in the 
United States was established in Cheshire, Berkshire 
Co., Mass. 

At the Paris Exposition, in 1878, a bonnet was ex- 
hibited made entirely of glass, as well as cloaks and 
other articles of apparel. 

The chief establishments for the manufacture of flint 
glass in the United States are at Pittsburgh, Pa.. Sand- 
wich, Mass., and Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Pittsburgh has 72 glass factories; 22 are devoted 
exclusively to the manufacture of window glass, the 
remaining 50 to bottle glass, table ware, lamp chim- 
neys, etc. 

The work of the best of the window glass factories 
in the United States, is considered equal to any foreign 
product. 

Fully 5,000 persons are engaged in this branch of 
the glass industry, and the annual product is not less 
than Soo.ooo fifty-foot boxes a year. 



GLASS MAKING. 



211 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested. 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, 



*6, 133,066.00 $19,844,699.00 

8,775,155.00 21,154,571.00 

2,903,832.00 9,144,100.00 

9,016 24,177 



950 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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ICE MACHINES. 



ICE MACHINES. 



No. 1. U. S. Patent, Compressed Air— A. D. 1851. 

2. " " Ammonia — A. I). 1865. 

3. " " Liquefied Ammonia — A. D. 186». 

4. " '• Compound Liquid — A. D. 1881. 
5- " " " " —A. D, 1881. 
6. " " Ammonia Plant— A. D. 1882, 




In the book of l J roverbs we read "As the cold of 
snow in the time of the harvest, so is a faithful messen- 
ger to those who send him, for he refreshes the soul." 

The ancient Greeks and Romans were accustomed 
to cool their liquors by means of ice. or snow. 

The ancients had a method of cooling water by first j 
boiling it, and then placing it in porous vessels in the ! 
air, the outsides of which were kept continually wet j 

The use of saltpetre for cooling liquids was known | 
and practiced at a remote period in India. 

Freezing water by a mixture of snow and saltpetre I 
is mentioned by Tancrelus in 1607. 

Santono, in 1626, speaks of freezing wine by a mix- , 
ture of snow and common salt. 






Champrer, the physician of/Francis I, mentions the 
injurious custom of the Spaniards of putting ice and 
snow in their liquors. 

Iced fruits were brought to the table in Italy in the 
beginning of the 17th century. Soon after, the art of 
congealing cream wj s discovered. 

The natives of Ir,dia have a method of producing ice 
by exposing shallow, porous vessels laid on straw to the 
night air, which j d [ ves a small crust of ice : that is taken 
away and carefully deposited in a pit lined with straw, 
before sunrise. 

An artificial m ode of making ice, by a mixture of 
saltpeter and snow, is mentioned by Lord Bacon. 

A method of producing ice by extracting the air from 



the water, by means of an air pump, was discovered 
about 1825. 

Ice is now made in large quantities either by evapo- 
ration or sudden reduction of temperature. 

Carre's machines were all based on the principle of 
vaporization. 

Most of the present American, English and German 
machines are upon the principle of reduction of pres- 
sure. 

By the use of ice making machines, ice can now be 
furnished to the inhabitants of hot climates, where ice 
was previously unknown. Machine made ice has the 
same valuable qualities of lake or brook ice, so that it 
can be used for drinking and other purposes. 



ICE MACHINES. 

35 Manufactories in the United States. 



1SGO 

None. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hand9 Employed, 



axrs class. 

ICE MACHINES. 

Capacity — 

Tons Ice Manufactured per day, 
Hands employed per day, 



isso 

$1,251,200.00 
544,763 00 
140,885.00 

447 




300 Patents Granted by the United States. 






SackeliiWilhelms Laho Co New York 



95 




OIL GAS MANUFACTURE. 



I 




OIL GAS MANUFACTURE. 

No. 1. TJ. S. Patent, Gas Generator for Oi! or Resin— A. D. 1845 

2. " " Domestic Oil Gas Works— A. D. 1872. 

3. " " Oil Gas Generating Apparatus — A. D. 1875. 
" Gas Generating Apparatus — A. D. 1882. 

— A. D. 1884. 
— A. D. 1884. 



Dr. Henry distilled gas from oil in 1805. 

Taylor, in 1815, distilled gas from refuse a.^d fatty 
matters, and obtained a patent for his process thi same 
year. The apparatus which he used consisted (fa 
furnace and retort, the latter being charged with cokt 
on whose heated surface the oil drips continuously from 
a reservoir. 

The first attempts to introduce gas in the United 
States were made in Baltimore, Md., from 1816 to 
1821. 



In 1822 it was introduced into Boston, and in the 
year 1823 the first gas company in the United States 
was formed, and called the New York Gas Company. 
It commenced operations with a capital of $1,000,000. 
So limited, however, were the demands, or so -slow 
were the people to take to the new material, that the 
"ompany was not in active successful operation until 
r<.J7. 

Rosin and oil were used for its manufacture until 
184;. 



Gas is manufactured from wood, peat, petroleum and 
water. 

Natural gas has, by recent trials, been demonstrated 
to be the best and most economical for use in many 
branches of industrial art. 

It is quite extensively used for, manufacturing pur- 
poses. 

It makes superior glass, and turns out a larger and 
improved product in the puddling furnace. 



OIL GAS MANUFACTURE, 



1,892 Patents Granted by the United States. 



-5UI7 



Br. 



SackeUA Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 



96 



■ 



















PAPER MAKING. 



PAPER MAKING. 

No. 1, Primitive Hand Machine. 

2. French Cutting and Assorting. 
3 " Digester and Boiler. 

4. " Beating. 

5. Cylinder Paper Machine — A. D. 1859. 

6. U. S. Patent, Cylinder Paper Machine— A. D. 1870. 




The origin and history of paper can be traced to the 
early days of the Egyptians and Hebrews. 

The first paper was made from the papyrus plant. 
Isaiah, in the Old testament, predicted the extinction 
of this plant. Homer and Herodotus called this plant 
or reed "biblios." 

Yarro, a Roman writer of the first century B. C, 
clair: ed that the discovery of the papyrus or paper 
tree was made during the expedition of Alexander of 
Macedon into Egypt, 356 B. C. This statement is con- 
tradicted, as Egyptian tombs show that it was used 
many ages before the time of Alexander. Some writ- 
ers claim its existence as far bade as the stone records 
of Egypt, 2400 B. C. Pliny says that "the papyrus 
grew in the lowlands and marshes of Egypt, to the 
height of 12 to [5 feet." 

The chief source of supply was from Egypt. To the 
Egyptians, therefore, we are indebted for the discovery 
of paper from plants or trees. 

The valuable libraries, destroyed during the siege of 
Alexandria by Ctesar, B. C. 47, wens partly on parch- 
ment. 

The library, presented by Marc Antony to Cleo- 
patra, was written largely on parchment, as a prohibi- 
tion had been laid on papyrus from Egypt, by the Ptol- 
emies, who resented any rivalry in libraries. 

Kumenes claimed the discovery of parchment, =00 
B. C. A mode of preparing and dressing the skins of 
animals can only be claimed for him, as the Hebrews 
had used skins for records many ages before. 

The public documents of France, under Charle- 
magne, were written on parchment, except those of the 
Pope, who used papyrus, until the twelfth century. 

Ill Japan, previous to the year A. D. 2S0. silk with 
linen facing was used for writing. 

Paper proper was first introduced by the Saracens, 
an Arabian tribe, whose origin and location rest in 
obscurity. In the eighth century they conquered 
Spain, and through them the art of paper making 
readied other portions or Europe. The Spaniards 
first made paper of flax, afterward of cotton. 



A great change took place when paper was made of 
rags, cotton, linen, flax fiber, and various other articles. 
Paper used by the Chinese prior to the Christian era 
is supposed to have been made of silk. The Bamboo 
fiber paper is very ancient. Chinese rice paper is 
made from the inner portion of the stems of a hardy 
plant found around the lakes in British India, whence 
the Chinese import it. Its mode of manufacture is | 
similar to that of the Egyptian papyrus. 

A. D. 1050, the Christians in Spain made paper of 
rag 1 -. A specimen has been found bearing date 1 109. 
Twelve years later the King of Sicily granted a charter 
to "makers of paper." In 1151 a superior quality of 
paper was made in Spain from raw cotton and rags, 
by the aid of a water mill, the first known application 
of machinery for this purpose. 

In 1 1 70 papyrus fell into disuse. Flax paper was 
also made in this year. 

The oldest manuscript in existence, written on cotton 
paper, is in the British Museum, dated 1049. 

In the University of Germany a document is pre- 
served, the paper of which is made of linen rags, dated 
A. D. 1170. 

In 1200 mummy cloth was used by shop keepers in 
Egypt for wrapping paper. 

The first paper mill was established at Nuremberg, 
Bavaria, in 1390, for manufacturing paper from linen 
and other rags. 

The "watermark" first appeared on paper in 1498, 

Henry VIII used, as his private mark on paper, a 
hog with a rniter. He, having quarrelled with the 
Pope, wrote him a letter on paper having this mark, 
and. as the Pope considered it a personal insult, the 
quarrel never was settled. 

Wall paper w;w substituted for tapestry in 1640. 

Paper factories did not flourish in England until 10SK. 
England imported her paper from Holland in 1003. 

The first paper mill in the United States was estab- 
lished by William Riuenhouse, a Hollander, at Rox- 
boro', near Philadelphia, in the year 1690. The raw 
material used was linen rags. The second in the 



United States was established at Germantown, near 
Philadelphia, in 1710. 

In 1719 Reamer suggested that "paper might be 
manufactured from wood," 

Paper is made from over 400 materials. 

The rag engine was invented in Holland, about the 
middle of the seventeenth century, and superseded the 
hand mortar. 

The first paper mill west of the Alleghany mountains 
was put in operation in 1796, near Brownsville, Pa., 
and was called the Red Stone Paper Mill. 

In 1 79S machinery was invented in France for mak- 
ing paper of large sizes, viz : 1 2 feet in width and 50 
feel in length. 

In t8ot Gamble obtained a patent for similar ma- 
chinery. 

The first steam paper mill in the United States was 
erected at Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1816. 

In 1830, a sheet of paper 1 3. 800 feet long and 4 feet 
wide, was matle at White Hall, England, 

Roberts and Gamble were among the first inventors 
of paper making machinery. 

The use of wood pulp for manufacturing paper was 
first patented it- ,854, and the first mill was established 
in 1865. at ^anayunk, Pennsylvania. Poplar is prin- 
cipally used. 

There an: over 30 manufactories now in operation 
in England. 

In 1770 there were 40 paper mills in the United 
States; in 1810. 185; in 1870, 669. 

In 1880, there were 3,985 mills in the world, making 
1,904,000,000 pounds of paper per year. Of this 
amount 600,000,000 pounds per year were used for 
newspapers. 

As to the use of paper by individuals, an average of 
eleven and one-half pounds is used by an Englishman, 
ten and one-fourth pounds by an American, eight 
pounds by a German, seven and one-half pounds by a 
Frenchman, three and one-half pounds by an Italian or 
Austrian, one and one-half pounds by a Spaniard, one 
pound by a Russian, and two pounds by a Mexican. 



PAPER MAKING. 

892 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, . 

Printing Paper, tons, . 
Writing " •• ... i 
Wrapping " « 
Binder's Board, " 
Wall Paper, 



1800 is.,0 

§14,052,683.00 $46,241,202.00 

. 21,216,802.00 55,109,914.00 

2,767,212.00 8,525,355.00 

• • • 10,911 34422 

1880 

149,177 J Colored Paper, pounds, 14,756,268 

32,937 I Bank note " •' Bl>6;000 

134,294 Tissue, " >■ 8,125,957 

20,01-1 I All othaf " ■■ 178,719,831 
14,737 I 



2,289 Patents Granted by the United States, 




Shekel LA WilhelmsUho Co New York 



■■■■■I 



97 




SOAP AND CANDLE MAKING. 




SOAP AND CANDLE MAKING. 

Nn. 1. Primitive Soap Making. 

2. " Candle Making. 

3. Manufacture Stearine— A. D. 1881. 

4. Soap Boiling— A. D. 1882. 

6. TJ. 8. Patent, Decomposing Fats— A. I). 1882. 
6. " " Soap Boiling— A. D. 1884. 



In the Old Testament, mention Is made of soap in 
Jeremiah u, 22, and Malachi Hi, 2. The Hebrew trans- 
lated means the lye, salt potash and the salt soda. 
Lyes, or solutions of these salts, were used for the 
sake of their active detergent qualities, as we now 
use the soaps, before the method was discovered of 
softening down by causing them to combine with oils 
or grease. 

The ancient Egyptians appear to have been unac- 
quainted with soap. Pliny ascribes the invention to the 
Gauls. Through (hem the Romans learned the art of 
making it, but for a long time the material seems to 
have been valued more as a wash for the hair than for 
its general detergent applications. 

The inhabitants of Pompeii possessed at least one 
complete soap-boiling establishment, which, when 
brought to view after having been buried more than 
seventeen hundred years, was found to contain soap in 
good preservation. 

Soap manufacture is more largely carried on in 



Great Britain than in any other country, the annual 
product being estimated at over 200,000,000 pounds. 

The manufacture is also carried on to a great extent 
in the United States, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio 
and Illinois being the States in which the principal lac 
tories are located. 

Pliny mentions that the Romans first made use of 
candles, which were little strings dipped in pitch or sur- 
rounded with wax. 

Pliny also observes that wax candles were made use 
of for religious purposes, and those of tallow for com- 
mon occasions. 

Candles were introduced into churches A. D. 274. 
St. Jerome mentions die custom of lighting up candles 
at the reading of the Gospel, even at noonday, describ- 
ing it as an emblem of joy, and of that light which the 
Psalmist says was " a lamp unto his feet and a light 
unto his path." 

Eusebius, fourth century, states that the Emperor 
Constantine caused the whole city of Constantinople 



to be illuminated on Easter eve with lamps and wax 
candles. 

The early Christians, driven by persecution into 
caves and catacombs, experienced the want of artificial 
light, and the first use of modern candles is referred 
to in their times. 

It is probable tliat the Romans introduced candles 
into England. Alfred the Great used a graduated wax 
candle as a time keeper. In the middle ages wax 
candles were in use, some of them being of 50 pounds 
weight. 

Splinters of wood, dipped with animal fat or oil, were 
used in England A. D. 1300. The pith of the swamp 
rush was subsequently used for a wick, and was called 
the rush light. 

Candles were not in general use for domestic pur- 
poses until towards the close of the thirteenth century, 
when thsy were noticed as being made of tallow. 

Stearine and paraffine are largely used in the manu- 
facture of candles. 



FATS. 



SXTB CLASS, 



SOAP AND CANDLES. 

028 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, 



1800 

16,347,138.00 
18,464,574.00 
1,066,390.00 

- 3,247 



309 Patents Granted by the United States. 




SacketU Wilhelms Litho Co New York 



J 



98 



M 




STONE SAWING. 



STONE SAWING. 

No. 1. Primitive Stone Sawing. 

2. U. S. Patent, 8awing Square Slabs— A. D. 1840. 



Angular Sawing — A. D. 1855. 

Sawing Moldings — A. D. 1858. 

8and and Water Feed Sawing— A. L>. 1872. 

Curved Sawing— A. D. 1872. 

Screw Feed— A. D. 1876. 

Automatic Feed— A. D. 1878. 

Under 8ide Sawing— A. D. 1879. 




The Phoenicians are entitled to the credit of the use 
of the stone saw. 

Skilled mechanics erected Solomon's Temple of 
"stone sawed within and without." 

Pliny gives an account of the different kinds of 
sand used for cutting stone, for "it is the sand, 
properly," he says, "and not the saw which produces 
the effect." 

Clark states diat all the cavities of the famous Parian 
quarries were cut with the greatest nicety, and shewed, 
by the sharpness of their edges, the number and size 
of the masses of marble which had been removed for 
the sculpture of Ancient Greece. He adds, that if the 
stone had possessed the softness of clay, and had been 
cut by wires, it could not have been separated with 
greater nicety, evenness and accuracy. 

Choice varieties of marble were employed by the 
ancients, both in architecture and sculpture. 

The celebrated Venus De Medici was cut from 
Parian marble. 

The Parthenon, Hippodrome and other monuments 
of Athens were of Pentelic marble. 

A marble called " Marmo Greco." or Greek white. 



was obtained from die Island of Scio, or Chio, the scene 
of the late earthquake. 

There are columns and altars in Venice made from a 
transparent white marble called by the Italians "Marmo 
Statuario." The quarries from which this marble was 
obtained are now unknown. 

The black marble of the Ancients is only to be found 
in specimens of sculpture, from which it may be inferred 
that the quarry from which it was obtained was ex- 
hausted. 

The red marble of the Ancients is of a blood-red 
color, interspersed with white veins. 

Besides these antique marbles may be mentioned the 
green antique, the yellow, grand antique, the purple 
antique, and many other varieties of colored marble. 

Of the modern marbles, we have the black, and the 
black-and-white, found in Derbyshire ; the variegated 
marbles of Devonshire, of a reddish, brownish or grey- 
ish color, veined with white and yellow ; the green mar- 
ble of Anglesea, the white marble of Scotland, the 
black-and-white marble of Kilkenny, and many other 
varieties obtained from various counties in die United 
Kingdom, added to which Italy, Corsica. Prance, Sicily, 



Genoa, etc., yield abundant marbles of great beauty 
and variety of color. 

Oliver Evans, of Philadelphia, in 1 803, had a double- 
acting high pressure engine at work grinding plaster 
and sawing stone. He had tW«Wc saws in a heavy 
frame sawing marble at the rate of one hundred feet 
in twelve hours. 

For cutting marble a saw is used, which consists of 
a long, flat piece of soft iron, fitted into a frame such 
as stonecutters use, while sand and water are continu- 
ally applied during the operation. Very large slabs of 
marble are sometimes cut by machinery. 

In polishing marble, the surface is first rendered 
smooth and flat by means of fine, sharp sand, and water, 
a rubber of iron being sometimes used for the purpose. 

A finer sand is then applied in the same way, and 
a third rubbing is given with still finer sand. After 
washing the surface of the slab, emery powder of 
various degrees of fineness is employed, and this is 
generally worked over the surface by means of a leaden 
rubber. The final polishing is done with tripoli, (rot- 
ten stone,) or with jewellers' rouge, coarse linen cloths 
rolled up into a hard ball being used as rubbers. 



STONE SAWING. 



2,892 Manufactories or Marble and Stone Goods In the 
United Stales. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, 



1SOO 

$8,864,o75.00 
16,244,044.00 
5,672,211.00 

. 16,379 



letso 

$17,248,521.00 
32,445.810.00 
10,551,894.00 

22,196 



128 Patents Granted by the United States, 




Seckelt a Wilhelms Litho Co k- - • 






■■ 
















00 



SUGAR MAKING. 



SUGAR MAKING. 



No. 1. Primitive Maple Sugar Making. 

2. V. S. Patent, Evaporating Pan— A. D. 1846. 
3- " " " " —A. D. 1863. 

4. " " Centrifugal Drier— A. D. 1874. 

5. " " Extracting Cane Juice — A. D. 1876. 
6- " " " " —A. D. 1884. 

7. Cuban Vacuum Pans — A. D. 1876. 

8. German licet Sugar Machine — A. D. 1879. 

9. Sugar Cane Mill— A. I). 1880. 




It has been supposed that sugar cane was indigenous 
to America ; this, however, is improbable, since it is 
not found growing wild in this or any other country. 
It probably originated in Bengal, where sugar was 
first manufactured. 

Pliny noticed it as a curiosity of natural history, and 
Galen referred to it as "a kind of honey brought from 
Arabia and India." 

It was known to the Greeks and Romans, but was 
not in general use among them. 

The Chinese were acquainted with the manufacture 
of sugar two thousand years ago. Chinese sugar, in 
small quantities, occasionally found its way into Europe, 
and Greek physicians, who procured it from Arabian 
merchants, used it as a medicine. 

Arabian navigators brought it from India. 

Our term, sugar, is probably derived from the Ben- 
galese "shukkur," the name by which it is still known 
in India. 

The Arabs introduced it wherever they went ; finally 
into Sicily and Spain. Through them it became known 
to the Crusaders. 

It was not known in Europe prior to the thirteenth 
century. 

From 1 466 to 1 580 sugar was rare in England, being 
procured from the Portugese. It was used only by the 



wealthy, or as medicine. Boiling and baking sugar 
were first practiced in Europe about 1420. 

The Portugese took sugar cane to the Canary Islands, 
in 1506, and thence to the colonies on the coast of 
Africa and Brazil. 

Refining sugar, and making it into loaves, were dis- 
covered by a Venetian in 1550, 

Sugar is made from several plants and trees, notably 
from maple and beets. 

Maple sugar was made by the North American In- 
dians. 

Making sugar from beets was first suggested by 
Oliver de Senes, in 1605. 

Sugar was introduced into the Barbadoes from Bra- 
zil, in 1641. 

It appears that the cane was planted in the West 
Indies some time before it was cultivated on a large 
scale for the manufacture of sugar. At first it 
was used only as an esculent vegetable, the stem 
being eaten in a raw state, after peeling, as is still 
the practice in China and some of the East Indian 
Islands. 

In 1643 the English began to manufacture sugar at 
St. Christopher's, and in Jamaica in 1656. 

The State of Connecticut granted a patent, in 1717, 
for making sugar from corn stalks. 



The first successful beet sugar was made in 1 747, by 
luagraff. 

The culture of sugar was introduced into Louisiana 
by the French refugees from St. Domingo. 

The first successful attempt at sugar making in 
Louisiana was made in 1796, at Carrollton, near New 
Orleans. 

Napoleon devoted 80,000 acres of land, and appro- 
priated 1.000,000 francs to encourage sugar making 
from beets. 

In 1803 there were eighty-one sugar estates on the 
Mississippi river. 

Steam power for the manufacture of sugar was first 
introduced into Louisiana in 1822. 

Sixty thousand tons of beet sugar are produced in 
France annually. I.arge quantities are also made in 
Northern and Central Europe, and the industry has 
been introduced into several of the Western States. 
About one-fourth of all the sugar in the markets of the 
world is made from beets. 

The census for 1880 shows that the sugar crop of 
the United States was as follows ; Cane sugar, 1 78,872 
hhds. ; cane molasses, 16,573,273 gallons; sorghum 
sugar, 12,792 pounds, sorghum molasses, 28.444,202 
gallons; maple sugar, 36,576,061 pounds; maple mo- 
lasses. 1.796.048 gallons. 



SUGAR MAKING. 



SUGAR AND MOLASSES. 



Cane Sugar, hogsheads, 
Molasses, gallons, 

Sorghum Sugar, pounds, 
Molasses, gallons, 

Maple Sugar, pounds, 
Molasses, gallons, 



isso 

178,872 

16,573,273 

12,792 

23,444,202 

36,576,061 

1,796,048 



Capacity of Sugar Pans— dinmcter, 17 feet ; height, 30 feet. 
400 pounds dry Sugar each charge. 

1,738 Patents Granted by the United States. 



m. 






SackeLt& Wilheims Liiho Co iSt-wYork 



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STAND AND BRACKET LAMPS, 



STAND AND BRACKET LAMPS. 

No. 1. Primitive Greek and Roman. 

2. " Floating Light. 

3. " Argand— A. D. 1784. 

4. " Student Lamp. 

5. •' "Stand Lamp. 

6. U. S. Patent, Carriage Lamp— A. D. 1865. 

7. " " Bracket Lamp— A. D. 1874. 
" " Automatic Cigar Lighting Lamp — A. D. 1879 

Safety Lamp— A. D. 1882. 



i 




The most primitive lamps were probably the skulls of 
animals, or certain sea shells, in which fat was burned. 

Lamps were used in the early ages in China, India, 
Egypt, Greece and Rome, and preceded the use of 
candles. 

Many beautiful forms of lamps have been taken from 
the excavations of Pompeii. 

The Egyptians first used lamps in their temples. 

Green porcelain lamps were found in the great pyra- 
mids of Ghizeh, and were also used in the tabernacle 
and the temples of the Jews. 

The festival of Isis at Busirius was called "the feast 
of lamps." The lamps had wicks floating in oil which 
rested on salt water. 



Hero wrote a description of a lamp, 150 B. C, in 
which a supply of oil from a reservoir below is driven 
up by means of air introduced into the base by an air 
pump. In another form the oil was raised by water 
introduced below the oil by means of a pipe. 

The Argand lamp, which was introduced in 1786, 
was so named from its inventor, a native of Switzer- 
land. 

L. Augi, a Frenchman, invented the lamp chimney ; 
he added it to the tubular neck and central air tube of 
Argand's lamp, and perfected the invention. 

The introduction of the Argand lamp produced a 
revolution in the manufacture of lamps, but threatened 
with rviin all those whom the patent excluded from par- 



ticipating in the new trade, to such an extent that 
Argand was publicly persecuted by the tinners and 
iron mongers who disputed his rights to infringe the 
profits of their chartered vocation. 

The streets of Boston, Mass., were lighted for the 
first time with lamps in 1774. 

Sir Humphrey Davy invented, in 1815, the fine 
wire safety lamp, for preventing explosions by fire- 
damp in mines. 

Lamps of present date are designated for purposes 
used, as bracket, car, cigar lighting, miners' and street; 
and form of construction, as forced draft, independent 
reservoir, safety tube, and central draft. 



STAND AND BRACKET LAMPS. 



74 Manufactories of Lamps and Lanterns In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed. 



4,816 Patents Granted by the United States. 



I8«0 


1880 


$235,800.(10 


*1, 873,625.00 


578,020.00 


3,357,829.00 


135.848.00 


742,423.00 


374 


1,730 




SackeU&V/ilhelms Litho Co New York 



102 






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SUSPENDED LAMPS. 



SUSPENDED LAMPS. 




No. 1. Primitive Roman Chandelier. 

2. " Hall Lamp. 

3. U. S. Patent, Suspended Lamp— A. D. 1875. 

4. " " " " —A. D. 1876. 
6. " " " Chandelier— A. D. 1875. 
6. " " Car Lamp— A. D. 1883. 



It was customary among the Romans to have a lamp 
hanging from the ceiling It was also the custom on 
occasions of national rejoicing to have public illumina- 
tions, when lamps were suspended at the windows of 
houses. 

The streets of Antioch, according to St. Jerome, were 
provided with lamps. 

In 1697 the streets of New York City were ordered 
" to be lighted." The lighting was to be done by a 



lantern suspended from a pole stretched out from the 
window of every seventh house. 

An act of Parliament in 1 736 was passed for the reg- 
ular lighting of the streets of London, and an estimate 
was made of the expense of introducing small globular 
lamps. It was calculated that 4,300 would be required. 

In 1783 the lighting of the streets of Baltimore, and 
a day police, were established by the town authorities. 
The essential parts of a lamp are a vessel containing 



liquid fat, from which a portion rises gradually by cap- 
illary attraction through the wick to the flame. 

The introduction of mineral oils, known under the 
various names of paraffine, petroleum, kerosene, 
naphtha, &c, has, in a great measure, superseded 
the use of animal and vegetable oils for lighting pur- 
poses. 



SUSPENDED LAMPS. 

74 Manufactories of Lamps and Lanterns In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed. 



1800 I88O 

$235,800.00 81,873,625.00 

578,020.00 3,357,829.00 




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LAIMTERNS. 



15 



LANTERNS. 

No. 1. Primitive Egyptian. 



,«#" 






m^ 



2. 


Roman. 


3. 


Square. 


4. 


Globe. 


6. 


Miner's Safety. 


6. U. S. Patent, Globe— A. D. 1884. 


7. " 


Miner's Safety— A. D. 1878. 


8. " 


' Globe— A. D. 1878. 


9. " 


" —A. D. 1878. 


10. " 


1 Signal— A. D. 1879. 


11. " 


' Globe— A. D. 1880. 


12. " 


Naphtha Gas— A. D. 1881. 


13. " 


' Tubular— A. D. 1883. 


14. " 


" —A. D. 1883. 


15. " 


Reflecting Globe— A. 1). 1884 



Perhaps the original lantern is to be found in some 
varieties of fire flies in which the phosphorescent light 
(like Alfred's lantern, A. D. 890,) is protected by a 
horny covering. 

The earliest example of a lantern is in sculpture at 
Alabastron, representing a patrol of soldiers armed with 
spears, shields and battle axes, preceded by one carry- 
ing a lantern a little in advance ; the panels were prob- 
ably of talc, the lapis specularius of the Romans. 

The Egyptian lantern consisted of a waxed cloth 
strained over a cylinder of wire rings, with top and 
bottom of perforated copper. 

Lanterns are referred to by Greek authors. Alexis 
said " The man who first invented the idea of walk- 



ing out at night was very careful not to get his 
fingers burnt." Lanterns have been disinterred at 
Herculaneum and Pompeii. In the latter place one 
was found in the vestibule of a house beside a skele- 
ton ; the person was probably trying to escape in the 
thick darkness of the descending ashes. 

The Roman lantern was made of bronze, with panes 
of bladder, horn, mica, parchment, and oiled silk. 

The horn lantern of Alfred the Great had a gradu- 
ated candle, which was his time measure. 

Lanterns were used to some extent in London as 
early as 1417. It is recorded that "Lanthorns with 
lights bee hanged out on winter evenings betwixt Hal- 
lowtide and Candlemas." 



The Abbe, Laudati, in 1662, obtained the exclusive 
privilege of letting out portable lanterns in Paris. 

During the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries various European cities adopted the practice 
of lighting the streets by fixed lanterns. 

The Chinese have a festival called "the Feast of 
Lanterns," in which they make an extraordinary dis- 
play of the greatest variety, some being of enormous 
size, sometimes twenty-five and thirty feet in diameter. 

Lanterns for lighting streets have been superseded 
by gas and electric lights. 

The use of lanterns is now restricted to hand, ships, 
mining, etc., where the introduction of pipes is not 
attainable. 



LANTERNS. 

74 Manufactories In the United State*. 





MMM> 


IM80 


Capital Invested, 


$235,800.00 


$1,873,625.00 


Value of Productions, 


578,020.00 


3,357,829.00 


Wages Paid, 


135,848.00 


742.423.00 


Hands Employed. 


374 


1,730 



615 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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CAS BURNERS. 



GAS BURNERS. 



No. 1. Bat Wing. 



2 Argand. 

3. U. 8. Patent, Argand— A. D. U 




Self Regulating— A. D. 1875. 
Vapor— A. D. 1878. 
Enriching Attachment— A. D. 1881. 
Flat Flame— A. D. 1883. 
Heating Attaclunent^A. D. 1883. 
Automatic Cut-off— A. D. 1883. 
Regenerative Chamber — A. D. 1883. 
Illuminating Burner — A. D. 1884. 
Electric Lighting— A. D. 1884. 



Dr. Clayton, in [688, discovered that the air which 
comes from bituminous coal, when subjected to red 
heat in a retort, is inflammable and burns with a bright 
flame. 

There is an account, published in 1733, of the car- 
bonated hydrogen issuing from a coal work in Cumber- 
land, England, having been collected in a bladder and 
made use of for the purpose of illumination, the gas 
being ignited at the extremity of a small tube attached 
to the bladder. 



Mr. William Murdock, of Soho, England, in 1792, 
was the first person who put in practice the idea of pro- 
ducing light on an extensive scale by means of gas, and 
in 1798 applied it for the lighting of the very extensive 
manufactory of Messrs. Boulton, Watt & Co., at Soho, 
near Birmingham. 

The illumination of the Soho Works by gas, in 1802, 
seems to have brought it into general notice. 

In 1806 a Company was established for the purpose 
of conveying gas by means of pipes along the streets 



of London, so that they, as well as the houses, might 
be regularly supplied with it. 

The first gas burner was called the cock spur jet, 
next the fish tail next the bat wing, then the iron 
Argand, the Albert shadowless, and the improved 
Argand. They are now classified under the following 
heads: Argand, anti-extinguishing, compound, hydro 
oxygen, hydro carbon, incandescent, illuminating, lab- 
oratory, multiple, oxy-hydrogen, regenerative, revolv- 
ing, &c. 



GAS BURNERS. 

35 Manufactories in the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 



18(10 

$1,310,850.00 

2,255,900.00 

- 570,804.00 



188© 

$3,248,400.00 
4,329,656.00 
1,469,287.00 



Hands Employed, 



215 Patents Granted by the United States. 




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COOKING STOVES. 



COOKING STOVES. 



No. 1. Primitive Cookin'- 

2. U. 8. PbU :aorvoir and Warming Oven — A.D. 1876. 
8. " —A.D. 1875. 

4. " ove— A. D. 1878. 

5. " T 8. 

6. " •' D. 1880. 




A primitive mode of cooking in use among the sav- 
age tribes of New Zealand is called "stone boiling." 
A hole is dug in the earth, dry wood placed in it, and 
on that a number of stones ; when the stones become 
red hot the unconsumed fuel is removed, wet green 
leaves are placed upon the stones, and upon the leaves 
the food to be cooked, more leaves over the food, and 
a mat over them all. Water is poured on the mat, 
and, finally, earth is added as an outside coating ; and 
thus the food is cooked by a combined baking and 
steaming process. 

The North American Indians use stones which have 



been made red hot in the fire, and put them, one after 
the other, into a vessel of water containing the food to 
be cooked. 

The Jews were probably the first nation who had any 
regularly constructed ovens ; in which they were fol- 
lowed by the Romans, who erected bake houses for 
the supply of food for their military. 

One of the first attempts at constructing a stove, or 
closed fire place, was made by Polignac in 1 709. 

Count Rumford invented a cooking range in 1798 ; 
it was lined with brick and soapstone, with ventilating 
ovens. 



The early patterns of cooking stoves were the ten 
plate oval, with the oven above the fire; the saddle 
bag pattern came next, the oven being in the middle 
over the fire ; then the horse-block stove, the rear part 
being a step higher than the front. A rotary was also 
made, with a movable top to bring any particular ves- 
sel directly over the fire. Then came the parent of 
the modern cook stove, the Buck, for wood and coal, 
with the fire above the oven, which carried the flame 
around, behind and below the oven, the opening into 
the stove pipe being about on a level with the oven 
floor. 



COOKING STOVES, 



2,446 Patents Granted by the United States. 




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CARRIAGES. 



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CARRIAGES. 

No. 1. U. S. Patent, Elliptic Spring Road Buggy —A. D. 1826 

" Jump Seat Carriage —A. D. 1868. 

" Rockaway— A. D. 1858. 

" Buck Board— A. D. 1876. 

" Trotting Sulky— A. D. 1880. 

" Buck Board Farm Wagon— A. D. 1883. 

•' Road Cart^-A. D. 1883. 

•• 8ide Bar Buggy— A. D. 1884. 

" Side Spring Phajton— A. D. 1884. 



The vehicle used by Joseph to carry his father to 
Canaan was an ox-cart. 

In ancient times horses were only used to draw 
chariots. 

The vehicles of Egypt were two-wheeled, and were 
known 2000 B. C. 

The natives of China and India used carts from an 
early date. 

The Orcera was a carriage used by sick and infirm 
persons. 



A later invention was the Carpenturin ; it is repre- 
sented on antique coins as a two-wheeled car with an 
arched covering. 

The Scythians covered their wagons with felt and 
leather. 

The use of pleasure carriages in Rome was for- 
bidden during the Republic. 

The Romans had vehicles with one wheel, adapted 
to be drawn by horses. 

Carriages, the bodies of which were suspended by 



means of leather straps, were brought into use during 
the reign of Louis XIV, in the year 1643. 

In the sixteenth century carriages were introduced 
into Spain, Portugal and other countries. 

Stage wagons were introduced into France in 1654. 

The first carriage built in the United States is said 
to have been made in 1805, at Dorchester, Mass. 

The woods usually used in the manufacture of car- 
riages are hickory, black walnut, cherry, maple, yellow 
poplar, locust and gum. 



CARRIAGES. 



3,841 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capitol Invested. 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 



18<M» IMSO 

114,131,537.00 $37,973,493.00 

26,848,905.00 64,951, 617.00 

10,001,891.00 18,988,616.00 

27,461 45.394 



Hands Employed, - 

11,013 Patents Granted by the United States. 




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COACHES. 

No. 1. English, Queen Elizabeth. 

2. " Charles II. 

3. " Landeau— A. D. 1757. 

4. " Britzska. 

5. " Post Chaise. 

6. Elliptic Spring— A. D. 1805. 

7. U. S. Patent, Stage Coach— A. D. 1830. 

8. " " Clarence— A. D. 1880. 

9. " " Caleche— A. D. 1883. 



Covered coaches were known in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, and were used only by women of the first rank, 
as men thought it disgraceful to ride in them. 

Walter Rippin made the first coaches in England 
in 1555. They were heavy, without springs, and the 
driver rode on one of the horses. 

Coaches to be let for hire were first established in 
London in 1625. 

Glass windows were added to coaches in 1631. 

In Amsterdam coaches with wheels were forbidden 
in 1663, in order to save the pavements of the streets ; 
the bodies were placed on runners. 



COACHES. 



The Hungarians claim the invention of the modern 
coach, and say it derived its name from Kotsee, and 
their king, Cervius, was the first who rode in one. 

Coaches were first used in Boston, Mass., in 1669. 

Stage coaches were introduced into England by 
Jethro Tull in 1750, and first employed to carry the 
mails in 1 784. There were six carriage shops in New 
York City in 1788. 

Hackney coaches, drawn by two horses, have gener- 
ally given place in London to the one-horse cabs, 
which came into use in 1823. 

The long coach, or omnibus, first appeared in Paris 



in 1827, and in 1830 it was first run on Broadway, 
New York City. 

The English stage coach carries six inside and four- 
teen outside, in addition to the driver arid guard. 

Stage and mail coaches are of similar construction, 
and are used for the same purpose in the United 
States. They may be drawn by two, four or six horses. 

The modern American mail coaches, running at the 
rate of ten miles an hour over the best turnpike roads, 
changing horses at every stage, were the finest in the 
world, but they have been superseded by the net-work 
of railroads which now cover the country. 



COACHES. 



3,841 Manufactories of Carriages and Wagons In the United 
States. 

1800 1880 

$14,131,537.00 $37,973,493.00 
26,848,905.00 64,951,617.00 
10,001,891.00 18,988,615.00 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 



Hands Employed, 



27,461 



45,394 



174 Patents Granted by the United States. 




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LOCOMOTIVES, 



LOCOMOTIVES. 

No. 1. English— A. D. 1802. 

2. United States— A. D. 1804. 

3. English, " Puffing Billy"— A. D. 1813. 
4 '• " Rocket"— A. I). 1829. 

5. U. S. Patent, " Tom Thumb"— A. D. 1830. 

6. English, " Hercules"— A. D. 1837. 

7. V. S. Patent, Eievated Road Tank— A. D. 1883. 

8. " " Passenger— A. D. 1884. 




Cugnot, of France, made a locomotive in the year 
1769. 

Symington showed a model of a steam carriage, in 
Scotland, in 1770. 

Murdock made, and exhibited in England in 1784, a 
locomotive in which steam was generated by the heat 
of a lamp. 

Oliver Evans, of Philadelphia, Penn., U. S.. obtained 
a patent in 1787. to make steam wagons. 

In 1802, Trevithick patented, in England, a high 
pressure locomotive engine. When slightly loaded it 
did very well upon a level surface or moderate grade, 
but when more severely tasked the wheels would slip 
around without advancing. This was the first to run 
on rails or trams. 

Oliver Evans made the double acting, high pressure 
steam engine a success, in 1803. 

In 1 806, a locomotive to be driven by hot air, was 
constructed by Niepce, of France. 

Blenkinsop's invention of 181 1 gave great satisfac- 
tion to its owners, and was long used on a railway be- 
tween Leeds and Middletown, England. It pulled a 
train of 30 tons, and made 3J miles per hour. 

Brackett made experiments, in 181 2, to prove that 
the pinion and rack rail were unnecessary. 



Chapman, in 1812, patented a locomotive with eight 
wheels, driven by gearing, for the purpose of increas- 
ing the traction and adhesion. 

In the same year Brunten devised a means of driv- 
ing a locomotive by two propellers, consisting of jointed 
rods, to imitate the action of the hind legs of a horse. 

In 1813, Hedley built a locomotive, with four smooth 
drive wheels, to run on smooth rails ; it failed, how- 
ever, to accomplish the desired end. 

Dodds and Stephenson, of England, patented an 
engine in 1815. 

The French engineer, Sequin, in 1826, introduced 
locomotives upon the railways of France, 

The Liverpool and Manchester Railway, of England, 
in 1829, offered 500 pounds premium for a locomo- 
tive which should fulfill certain conditions. In October 
of that year, four locomotives were presented for trial, 
and the prize was awarded to "the Rocket," built by 
Messrs. Stephenson and Booth. 

The first locomotive run on rails in the United States 
was built by George Stephenson, of England, in 1829, 
for the Delaware and Hudson Canal and Railway Co. 

It was soon found that the English locomotives were 
unsuited for American railways, where curves of a 
radius of 200 feet were sometimes employed. 



In 1830, the first American locomotive, called "the 
Phcenix," was built at West Point, N. Y. 

In the same year, Peter Cooper, of New York, 
devised and built a small engine, in Baltimore, Md.. 
for the Baltimore and Ohio R. R. Co.. which overcame 
the difficulty of short curves ; this locomotive was 
regularly run between Baltimore and Ellicott's Mills, 
Md. 

To the South Carolina Railroad Company the honor 
must be awarded of being the first to adopt locomo- 
tives as the tractive power on a railroad 1 50 miles long, 
and the first to make a continuous locomotive trip over 
a distance of ioo miles. 

The locomotive works in the United States now 
number sixteen, not including the shops owned by rail- 
way companies. Pennsylvania has five of these, New 
Jersey and Massachusetts, diree each ; New York, 
two ; and Rhode Island, New Hampshire and Maine, 
one each. These works give employment to 14.000 
men, and every year adds about 2.600 locomotives to 
the 20,000 now in use. 

It is estimated that it would require 60,000,000 
horses to perform the work of the total steam power 
used in the world. 



LOCOMOTIVES. 



259 Patents Granted by the United States. 





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RAILWAY CARS, 




RAILWAY CARS. 

No. 1. First Passenger Car— A. D. 1825. 

2. Sailing Car— A. D. 1878. 

3. Passenger Car— A. D. 1882. 

4. U. S. Patent, Stock Car— A. D. 1882. 
6. " " Passenger Car— A. D. 1883. 
6. " " Street Car— A. D. 1884. 



The first railway cars in England were those used on 
the Liverpool and Manchester railroad, in 1830. They 
had four wheels, no springs nor roofs, and were similar 
to the present rack cars. 

The Baltimore and Ohio was the first passenger 
railway in America, being opened in 1830. The cars 
were drawn by horses until a locomotive was brought 
into use in 1831. 

In 183 1 springs and conical tread wheels were pro- 
posed by Joseph Knight. 

Hansom, in 1847, introduced in England an iron car. 



which was divided into compartments, each of which 
contained a single seat. 

Paper car wheels have been introduced in the United 
States with success. The advantages claimed are that 
they are noiseless, do not spring or shrink, afford a 
stay to the tire and a lateral support in turning curves, 
and are stronger than any other material of the same ! 
weight of which wheels can be made. 

It has been proposed to build cars of a tapering 
shape, so as to present less resistance to the air whilst j 
the train is in motion. 



American passenger cars are constructed on a very 
different plan from those of Europe. The long, single 
apartment passenger car, with swing trucks, and the 
drawing room, sleeping and hotel cars, all are of 
American origin. 

Over 8,000,000 railway car wheels are daily running 
in the United States, and there is a demand for from 
3,000 to 4,000 wheels every working day to replace 
those worn out and broken in service. It is estimated 
that there are about 120,000 passenger and 500,000 
freight cars in the world. 



RAILWAY CARS. 



1,017 Railroad Companies In the United States. 



Miles of Road Operated 
Capital Invested, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed. 



1880 

87,781 
$ii,182,445,807.(XI 
195,350.013.C 
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ROAD ENGINES. 



ROAD ENGINES. 

No. 1. IT. S. Patent, Steam Wagon— A. D. 1817. 

2. '• " Traction Engine— A. D. 1873. 

3. " " Power Steering Road Engine — A. D. 1881. 

4. " •• Road and Agricultural Engine— A. D. 1882. 
6. " " AdjustableLeveling Road Engine — A. D. 1883. 

. I " Winding Drum Road Engine— A. D. 1884. 




Murdock, a Scotch engineer, about 1786 constructed 
a small locomotive, which ran on the high road near 
Redruth, Scotland. 

Symington, of Scotland, and Oliver Evans, of Amer- 
ica, also constructed models designed for the same 
purpose. 

One of the earlier forms of traction engines was Boy- 



dell's. This had endless chains of boards fitted to its 
wheels, forming a sort of endless railway, which was 
laid down and taken up by the engine as it proceeded. 
The success of railways, and the difficulties attending 
the use of locomotives on ordinary roads, caused a 
cessation of efforts toward the improvement of road 
engines until about the year 1856, when the subject 



was revived with a view to the adaptation of such en- 
gines to agricultural purposes. Of late years several 
varieties have been constructed which fulfill their in- 
tended purpose with considerable success. 

A traction engine for running on ice has been em- 
ployed for carrying passengers between St. Petersburg 
and Cronstadt, in Russia. 



ROAD ENGINES. 



469 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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VELOCIPEDES. 




VELOCIPEDES. 

No. 1. Hand Propeller— A. D. 1700. 

2. French Pedal— A. D. 1750. 

3. " Hand Propeller— A. D. 1770. 

4. American Hand Propeller — A. D. 1804. 

5. English Dandy Horse— A. D. 1818. 

6. U. 8. Potent, Tricycle— A. D. 1864. 

7. " " " —A. D. 1866. 

8. " " Bicycle— A. D. 1866. 

9. » " Unicycle— A. D. 1869. 

10. " " Bicycle— A. D. 1880. 

11. " " Tandem— A. D. 1882. 

12. " " Ice— A. D. 1883. 

13. •' " Tricycle— A. D. 1883. 

14. " " Bioycle— A. D. 1884. 

15. '• " " —A. D. 1884. 

16. " " Sociable— A. D. 1884. 



VELOCIPEDES. 



In the early part of the year 1816 a very curious 
machine was constructed and used near Rochelle, 
France. It consisted of two wheels of equal size, 
placed one in front of the other, connected by a bar 
on which was a small seat. It was operated by the 
rider striking his feet against the ground. 

This appears to have been the progenitor of the 
bicycle. 



In the early part of the present century a machine 
called the celeripede was invented. The English 
" Dandy Horse" came into use about sixty years ago. 

The first application of the wrench axle was patented 
in the United States, by P. W. Mackenzie, in 1862. 

In the years 1868 and 1869 the velocipede came into 
sudden popularity, but was superseded by the bicycle, 
which was imported from England. 



The first approved bicycle was exhibited at the 
Centennial Exhibition, in 1876. 

The first American company for the manufacture of 
bicycles was organized in 1878. 

It is estimated that 6,000 were manufactured and 
sold in the United States in 1884, and that 30,000 were 
in use in the United States in 1885. 



1878 1884 

Number Manufactories, ... 1 8 

" in use in the United States, . . 25 30,000 

" Manufactured, . . . 150 9000 

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BOOTS AND SHOES. 




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BOOTS AND SHOES. 

No. 1. Egyptian Sandal of Palm— 1495 B. C. 

2. Assyrian Sandal— 669 B. C. 

3. Persian Boot— 600. B. C. 

4 Roman Cothurmus — A. D. 275. 

5. Anglo-Saxon Bandaged Leather Hose — 8th Century. 

6. French Boot — 17th Century. 

7. U. S. Patent, Pegged Shoe— A. D. 1811. 

8. •' " Rubber Shoe— A. D. 1834. 

9. « " Congress Gaiter— A. D. 1840. 
Machine Sewed— A. D. 1860. 

" Cable Screw Wire— A. D. 1867. 
Modern Boot and Shoe. 



Homer speaks of the "brazen-booted" Greeks. 

Moses said of Asher : "Thy shoes shall be iron and 
brass." 

The Egyptians and Hebrews had some protection 
for their feet at the time of Abraham, for the patriarch 
refused to "take even as much as a shoe latchet from 
the King of Sodom, lest he should say he had made 
him [Abraham] rich." 

The Chinese have made shoes, from time immemo- 
rial, from skin, silk, rushes, linen, wool, wood and 
metal. 

Succeeding ages introduced foot coverings of vari- 
ous kinds ; the sandal, the moccasin, slippers, buskins, 
&c. 

Syrian boots were of leather, and had an extra thick- 
ness sewed below to answer for a sole. 

Hesiod, 1,000 B. C, mentions "oxhide boots as part 
of the winter equipments of a plowman." 

Among the trades practiced by the Egyptians was 
shoemaking. An illustration on the tombs at Thebes 



is shown of a shoemaker at his bench engaged in bor- 
ing holes with an awl in a leather sole. 

The Egyptians made shoes of leather, papyrus and 
textile fabrics. The upper was sewed to the sole with- 
out a heel. 

Pliny said "Tychius invented the leather shoe." The 
"Caliga" of the Romans was the coarse shoe of the 
soldier, the sole being thickly studded with nails. 

The Roman Emperors wore shoes enriched with jew- 
els and embroidered with gold and silver. The shoes 
of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius had separate apart- 
ments for the toes. 

The shoes of the Roman senators reached to the 
middle of the leg. 

Julius Caesar wore high heeled shoes to increase his 
stature. 

In England, shoes of a similar form to those of the 
present time were worn by the lower classes as early 
as the 8th century. 

From the 12th to the 15th century fashionable shoes 
in England were made with long toes stuffed with tow ; 



these toes or beaks were so long that it was common 
to fasten them to the knees of the wearer by a silver 
chain ; in 1463 Parliament limited the length of this 
useless projection to two inches. 

In the American Colonies few, if any, shoes were 
made from calf skin. Cow hide was used almost ex- 
clusively for foot gear. 

As early as 1635 the town of Lynn, Mass., had a 
shoemaker. In 1877 tbfi product of the Lynn factories 
was not less than 1 4,000,000 pairs of boots and shoes. 

A single shoe factory in Massachusetts turns out as 
many pairs of boots as 30,000 boot makers in Paris, 
France. 

The manufacture of boots and shoes in the United 
States in 1880 is reported as producing to the value of 
$166,050,354 ; the materials consumed included 6,831,- 
661 sides of sole leather, 21,147,656 sides of upper 
leather, and 32,960,614 pounds of other leather; the 
products were 30,690,896 pairs of boots and 98,887,- 
615 pairs of shoes. 



BOOTS AND SHOES. 

18,369 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 



I86O 1880 

$23,357,627.00 $58,973,665.00 

91,889,298.00 217,093,627.00 

30,938,080.00 53,820,864.00 



123,026 



143,201 



1,974 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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BOOT AND SHOE HEELING. 



BOOT AND SHOE HEELING MACHINES. 

No. 1. Primitive Shoe Making. 

2. V. S. Patent. Heel Trimmer— A. D. 1869. 



L 



Inside Heeler— A. D. 1860. 

Heel Trimmer— A. D. 1862. 

Heeler— A. D. 1870. 

Pricker and Compresser — A. D. 1875. 

Former and Pricker— A. D. 1881. 

Pricker— A. D. 1882. 

Rotary Heel Press— A. D. 1883. 



In 1809 a U. S. patent was granted to D. M. Ran- 
dolph for a method of riveting boot and shoe soles and 
heels to their uppers, instead of sewing them together 
as had theretofore been the practice. 

In the improved boot and shoe heeling machines of 
to-day, mechanism is provided for punching holes in 
the heel blank for placing the nails and driving them ; 



also for trimming the heel. — all attached to the same 
standard. 

In others, the machine is arranged to make the nails 
of different or varying lengths, by cutting nail strips 
or plates, and to separate the nails in the order desired, 
delivering them to a distributer, which receives, ar- 
ranges, and delivers them to the nail-driving devices. 



BOOT AND SHOE HEELING MACHINES. 

18,369 Manufactories of Boots and Shoes In the United States. 



Capital invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 



I860 i 88 o 

$23,357,627.00 $58,973,665.00 

91,889,298.00 217,093,627.00 

30,938,080.00 53,820,864.00 

123,026 143,201 



MHnnflicdired In 1880. 

Boot..p«. v.lu.. Show, pr,. v.l„ 

30,590,896 $53,223,265.00 94,887,615 $112,109,343.00 

Capacity — 

Pairs per day, 

Hands Employed per day, 




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BOOT AND SHOE SOLE CUTTING MACHINE. 



No. 1. 

2. 
3. 

4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 



BOOT AND SHOE SOLE CUTTING. 

Egyptian Sandal Sole Cutter— B. C. 1450. 

English Cutter, 18th Century. 

First Die for Cutting. 

IT. S. Patent, Sole Cutter— A. D. 1842. 

Stamping Out Soles— A. D. 1854. 
Sole Cutter— A. D. 1859. 
" " Pricking and Trimming Soles — A. D. 187 

" " Sole Cutter— A. D. 1882. 



The cutting out of the soles of boots and shoes is 
now generally done by machinery. 

A knife with a curvilinear edge is set in a frame 
and worked with a treadle, after the manner of a 
lathe. 



By a lateral motion in the machine it can be adapted 
to the cutting of any requisite width of sole, and, be- 
ing once fixed to a given width, the process of cutting 
is very rapid. 

Material is saved by the leather being cut at right 



angles to the surface, instead of diagonally as by the 
ordinary knife. 

The ordinary hand sole-cutters have dies of the shape 
of the sole driven by a mallet, or a sheet-metal pattern 
is laid on the leather and its edge followed by a knife. 



BOOT AND SHOE SOLE CUTTING. 

18,369 Manufactories of Boots and Shoes In the United States. 

I860 1880 

Capital Invested, - - $23,357,627.00 $58,973,665.00 

Value of Productions, - - 91,889,298.00 217,093,627.00 

Wages Paid, - - - 30,938,080.00 53,820,804.00 

Hands Employed, - 123,026 143,201 

Hanulhotlircd In 1880. 
Boots, pre. Value. SKoes, prs. Value. 

30,590,896 $53,223,265.00 94,889,615 $112,109,343.00 



P — -i 



Capacity — 

Pairs per day, 

Hands employed per day, 



600 
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BOOTANDSHOE NAILING AND PEGGING. 



BOOT & SHOE NAILING & PEGGING MACHINES. 

No. 1. Egyptian Cobbling. 

2. French •• —A D. 1775. 

3. U. S. Patent, Hand Nailing-^A. D. 1812. 



BOOT & SHOE NAILING & PEGGING MACHINES. 




4. " 


" Pegging— A. D. 1849. 


5. " 


" Stapling— A. D. 1860. 


6. '• ' 


" Nailing— A. D. 1862. 


7. •• 


" Pegging— A. D. 1868. 


8. " 


—A. D. 1872. 


9. " 


•' Wire Nailing— A. D. 1879 



Boots anil shoes were all made by hand prior to 1800. 
In 1810 Brunei invented the first machine for making 
shoes; his invention never came into general use, as it 
increased instead of decreased the cost of manufacture ; 
it is also stated that the shoes did not answer, as the 
nails penetrated the soles and hurt the feet of the 
wearer. 

The first patent in the United States for a machine 
for pegging shoes was obtained by Samuel Hitchcock 
and John Bement, of Homer, N. Y., July 30, 181 1. 

Joseph Walker obtained his patent for shoe pegs in 



1818. This wrought quite a revolution in the shoe 
business. 

The tradition is current in New England that at one 
time shoe pegs became so plenty and cheap that art- 
ful speculators tried to sell them to farmers as a new 
variety of oats for seed. 

The pegging machines of Gallahue, 1851, and im- 
provements of Townsend and Sturtevant, were not 
brought into general use until i860. The sole sewing 
machine of Blake, improved by McKay, and the Good- 
year welt machine have, with the pegging machine, rev- 
olutionized shoe manufacturing. 



The boot and shoe cable screw wire machine, which 
uses a flexible wire twisted in the form of a screw, 
which is cut off in proper lengths and driven into the 
sole, is capable of putting on 500 pairs of soles in a day. 

Wooden boot and shoe pegs are made of maple 
wood by a machine which cuts the wood into ribbons of 
the thickness required, and then forms and points the 
pegs, leaving them attached at the top by a slight con- 
nection which forms the head of the peg when detached. 

At the present time the shoe trade is almost entirely 
supplied with machine work. 



18,369 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, 



ISOO 

$23,357,627.00 

91,889,298.00 

30,938,080.00 

123,026 



1880 

$58,973,665.00 

217,093,627.00 

53,820,864.00 

143.201 



Mnnutaclnred In 1880. 

Boot,, pr.. Value. Shoe., pp.. 

30,590,896 $53,223,265.00 94,887,615 

Capacity — 

Pairs per day, 

Hands Employed per day, 

572 Patents Granted by the United States, 



Value. 

$112,109,343.00 

Primili** Preicol 




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HARNESS. 

No. 1. Ancient Pack Saddle. 

2. English— 16th Century. 

3. " —A. D. 1750. 

4. Rope. 

5. Heavy Draft. 

6. Couple, Single. 

7. Breast Collar, Single. 

8. U. S. Patent, Overdraw Check— A. D. 1866. 

9. " " Suspended— A. D. 1876. 




The invention of harness is ascribed to Erichthonius, 
of Athens. 

The use of harness commenced as soon as the horse 
was trained to draft. 

The first horsemen, not being acquainted with the 
art of governing horses, managed them with a switch, 
assisted with the accent of the voice. 

That shown in the sculptures of Egypt was of a very 
simple construction. The horses were hitched abreast 
to a tongue or pole, which was connected to a yoke ; 
this passed over saddles which rested on the withers of 
the horse. 

Solomon had 40,000 stalls for horses and chariots, 
and plenty of harness. 

While the Egyptian yoked his horses to the pole of 
his chariot, still more primitive customs were adopted 
in other lands at a later date. 

The ancients were well acquainted with the use of 
the bit. Xenophon, 400 years B. C, describes bits as 
being in common use in his time in the Grecian States. 



8 



HARNESS. 



He speaks of a smooth and sharp kind ; the latter, if 
more severity was required, was to be armed with 
points or teeth. 

In the sculptured equestrian figures of the ancients, 
something like the branches of a curb are to be found, 
but in no instance does there appear anything resemb- 
ling the chain which is necessary to its effect. 

The addition of the chain to curb bits is of modern 
invention. It was used in Italy and France, and was 
introduced into the English army by proclamation in 
the reign of Charles I, 

"The Spaniards outwitted the French in lining their 
harness with chains, so that it could not be cut." 
(Pepys, 1661.) 

The French still make use of rope harness, and fre- 
quently have nine horses to a diligence, which are 
driven three abreast. 

The single line mode of driving horses, usual on 
farms and with heavy road teams throughout the west, 
was made very familiar to many during the late war. 




The Government six-mule teams are driven by a man 
riding the near wheel horse, and having a single line to 
a bridle rein on the near leader. The bit of the off 
leader is connected by a jockey stick to a hame ring of 
the near leader, which keeps him in place. The off 
wheeler is governed by the whip, foot, or occasional 
touch of his rein. This mode of driving is also prac- 
ticed in the Netherlands. 

Besides the kinds of harness depending upon qual- 
ity and mounting, other varieties are known by the 
names of buggy, coach, cart or wagon, according to 
the vehicle used, and the latter have a division into 
lead, hip, strap breeching and Yankee, according to 
the construction and arrangement. 

The use of devices for detaching and adjusting 
harness to horses in the steam fire departments of 
large cities has become an important factor in the time 
saved in attending fires. 



HARNESS. 



7,999 Establishments In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 



1800 1880 

$6,478,184.00 $16,508,079.00 

14,169,037.00 38,081,643.00 

4,150,365.00 7,997,752.00 



Hands Employed, - yz 285 

2,543 Patents Granted by the United States, 



21,446 




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LEATHER WORKING. 



LEATHER WORKING. 



I" 1 ■! 



1. Primitive Hand. 

2. " Hungarian — A. D. 1550. 

3. " French— A. D. 1775. 

4. U. S. Patent, Roller Dressing— A. D. 1812. 
Dressing— A. D. 1827. 

" —A. D. 1835. 

» —A. D. 1836. 
—A. D. 1855.. 
Scouring and Setting — A. D. 1857. 

" " Stretching— A. D. 1871. 

Working Hides and Leather — A. I). 1874. 
Scouring, Setting and Glassing — A. I), 1882. 



The mode of currying skins upon a slanting beam is 
shown in the ancient paintings of Kourna Thebes. 
Slicking with a sharp edge is also shown. The paint- 
ings and sculptures of Thebes represent many of the 
methods of working leather practiced by these people 
as very similar to those of the present time. Figures 
of men are seen currying, stretching and working it. 
No accounts are preserved of the methods of prepar- 
ing the leather used by the Romans. 

We read that the outer coverings of the Tabernacle 
were made of rams' skins, and the circumstance of their 
being dyed red leads to the conclusion that they must 
have been prepared by tanning or other process pre- 
vious to that operation. 

The origin of tanning is unknown, although it must 
have been known at a very early period by the Eastern 
nations. 

The Britons exported skins in early times, but after- 



wards learned the art of tanning, and carried it on in 
establishments of great extent on the banks of streams. 

The dressing and working of leather in Japan and 
India are considered the most degrading of all pursuits, 
and the class that practice them is tabooed. 

In North and South America the natives prepare 
• leather by methods of their own. 

Morocco leather of fair quality was made in Charles- 
town, Mass., in 1770. 

The first manufacture of Morocco leather in the 
United States was started at Lynn, Mass. 

Bronze leather slices, similar to those of the ancient 
Egyptians, has been found in old Mexican sepulchres, 
indicating that the art of making and using leather was 
understood by the inhabitants of that country. 

Liverpool is the principal trade market of England, 
and there most of the imports of hides from South 
America arrive. 



The tanning of alligator skins was commenced about 
'855, some 17,000 to 20,000 are now tanned yearly, 
and are consumed by boot and shoe manufacturers in 
the United States. 

The principal mechanical appliances used in the 
manufacture of leather are for softening, pulling, roll- 
ing and splitting, washing, glazing, finishing, sweating, 
Sec. 

The process of splitting hides is a very ingenious 
method for reducing the hide to a uniform thickness 
throughout. It is done by machinery, and the opera- 
tion is quickly performed — a large hide being split in 
two in less than five minutes. This is accomplished by 
means of an oscillating knife driven by steam, as the 
power which divides the skin in two portions. The 
grain side hide so split is known in the trade as a split 
hide, the flesh side as splits. 



LEATHER WORKING. 



345 Patents Granted by the United States, 




Sacketl& Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 



120 






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BALANCES. 



BALANCES. 

1. Egyptian. 

2. Roman. 

3. Medi.-Kval. 

4. XJ. S. Patent, Steelyard— A. D. 1819. 

6. " " Platform Scale— A. D. 1838. 

6. " " Automatic Grain Weigher & 



ister— A. D. 1880, 




The art of weighing is as old as the time when trad- 
ing ceased to be mere barter. Before the coinage of 
money, bullion was weighed out in payment for mer- 
chandise. Coinage was simply the production of pieces 
of precious metal having their weight guaranteed. 
Scales for this primitive purpose were of the simplest 
form, consisting of a bar pivoted at its middle and hav- 
ing a pan at each end, as in an apothecary's scales, the 
weight employed and the material being put in oppo- 
site pans and made to balance each other. 

This form of balance, answering every purpose to 
weigh such materials as the precious metals, the quan- 
tities of which were small, was inconvenient when 
materials in large quantities were to be weighed. 
Hence, at a very early period, the form was modified 
to one nearly the same as that of the .modern steel- 
yard, which involves the weP known principle of the 
lever, that the power and weight are to each other in- 
versely as their respective arms. By this means a large 
quantity of material can be weighed with a compara- 
tively light poise. This form c f balance is found among 
the Egyptian inscriptions. Its French name, "romaine," 
indicates the source whence it came to modern Europe. 

'1 here is no device in so general use and for so 
long a period in which invention has been so sluggish, 
and with the exception of the knife-edge pivots, the 



steelyards in use at the beginning of the present cen- 
tury did not differ materially from those used in Rome 
and Pompeii. 

The earliest American patents for improvements in 
weighing instruments were granted to Benj. Dearhorn 
in i8ig. The improvements consisted in means for 
facilitating the handling of the instrument and of the 
heavy bodies to be weighed, but in one particular only 
were directed towards improving the delicacy and ac- 
curacy of the instrument itself. This was by bending 
upward the shorter end of the beam, and so raising 
thecenter of gravity higher with respect to the pivots. 

The earliest attempt at what is now called the plat- 
form scale appears to have been made in France in 
1822. Rude forms also appear in British patents of 
the same period. But there is no evidence that any 
success followed these efforts. It was not until Thad- 
deus Fairbanks, of Vermont, U. S. A., led by the de- 
sire of some means to readily weigh large quantities 
of hemp straw, devised a successful platform scale of the 
capacity of a ton, that the value of this invention was 
realized. A demand quickly followed for scales of sim- 
ilar pattern and of all sizes, from the lightest counter 
scales to vast canal weigh locks of hundreds of tons 
capacity; and for the ordinary purposes of commerce 
scales of this form quickly usurped the place of all 



others, the world over. This may be classed among 
leading American inventions, and the manufacture a 
distinctive American industry. 

The vast development of the grain production of our 
Western country, and the necessity of rapid handling 
in conveying grain to the Eastern and European mar- 
kets, have led, within a few years, to the introduction 
of automatic weighing machines or "grain meters." 
The grain in going through the elevator, or at some 
stage, passes into a weighing hopper ; when the hop- 
per is filled, and depressed by overcoming the weight 
on the beam, it automatically cuts off the inflowing 
stream and opens the discharge valves, and when the 
load is dumped rises again, the discharge valves close, 
and the gates for the admission of grain are again 
opened. This process is repeated indefinitely. The 
forms of this machine are very numerous. 

Recent improvements in weighing machinery, which 
promise success, involve increasing their delicacy by 
the substitution of other forms of pivots for the knife 
edges, such as flexible steel or torsion wires. Machines 
of this character show great capacity, combined with 
extreme delicacy and accuracy ; but they have not yet 
come into general use. 



BALANCES. 

64 Manufactories of Scales and Balances In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 



I800 isso 

$744,300.00 $3,814,981.00 

1,292,560.00 3,252,460.00 

280,015.00 783,019.00 



Hands Employed, . . 725 

839 Patents Granted by the United States. 



1,554 




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SAN FRANCISCO. 



HOROLOGY. 



HOROLOGY. 



. 1. Primitive Sun Dial. 

2. " Hour Glass. 

3. " Floating Bowl of the Brahmins. 

4. Clepsydra of Ctesibius — B. C. 245. 

6. French, De Wick's Clock— A. D. 1370. 

6. Eight-day American Clock. 

7. V. S. Patent, Independent Electric Clock— A. D. 1882. 

8. United States. Railway Standard Time. 




The earliest means of noting the passage of time 
■was by observation of the heavenly bodies. Sunrise 
and sunset were the most conspicuous events, and 
formed natural divisions of the day. Noon, or the 
period when the sun ceased to rise, and began its 
descent, was naturally the period next observed. 

Time was noted by observation, first of the sun 
itself, then of shadows. This led to the construction 
of the sun dial, which was at first a mere upright post 
or staff, but of which many forms were invented later. 

The earliest time keeper requiring mechanism of 
any character was the clepsydra, which, in its primitive 
form, was a vessel having a small orifice through which 
water was permitted to flow by drops. The quantity 
passing through was indicated, perhaps, by graduations 
on the receiving vessel. This was in use in Assyria, 
and may have been an invention of the Chaldeans. 
The Hindoo device of a perforated bowl, into which 
water enters from a filled vessel in which it floats, is a 
form of clepsydra. The sand glass is a later invention. 

The improvement of the clepsydra by the addition 
of wheels and a dial with a pointer, is at least as old as 
Ctesibius, about 245 B. C. Various devices were em- 
ployed in connection with it for sounding the hours. 
The simpler form was used in the courts of Athens 
and Rome to regulate the time of speakers. 

Another primitive device for indicating time was the 
graduated candle used by King Alfred. To this were 
sometimes attached little balls of metal, which dropped 
as the candle was burned away, and by falling in a 
metal vessel gave an audible indication. • 

The clock was a development from the improved 
form of clepsydra. In some of these a weight fur- 



nished the actual motive power, the water being used 
to regulate its descent. But no mechanical clock was 
practicable until the system was adopted of marking 
time by equal divisions, instead of the Roman system, 
under which the day and the night, whatever their 
length, were each divided into twelve equal spaces, 
called hours. 

The invention of the clock has been attributed by 
various writers to inventors of the 5th, 9th, 10th, 1 ith 
and 14th centuries. The system of unequal hours 
was in use, however, as late as the 11 th, and it may 
therefore be doubtful whether any of the so-called 
clocks of earlier centuries were truly such. 

It is probable clocks were actually first invented by 
the Saracens, and made their first appearance in 
Europe in the convents, the only places where the 
conditions were favorable to their introduction. 

The first clock publicly erected in Europe was built 
by Dendi, at Padua, in the 14th century. Nothing is 
known of its structure. 

The earliest clock of which we have any authentic 
description was built by Henry De Wick, for Charles V, 
of France, in 1339. It had a dial and a single hand, 
and struck the hours. Except the escapements, it was 
in all respects like a modern Dutch clock. 

The spiral spring was invented about 1460. 

The discovery of America by Columbus, in 1492, 
and the great impetus given to navigation, showed the 
necessity for some means of determining the longitude 
at sea. 

Gemma Frisius, a Dutch astronomer, was the first 
to suggest the use of accurate time keepers for the 
purpose. So important was this problem that large 



rewards were offered by the Spanish and British Gov- 
ernments for its successful solution. 

The application of the pendulum to the regulation 
of a clock was first suggested by Galileo. It is in dis- 
pute by whom this was first accomplished, but the ear- 
liest date given for it is 1641. 

The 17th century was prolific in improvements in 
clocks. 

Hooke invented the anchor escapement ; Huyghens 
the cyclerdal pendulum dial train, maintaining power, 
and spiral balance spring. 

Near the close of the century, John Harrison in- 
vented the marine chronometer, for which he received 
the British reward of ,£20,000. 

These inventions being in the line of improving the 
clock in exactness, it was reserved for American 
inventors to make the improvements which should 
render its use universal and indispensable. The intro- 
duction of American brass clocks put a fairly reliable 
time keeper within the reach of everyone, and they are 
known and used everywhere on the globe. 

The application of electricity to clocks was first 
attempted in England, by Bain, in 1841. Since that 
time many improvements have been made in this direc- 
tion. Electricity is employed as a motive power for 
individual clocks, but more commonly clocks, each 
actuated in the usual way by a weight or spring, are 
connected with a central regulator so as to be wound, 
controlled, or set at stated times. 

Many of die patented systems propose to " syn- 
chronize" clocks at distant points through the wires 
of telegraph or telephone lines, without interfering 
with their ordinary uses. 



HOROLOGY. 



82 Manufactories of Watches, Watch Cases, Clocks and Clock 
Cases in the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, 



isao 
11,364,211.00 

2,768,750.00 
765,420.00 

1,834 



isuo 

18,327,517.00 
12.321,520.00 
4,412,060.00 

9,168 



1,868 Patents Granted by the United States. 




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AMALGAMATORS. 



AMALGAMATORS. 



1. Primitive Patio. 

2. " Arraetra. 

8. 0. 8. Patent, Barrel Amalgamator— A. D. 1868. 




Mercury Amalgamator — A. D. 1877. 
Cylinder Plate Amalgamator — A. D. 1881. 
Electric find Vacuum Amalgamator — A. D. 1881. 
Mercury Vapor and Vacuum Amalgamator — A. JD. 1882. 
Mercury Vapor and Plate Amalgamator — A. D. 1888. 
Lead Amalgamator — A. D. 1883. 
Pneumatic Amalgamator — A. I). 1888. 
Electric Amalgamator— A. D. 1884. 



The knowledge of the solvent power which mercury 
exercises over various metals was not only known by 
the ancients, but was employed by them in the sepa- 
ration of gold from the baser metals and in'the gilding 
of silver. 

Vitrurius. 27 B. C, describes the manner of recov- 
ering gold from cloth in which it was interwoven. The 
cloth was first put in an earthen vessel and placed over 
fire, that it might be burnt ; the ashes were thrown into 
water, and quicksilver added — the latter uniting with 
the gold — and the water poured off the cloth squeezed 
with the hands. The quicksilver oozed through the 
cloth, leaving the gold pure and in a compressed 
mass. 

The Patio process, which was invented in 1557, has 
long been used in South America and is still in use in 
Mexico and parts' of the United States. 



Mercury was first applied to the extraction of silver, 
from the ores of Peru and Mexico, by Fernandez de 
Valesco, in 1571. 

Hanks, A. D. 1572, says that, "the process of amal- 
gamating silver ores with mercury is being substituted 
for melted lead." 

The first use of quicksilver for amalgamating pur- 
poses is considered a Spanish invention, discovered 
about the 16th century. 

The open process is designed especially for opera- 
tion upon ores of poor quality. 

The barrel process was in use in the latter part of 
the last century in Germany. 

The Estupa process is a modification of the Patio, 
and is employed in some districts of Mexico. 

The Caco process, used in Mexico and Chili, is a hot 
amalgamation in ket'tles. This process is employed on 



a class of ores containing large proportions of native 
silver. 

Varney, in 1852, invented a strainer for expediting 
the straining of amalgam. 

Ore, after being pounded and mashed, is combined 
with quicksilver, by which an alloy or amalgam is 
formed. This, after removing the more earthy parts, 
is enclosed in leather and subjected to pressure, by 
means of which the more liquid parts are forced 
through the leather, while the residuum, containing 
the greater part of the gold, remains. It is then sub- 
jected to distillation, in order to separate the quick- 
silver. In other cases themetal is purified by liquefying 
it with some other metals of different specific gravity, 
or is subjected to the action of acids, or to other pro- 
cesses, according to the nature of the metal, and also 
of the substances with which it is found combined. 



AMALGAMATORS. 



492 Patents Granted by the United States, 




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BLAST FURNACES. 



BLAST FURNACES. 

Ho. 1. Primitive Roman. 

2. » European— A. D. 1667. 

3. •• Northern Europe. 

4. •• Asiatic 

5. U. S. Patent, Smelting— A. D. 1828. 

6. " " Calcining— A. D. 1864. 

7. t. '• Iron Smelting— A. D. 1879. 

8. " " Furnace Charging — A. D. 1882. 




Seneca says that Democritus was the inventor of re- 
verbrating furnaces. 

In early times iron ores were reduced in a simple 
conical furnace called an air bloomery, which was 
erected on the top of a hill in order to obtain the 
greatest blast of wind. 

The original of the Catalan furnace used in the 
Pyrenees Mountains since 1293 was a furnace two feet 
high, with a hearth or crucible eleven inches deep to 
receive the heated lump of metal. The blast was fed 
to the fire through two openings, called tuyeres, about 
eleven inches from the bottom. In five hours 140 
pounds of iron could be made. 

In the reign of Elizabeth, blast furnaces were con- 
structed of sufficient size to produce from three to 
four tons of pig iron per day. 

The first blast furnace in America is said to have 
been set up at Shrewsbury, N. J., in 1680. 

Col. Spottswood opened some mines in Spott- 
sylvania Co., Virginia, in 1 715, and erected a blast 
furnace which was said to be the first regular furnace 
in the colonies. 



The high blast furnace is supposed to have been in- 
troduced by the Belgians. 

Henry Cort, of England, who received letters patent 
in 1784, for shingling, welding and manufacturing iron 
and steel into bars, has been called the father of the 
iron trade of the British nation. His was the original 
invention of the art of puddling iron. 

The use of anthracite coal, as fuel for smelting fur- 
naces, was tried as early as 1820, at Mauch Chunk, 
Pennsylvania. 

The discovery of the superior power of hot over 
a cold blast in fusing refractory lumps of cast-iron was 
accidentaly observed by Mr. Jas. Neilson, of Glasgow, 
Scotland, about 1827, at a smith's forge in that city. 

Since 1829 the air in the most improved blast fur- 
naces is heated to 300° or more Fahrenheit. 

The first iron produced by the use of the hot blast 
with anthracite was in the year 1835. 

The modern blast furnace is built of masonry, and 
lined with fire brick. Iron ore, coal and limestone are 
put into the furnace, and a powerful current or blast of 
air is introduced, keeping the mass of ore, fuel and flux 
at a white heat until it is melted. 



Charcoal 138 bushels, limestone 432 pounds, and 
I ore 2,612 pounds, will produce one ton of pig iron. 

In England temperature of hot blasts is 6oo° ; density 
I of blast and of refining furnace two and one-half to 
three pounds per square inch. Revolutions of pud- 
! dling rolls, 60 per minute; rail rolls. ioo; rail saw, 800; 
Horse power (indicated) required for different pro- 
cesses : blast furnace, 60 ; refining furnace. 26 : pud- 
dling rolls with squeezers and shears, 80 ; railway 
rolling train, 250 : small bar train, 60 ; double rail saw, 
j 1 2 ; straightening, 7. 

One pound of anthracite coal in a cupola furnace 
will melt from five to ten pounds of cast-iron ; 8 bushels 
of bituminous coal will melt one ton of cast-iron. Small 
! coal produces about three-fourths of the effect of large 
coal of the same kind. 
j The number of blast furnaces in the United States 
in 1878 was 700. 

The product of blast furnaces of the United States 
in 1880: total pig iron, 3,781,021 tons. 

985,208 tons of Bessemer steel were also produced 
in that year. 



BLAST FURNACES. 



490 Blast Furnaces in the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, 

Capacity— 

Tons Pig Iron per day. 



I88O 

$105,151,176.00 

89,315,569.00 

12,680,703.00 

41,875 



211 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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IRON AND STEEL FURNACES. 



IRON AND STEEL FURNACES. 

No. 1. Primitive Persian Iron. 

2. Catalan Forge, 18th Century. 

3. Raising the Lump — A. D. 1864. 

4. U. S. Patent, Steam Puddler— A. D. 1854. 
6. " " Puddler— A. D. 1867. 

6- " " Rotary Puddler— A. D. 1883. 

7- " " Bessemer Plant^A. D. 1884. 




The art of working metals is alluded to by Moses, 
Gen. iv, 22, as existing before the deluge. 

Iron was found, so says the Chronicle, on Mount Ida 
after the burning of the forests from lightning, at a 
period answering to our 1432 B. C. 

Moses refers to an iron furnace 1490 B. C, and Job 
speaks of iron as " taken out of the earth." 

Previous to 1 ico B. C. the Israelites worked in the 
iron furnaces of Egypt during their captivity. 

Jeremiah and Ezekiei speak of iron, and mention two 
qualities, one of which the latter calls bright iron {prob- 
ably steel). 

The same distinction is made by Hesiod, 850 B. C. 

Steel was imported into Greece 500 B. C. from the 
Chalybes. 

The ancient mines of Egypt have been explored by 
Europeans, and the processes used must have been 
wasteful, as the slag contains 53 per cent, of iron. 

The early process for making steel is about identical 
with that still in use in India. 

It is supposed that steel was known to the Egyptians. 
In the pictures decorating the tomb of Rameses III, 
bucklers are represented sharpening their knives upon 
what are snpposed to be steel sharpeners. 

In Jeremiah xv, 12, occurs the sentence, "Shall iron 
break the northern iron and the steel ?" 

The Hindoos still prepare steel in their primitive 
way ; their name for it is " wootz." Their furnaces 
are small and built of clay, being four or five feet 
high, pear-shaped, measuring about two feet at the 
bottom and one at the top. The opening at the front 
is built up with clay for the smelting operation. The 
bellows used are made of goatskin, stripped off whole. 
The holes on the legs are tied up and a nozzle placed 
in the hole for the neck, while the air is supplied through 
the hole for the tail, which is closed when the air is 



blown out. With two such bellows worked alternately, 
one by each hand, a continuous blast is kept up of suf- 
ficient force to smelt the ore. 

The celebrated Damascus blades, so highly valued for 
their temper and edge, were made from steel manufac- 
tured in India. 

The Ancient Hindoos made steel in small quantities 
by taking their charcoal-made wrought iron, cut into 
small pieces, and puttiRg about a pound of it at a time 
into a crucible with ten times the quantity of wood 
chopped fine ; they put the crucible, tightly plugged, 
into a furnace and heated it intensely for two or three 
hours. At the end of the operation the steel was fou.id 
fused into a cake in the bottom of the crucible. 

From this steel was fashioned the famous cimeters 
and blades of the East, of such exquisite edge and tem- 
per as to cut a gauze veil floating in the air without 
disturbing its movement. 

Accident first, and then experiment, led to the put- 
ting of other articles with the ore in the furnace, which 
caused it to melt more readily ; as, for instance, lime- 
stone for iron ore. 

The first process for obtaining the metal from the ore 
was simply to apply the greatest heat attainable. In 
time, crude furnaces were erected in which the heat 
could be made greater and die metal more readily and 
speedily extracted. 

The Romans, during their occupation of Britain, man 
ufactured iron to a considerable extent. 

Dr. Livingston refers to the iron smelting furnaces 
of the tribes encountered in his explorations to the 
Gambezi river in Africa. 

Iron ore was sent to England in 1610 by the James- 
town Colony. 

Iron was manufactured from the ore in Virginia as 
early as 1620. 



Charcoal was the only fuel used until 1618, when 
coal was introduced for this purpose. 

In 1621 the works erected by Lord Dudley for smelt- 
ing iron ore by the use of coal were destroyed by a 
mob. This employment of violence is said to have put 
off the general introduction of the process for nearly 
one hundred years. 

In Western Europe, during the middle ages, the 
manufacture of steel was almost unknown. 

In England the first patent for making steel was 
given in 1 626 to Richard Lord Dacre. T. Letsome and 
N. Page 

Early in the 17th century a smelting furnace was 
erected near Yorktown, Va., by Gov. Spottswood. In 
1622 the works were destroyed by the Indians, and 
their families, it is said, were massacred, These were 
the first iron works ever erected in America. 

In 1645 John Winthrop, Jr., with some associates, 
obtained from the town of Boston three diousand acres 
of the common lands at Braintree for an encourage- 
ment and bounty for setting up iron works, and a 
monopoly of that business for twenty-one years 

The first blomary in. America was established by 
James and Henry Leonard in t652 at Taunton, Mass. 

In 1670 mention is made of the process of making 
steel by boiling the- material in "sow metal." This is 
supposed to be the method spoken of by various authors 
as in early use on the continent. 

Captain John Smith first discovered the ore banks 
of Maryland, near Baltimore. 

The first furnace for- making pig iron in Maryland 
was established in 1715.. 

The manufacture of pigand bar iron was commenced 
in Virginia in 1715. 

The first exportation of pig iron from America to 
England was three tons, shipped in 171S. 



Cast steel was invented by Benjamin Huntsman.', a 

German, in 1740. 

The business of steel making was established in 
America as early as the Revolution, but it did not 
thrive until within the last forty years. 

The first experiment of manufacturing iron by the 
use of anthracite coal was made in 1 820 by some of the 
members of the Lehigh Coal Company. 

The first manufacture in this country of wrought 
iron tubing- and fittings for gas. water and steam pipes 
was commenced at Philadelphia in 1 S36. 

In 1839 Heath, of Sheffield. England, devised and 
patented a mode of combining carbon with manganese 
to produce a carburet, which converted English iron 
into steel. 

Henry Bessemer obtained his first English patent in 
'855 

The process as employed in the United States is car- 
ried on under a combination of the Bessemer and Kelly 
patents. Wm. Kelly, of Eddyville, Ky., obtained a 
U. S. patent in 1851 for the process of manufacturing 
sceel. Bessemer's process was introduced in 1S56. 

Steel has been defined as any kind of iron which, 
when heated to redness and suddenly cooled by being 
plunged into cold water, becomes harder. 

There were eleven establishments in theUnited States 
for the manufacture of Bessemer steel in 1878, each 
having two converters. 

No odier material is so enhanced in price by the 
valuable -qualities imparted to it by labor as iron. 

It is stated that a bar worth $5 is worth g 10 when 
made into horseshoes. $55 in the form of needles, 
$3,285 in penknife blades, and #25,000 in balance 
springs of watches. 



IRON AND STEEL FURNACES. 



1,005 Manufactories of Iron and Steel In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 



1S70 I88O 

$121,772,074.00 $230,971 ,884.00 

207,208,696.00 296,557,685.00 

40,514,981.00 55,476,785.00 



Hands Employed, 



77,555 



140,978 



2,572 Patents Granted by the United States. 





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METALLURGY-GOLD AND SILVER 



METALLURGY-GOLD AND SILVER. 

1. U. S. Patent, Shaft Roasting Furnace— A. D. 1867. 

2. " '• Revolving Roaster— A. D. 1870. 

3. '• " Feeding and Discharging Roastor— A. I). 187(5. 

4. - - Water Jacket Smelter— A. 1). 1880. 







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Silver and gold are first mentioned in the Bible about 
1920 B. C. 

Abraham, on his return from Egypt, is represented 
as being rich in cattle, silver and gold. 

Diodorus, 10 B. C, states that " after the separation 
of the heavier particles of the ore, workmen take it 
away by weight and measure and put it with a fixed 
proportion of lead, salt, a little tin and barley, into 
earthern crucibles closed with clay ; leave it in a fur- 
nace for five successive days and nights ; when cooled 
the crucibles are opened and nothing is found but the 
pure gold." 

Gold was undoubtedly the first metal used by man. 
It is found in a natural state, but slightly mixed with 
other metals. 

In the early history of gold it was used for orna- 
ments, in the arts and manufactures, and not as money. 
There is no well authenticated account of its use as 
money prior to the days of Julius Cajsar, 46 B. C. 

Greece, for centuries, coined nothing but silver, be- 
cause of the abundance of gold. 

The surface finds of gold in India, China and Japan, 
were so great up to a thousand years ago that whole 
pillars of gold upheld the ornaments of the temples in 
those countries. India and China knew that if these 
pillars were melted down, and coined into money, the 
money would depreciate, and hence refused to recog- 
nize it as money. 



The conquest of Mexico by Cortez, in 15 19, was 
soon followed by die development of the rich silver 
mines of that country. 

The metal was known to the Aztecs, and was 
worked by them in numerous ornamental and useful 
articles. 

Pliny speaks of a mine opened by Hannibal, which 
supplied 300 pounds of silver daily. 

The alchemists called silver " Linia," or " Diania." 

The total production from the first working of the 
Mexican silver mines by the Spanish, to the time of 
their expulsion in 182 1, was $2,368,952,000. 

Since the opening of the Mexican mines in the 16th 
century their production has exceeded that of all other 
countries. 

Gold was discovered in the Sacramento Valley, Cali- 
fornia, in 1848. This fact got noised abroad, and in 
three months upwards of four thousand persons were 
at work there digging for gold, and achieving remark- 
able success. 

Alexander Parke, of England, patented in 1850 a 
process of extracting silver from lead by means of 
zinc 

Silver is separated from lead by repeated smelting 
and crystallization of the lead. 

The gold furnace is built above the floor ; the aper- 
ture for the fuel and crucible in each furnace is 9 to 16 
inches square, and 12 to 20 inches deep. 



Recovering silver by the Patio process is sometimes 
conducted on an immense scale. 

In one instance, at the hacienda of Kegla, near Keal 
de Monte, there is an establishment the floor of which 
is one and one-half acres in extent, built in the most 
substantial manner, slightly sloping to facilitate the 
flow of water. The flooring consists of well-matched 
pine boards, and this vast receptacle sometimes con- 
tains as much as 1,000 tons of argentiferous slime, 30 
tons of salt, 3 tons sulphate of copper, and 18,000 
pounds of mercury in various stages of the amalga- 
mating process. 

The reason why this takes place in this well-known 
manner is because there is an affinity between the dif- 
ferent ingredients employed in the operation. 

According to approximate estimates by the best 
American and German authorities, the total pro- 
duct of all the gold and silver mines in the world, 
from the year 1500 to 1874, is as follows: Pounds of 
gold, 17,000,000; valued at #6,450,000,000. Pounds of 
silver, 364,000,000; valued at #8, 175,000,000. Total 
pounds of gold and silver, 38 1 ,000,000 ; valued at 
$14,625,000,000. 

In 1810 the annual supply of bullion to Europe was 
estimated at $40,000,000, of which one-third was used 
for manufactures. At the present day the annual sup- 
ply is much greater. 



METALLURGY-GOLD AND SILVER. 



791 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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METALLURGY-QUICKSILVER. 




METALLURGY-QUICKSILVER. 

No, 1 Spanish Quicksilver Furnace — A. D. 1700. 

2. English Zinc Furnace— A. D. 1830. 

3. Antimony Furnace — A. D. I860. 

4. Zinc Furnace— A. D. 1875. 

5. U. S. Patent, Quicksilver Furnace — A. D. 1876. 
" " Antimony Furnace — A. D. 1880. 



Dioscoredes separated mercury from cinnabar. 

Pliny states that 700,000 pounds of cinnabar were 
received yearly from Spain, and that the Greeks re- 
ceived it from there Soo years before he wrote, A. D. 70. 

Cinnabar is of a bright vermillion coloi ; its specific 
gravity is 1 3.6. 

Quicksilver was well known in Peru among the lncas, 
but was only used to make the pigment vermillion. 

It has been mined from time immemorial in Spain, 
at Alrnaden, where the old Aludel furnaces are still 
used. 

Cinnabar is mined extensively in Idria. and is 
found in Hungary, many parts of Germany, China, 
Japan, Mexico. Honduras, Colombia, Peru and Cali- 
fornia. 



1 The extensive mine at New Almada is 12 miles from 
San Jose, California. 

The mode of mining and breaking the pieces suit- 
, able for the furnace has nothing peculiar to offer, but 
I the condensing furnaces are worthy of notice. 

They are sixteen in number, arranged side by side, 
j and extend several hundred feet beneath a spacious 
i roof; they stand 8 feet apart, are 40 feet in length. 10 
in heighthand 8 in breadth. The ore is cleaned, broken 
and dumped into the receiving chamber, which i: next 
to the furnace and holds seven tons of ore. The covers 
being luted on, the sublimated vapors pass by a circuit- 
ous route through twelve chambers successively, the 
connecting apertures being alternately at the tops and 
bottoms of the division walls. The mercury condensed 
in each chamber passes through small holes in the side 



to a curveil trough on the outside, which conducts it to 
a reservoir, whence it is clipped into iron flasks, which 
receive a charge of 75 pounds and are then closed by 
a screw cap. While passing from the last of the twelve 
to the stack the vapor is brought into contact with a 
pan of water, which still further condenses escaping 
fumes. 

The miners and those who merely handle the quick- 
silver are not injured thereby, but those who work 
about the furnaces and inhale the fumes of the metal 
are seriously affected. Salivation is common, and the 
attendants on the furnaces are compelled to desist 
from their labor every three or four weeks. The 
horses and mules are also salivated, and from jo to 30 
of them die every year from the effects of the mercury. 



METALLURGY-QUICKSILVER. 



35 Patents Granted by the United States. 




SackeU"& Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 



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REDUCING AND SEPARATING ORES. 



REDUCING AND SEPARATING ORES. 

No. 1. Primitive Stamp Mill— A. D. 1650. 

2. Crushing Ores— A. D. 1690. 

3. Primitive Ore Washer. 

4. " Ore Collector 

5. Mexican Arrastrn. 

6. Cradling 

7 H 8. Patent, Ore Crusher— A. D. 1882. 

ft " " Ore Pulverizer — A. I). 1883. 

.>. • " Ore Washing and Separating— A. I* 1884. 



Diodorus, io 1). C, states that the "marble shining 
quartz rock was excavated by iron picks and chisels, 
and carried from the bottom of the shafts to the open 
air by boys. It was then pounded by iron pestles in 
stone mortars till the pieces were reduced to the size 
of a lentel, and then ground in the ordinary hand mill 
to a fine powder ; it was spread on a broad board, and 
water poured upon it and rubbed tintil the earthy mat- 
ter was separated, which flowed away with the water, 
leaving the heavier particles on the board." 

The principal supplies of gold in ancient Egypt 
were derived from the mines of the desert upper 
country ; the gold was found in quartz rock. Agath- 
arcides states that "the work of extracting the gold 
from these mines was immense. The rock was 
pounded fine by hand, and the gold separated by fre- 
quent washings." 

This is confirmed by paintings on tombs. 



The ancient Iberians, in the time of Strabo, washed 
gold-bearing earth in baskets. 

In reducing silver ores the ancient Peruvians mixed 
them with galena, or lead, in portable ovens. 

In 1519 sifting and wet stamping was introduced by 
Paul Grommesetter, a native of Schwarze, Germany. 

Pliny speaks of collecting gold by means of an arti- 
ficial river and sluices. He says : " The water is some- 
times brought a distance of 100 miles." 

The Mexican Arrastra will grind from six hundred 
to eight hundred pounds of ore in twenty-four hours. 

The modern manner of reducing and separating 
ores is : The ores, having been raised to the surface, 
are first dressed, that is, prepared for smelting. This 
includes the various operations of sorting, stamping 
and roasting. Sorting consists merely in the separa- 
tion of the different pieces of ore into lots, according 
to the products they are expected to afford and the 



treatment they are likely to require. After the ore is 
sorted it is carried to the stamper, or stamping mill, 
which consists either of hammers or iron cylinders, 
driven up and down, which serves to break up the ore, 
together with its gangue, into a coarse powder. To 
this succeeds the washing of the powdered ore in 
troughs or inclined planes, crossed by a etirrent of 
water, the heavier ore remaining, while the lighter 
earthy and stony substances are carried away by the 
water. The ore is then ready for roasting. 

Some ores do not require all these operations. Cop- 
per ore. for example, is not stamped, but broken into 
small fragments by the hammer. In other cases roast- 
ing is unnecessary. 

The different modes of collecting gold are known as 
panning, winnowing, cradle rocking, washing with Long 
Tom, jamming or turning the course of a river, bur- 
rowing, ground sluicing, and hydraulic processes. 



REDUCING AND SEPARATING ORES, 



1,051 Patents Granted by the United States, 



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FORGING AND WELDING. 



FORGING AND WELDING. 



1. Primitive Sledge Hammer. 

2. French Water- Wheel Forging Machine. 

3. English Steam Forging Machine— A. D. 1801. 

4. U. S. Patent, Foot Power Forging Machine— A. D. 1833. 

5. " and English Patents, Steam Forging — A. D. 1843. 

6. " Patent, Drop Hammer— A. D. 1857. 

7. " " Helve Hammer— A. D. 1873. 

8. " " Steam Hammer— A. D. 1880. 

9. " " Atmospheric Hammer — A. D. 1882. 




The Romans discovered plenty of iron in Britain 
and established foundries for manufacturing spears and 
other military implements in the forests of Dean. 
Their forges and tools, together with great heaps of 
the iron, stone, cinders, &c, have been dug up. 

The first iron forge in America was established in 
1652 at Raynham, a town of the Plymouth Colony. 

The manufacture of iron was commenced in Penn- 
sylvania about 1720 by a settler named Nutt, who 
erected a forge in Coventry. 

The English Parliament, to protect the iron industry 
in England, passed, in 1750, an act prohibiting the 
erection of any iron rolling or slitting mill, or any forge, 
in the American Colonies. 

When illumination by gas was first introduced to any 
great extent in England, the old musket barrels, laid 
by in quiet retirement from the fatigues of the last war, 
were employed for the conveyance of gas. The breech 
ends of the musket barrels were broached and tapped, 
and the muzzles were screwed externally to connect 
the two without detached sockets. From the rapid in- 
crease of gas illumination the old gun barrels soon 
became scarce, and new tubes with detached sockets 
made by the old barrel forgers were first resorted 
to. This led to a series of valuable contrivances 
for the making of wrought-iron tubes, commencing 
with the Russel patent of 1824, under which the 
tubes were first bent up by hand, hammers and 
swages. 

In 1828 Mr. Samuel Collins, of Connecticut, built a 
trip hammer shop in Collinsville, and commenced mak- 
ing broad axes with trip hammers, each man tempering 



his own. One person could forge and temper eight 
axes per day. 

Before the invention of the steam hammer in 1839, 
large forge hammers actuated by steam had been in 
use, but in an indirect manner, the hammer having 
been lifted by cams and other expedients, which ren- 
dered the apparatus cumbersome, costly and very 
wasteful of power on account of the indirect way in 
which the original source of the force had to reach its 
point of application by giving the blow to the hammer. 

The mode of joining steel to iron by welding, in- 
stead of riveting, is said to have been discovered by 
Sir Thomas Frankland. 

The first application of steam to the hammer was to 
the tilt, which was worked by cams on a rotary shaft 
by the steam engine. 

The steam hammer at the Bessemer Steel Works 
at Harrisburg, Pa., weighs 35,000 pounds, and is said 
to be the largest in the United States. 

In his story, told in the London Graphic, of his jour- 
ney to Kilmajaro, Africa, Mr. H. H. Johnston describes 
a native forge : 

The Ma-Chaga, he says, are clever smiths, and forge 
all kinds of utensils, weapons and ornaments from the 
pig iron they receive from the country of Usanga, near 
Lake Jipe. The forge is but a pair of goat skin bel- 
lows, converging into a hollow cone of wood, to which 
are added two more segments of stone pierced through 
the nozzle, which is thrust into the furnace of charcoal. 
The bellows are kept steady by several pegs thrust 
into the ground, and a huge stone is often placed on 
the pipe to keep it firm. After the iron has been 
heated white hot in the charcoal, it is taken out by the 



iron pincers and beaten on a stor : anvil. The Chega 
smiths not only make spear blades and knives of ap- 
parently tempered steel, but can fabricate the finest and 
most delicate chains. 

The best way of welding cast-iron is to take it at a 
very intense heat, closely approaching the melting 
point. In this state it will be found sufficiently malle- 
able to stand welding by the hammer. There are 
other methods, but most of them are attended by 
almost insurmountable difficulties. 

Iron while heating, if exposed to air, will oxydize ; 
when at white heat, if in contact with coal, it will car- 
bonize, or become steely. Iron should be heated as 
rapidly as possible. 

The steam hammer recently completed at Creusot is 
the largest and most powerful instrument of the kind 
in the world. The hammer in the workshops of Herr 
Krupp, at Essen, weighs fifty tons, and descends 
through a maximum space of three meters ; but the 
hammer of the Creusot engine, weighing between 
seventy-five and eighty tons, has a course of five me- 
ters — the energy of the blow struck by it being 41 2,500 
kilogramme-meters, while the Krupp instrument can 
only develop 1 50,000 kilogramme-meters of work. The 
foundation on which the anvil rests consists of masonry 
five meters in depth, the space between the level of the 
ground and the cast-iron table being filled in with stout 
wooden beams, disposed alternately in horizontal and 
vertical layers, so as to give an elastic bed. Altogether, 
100 cubic meters of cast-iron, 100 cubic meters of wood 
and 1,000 cubic meters of masonry have been em- 
ployed to form this foundation. 



FORGING AND WELDING, 



656 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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HORSE-SHOE MAKING. 



HORSE-SHOE MAKING. 

No. 1. Primitive Hand Making. 

2. 0. S. Patent, Horse-shoe Machine— A. D. 1828. 

3. » " " " —A. I). 1875. 

4. •> " " " —A. D. 1879. 



Horses were not shod in Egypt. 

Aristotle and Pliny mention the covering of horses' 
feet in stony places to protect the hoof from breaking. 

In Japan the horses have clogs of twisted straw. 

Camels in olden times were similarly provided. 

The mules of Nero were shod with silver ; those of 
his wife with gold. 

The first mention made of shoes being nailed to the 
hoofs, is by Emperor Leo, in the ninth century. 



Horse-shoeing was introduced into England by Wil- 
liam I. 

In iSro Rotch obtained an English patent for an 
elastic horse-shoe, consisting of a sheet iron sole 
attached to an india rubber upper which was slipped 
upon the foot, clasping the crown and encircling the 
pastern. Dudley's cast iron horse-shoe, English patent 
of 1823, was cast in a mold modeled from the foot of 
the horse. 



Burden, of Troy, N. Y., patented a machine for 
making horse-shoes in 1835, which, with improvements, 
revolutionized this branch of business. 

Horse-shoes made by machinery are now generally 
used ; they are made of five sizes, numbered from 1 to 
5. Besides these shoes proper, there are several 
attachments, such as snow pads, movable calks, &c, 
&c. 



HORSE-SHOE MAKING. 



326 Patents Granted by the United States 





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8 

NAIL MAKING, 



NAIL MAKING. 



No. 1. Primitive Hand. 

2. U. S. Patent, Cut Nail Machine— A. D. 1810. 
Wire Nail— A. D. 1834. 
" —A. D. 1848. 
" Corrugated Nail Machine— A. D. 1874. 
" Spike Machine— A. D. 1881. 

Wrought Nail Machine— A. D. 1883. 
" Tack Machine, Automatic Peed— A. D. 1884. 
" Horse-shoe Nail Machine— A. D. 1884. 




In 1506 letters patent were granted by King James, I 
of England, to Sir Beres Bulmer for the cutting of iron | 
into small bars or rods to serve for making nails. 

Clement Dawbney obtained an English patent for 
cutting nail rods, in 17 18, which was operated by water 
power. 

Cut nails were first made in the "United States in 
'775- 

In 1786, Reed, of Massachusetts, constructed a ma- 
chine for cutting nails from the plate, and in 1798 ob- 
tained a patent for cutting and heading at the same 
operation. 

Clifford, of England, was granted a patent in 1790 



for making nails by swaging between rollers. The first 
United States patent for machine for cutting nails was I 
granted J. G. Pearson, of New York, March 23, 1 794. 

Perkins patented, in 1795, a machine which it was \ 
stated could make 200,000 nails per day. 

Machinery for splitting rods for nail making was first 
introduced in Sweden. Foley, an Englishman, trav- 1 
eled to Sweden, worked his way into their mills, took 
notes of their machinery, and brought them to England, 
where he established a factory. 

In the year 1811a Birmingham firm made the exper- 
iment of cutting nails out of sheets of iron by ingeni- 
ously contrived machinery, and by the year 1820 such 



improvements had been made as had placed the experi- 
ment beyond the bounds of hypothesis and within the 
circle of trade routine. About the same time Ameri- 
can manufacturers adopted similar processes, so that 
the use of this kind of machinery would appear to have 
been contemporaneous in both countries. 

The American nail cutter was the first to cut the 
nails and swage die heads at one operation. 

Before the introduction of machinery it is estimated 
that 60,000 persons were employed at Birmingham, 
England, in making nails by hand. 

The latest perfected nail machines will turn out about 
40,000,000 nails a week. 



NAIL MAKING, 



Capacity— per day of 10 hours : 
By hand, Nails, 
Horse-shoe Nail Machine, 
Tack Machine, 
Spike Machine, 
Corrugated Wire Nail Machine 



Primitive 
Mode. 


Prewnt 
Michin*. 


1,000 







60,000 




180,000 




240,000 




90,000 



770 Patents Granted by the United States 




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TYPES OF 



LS AND SPIKES. 



NAILS AND SPIKES. 



62 Manufactories in the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 



1800 I 880 

$5,810,250.00 $9,877,805.00 

9,857,223.00 21,924,640.00 

2,398,872.00 5,255,171.00 



Hands Employed, - - - 6,878 

117 Patents Granted by the United States. 



8,910 



Hardly any kind of hardware can boast of greater 
antiquity than nails, inasmuch as they are mentioned in 
the 4th chapter of the Book of Judges, and in other 
parts of the Bible. 

The nails of ancient Egypt were of bronze. 

There are about 300 varieties of nails in use, and 
ten sizes of each kind. 

The term tenpenny, when applied to nails, is proba- 
bly a corruption of pound, thus : a thousand fourpenny 
nails weigh four pounds, and one thousand tenpenny 
nails weigh ten pounds. 

Nails are assorted : 1 st, as to purpose used, as 
hurdle, pail, deck scupper, sheathing, fencing and slat- 



ing.; 2d, form of the head, as rose, clasp, diamond, 
billed, clout and counter sink ; 3d, form of points, as 
flat, sharp, spear and clinch ; 4th, thickness, as fine, 
bastard, strong ; 5th, sizes, as one-half to forty lbs. ; 
6th, material, as copper for sheathing ships, metal for 
roof coverings ; 7th, mode of manufacture, as wrought, 
cut and cast. 

Some nails are so small that 1,000 weigh only one 
and one-half ounces. 

It is said that there are about 2,000 kinds of nails 
and rivets made and used for an almost infinite variety 
of purposes. 

It is predicted that in the course of the next five 



] years steel nails will have as completely supplanted 
iron nails as the steel rail has its iron predecessor. It 
is said that steel nails can be made cheaper than those 
made of iron. 

Spikes are nails larger than tenpenny, viz : 1 2-d 
are 3; inches long, 45 to pound ; 1 6-d are 3; inches 
long, 28 to pound ; 20-d are 4 inches long, 20 to pound ; 
30-d are 4; inches long, 16 to pound. Railway spikes 
are larger. 

Spikes are known by shape, character, purpose, 
quality or size, as flat, narrow flat, wide flat, grooved, 
swelled, notched, barbed, forked, cylindrical, square, &c. 



NAILS AND SPIKES. 



IT. S. PATENTS 

FROM 

A. D. 1805 

TO 

A.. T3. 1884. 




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9 



SCREW MAKING MACHINES, 



SCREW MAKING MACHINES. 

1. 0". S. Patent, Nicking Heads— A. D. 1850. 

Reciprocating Dies for forming threads — A.D. 1866. 
Shaving and Nicking — A. D. 1876. 
Cutting Screws from Rods— A. D. 1877. 
Rolling Dies for forming threads— A D. 1880. 
Cutting Screws from Rods— A. D. 1883. 
Rolling Dies for forming threads— A. D. 1883. 
Cutting Screws— A. D. 1883. 

" " from Rods— A. D. 1884. 




Screw making is supposed to be of very ancient 
origin. It is only within the present century, however, 
that great perfection in this art has been attained. 

Wood screws were first made in the United States 
by machinery, at Providence, R. I., in the year 1834, 

The greater portion of the rods from which screws 
are made comes in coils from Sweden, Germany and 
England. The rod first passes through a process for 
removing the flinty scale on the outside, and, after being 
annealed in furnaces, it is subjected to the pointing 
process, the purpose of which is to reduce the end of 
the rod to enter the draw plate. The wire is then 
drawn in different sizes needed for the great variety of 
screws. The machinery for the different processes is 
the result of the skill of many inventors who have pro- 



duced a system of machines mostly automatic, and 
beautiful in operation. 

By the automatic wire blocks used, if anything hap- 
pens to the wire while going through the process, the 
whole apparatus stops. If it did not stop the wire 
would break. By a machine whose action is accurate 
the rod is cut into sizes of the screws desired, and the 
head put on almost at the same instant. The metal, 
in going through this process, necessarily becomes very 
oily. 

These " blanks," as they are called at this stage, are 
put into what are called "rattlers," revolving boxes, 
hexagonal in shape, filled with sawdust, where they are 
cleansed of the oil that covers them. The blanks are 
now ready to have their heads shaved, which consists 
in cutting the heads perfecdy round. The blanks are 



put into a hopper, and by an automatic feeder they are 
let down into a trough, from which they are picked by 
a metal finger and put into a spindle. The heads are 
then shaved, and by a revolving spindle the blank is 
taken out to the small saw, which cuts the slot in the 
head. The blank is then revolved back again, and 
shaved again to get rid of the burr, or rough edge, left 
by the tool in cutting the slot. 

The blanks are then fired out of the machine abso- 
lutely perfect. The blanks, after being shaved and 
slotted, are placed in another machine and direaded, 
when the screw is complete. 

There are machines which can make screws with five 
hundred threads to die inch, invisible to the naked eye, 
and it takes 144,000 of them to weigh a pound. 



SCREW MAKING MACHINES, 



809 Patents Granted by the United States. 










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TYPES OF SCREWS. 



SCREWS, 



20 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested, .... 

Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, . 

Hands Employed, . 

93 Patents Granted by the United States, 




1880 

$4,265,000.00 

2,184,532.00 

456,642.00 

1,585 



In the year 1809 Ezra L'Hommedieu, of Connecticut, 
patented a double-podded screw auger, and in the same [ 
year informed the Secretary of the Treasury that "he 
made a machine for himself by which a man, aided 
by two boys, could make three hundred pounds per 
day of assorted screws, better than the imported ones, 
and that, in his opinion, in a short time the demands of j 
the United States would be supplied by screws pro- ; 
duced by his simple and cheap process." 

Not only have improvements been made in machines I 
for producing screws, but also in the shape and method 
of construction of the screw, itself. 

One of the chief improvements is the gimlet-pointed 
screw, which has almost superseded the old form of the 
screw ending in a blunt point. 

It is singular that so simple an improvement as this, 



which is simply combining the screw point of the gim- 
let with the screw itself, should have been so recently 
made. 

Screws and gimlets had both been long in use before 
the idea of combining them occurred to any one of the 
thousands daily engaged in the practical use of both, 
and this, too, when the gimlet itself was only a pointed 
screw. 

In France gimlet-pointed screws were made over a 
hundred years ago, but, from the want of a simple 
change in the machinery used for making them, they 
did not possess the accuracy needed for bringing them 
into use. 

Another late improvement in screws consists in the 
arrangement of the threads about the center cylinder. 
This differs from the ordinary screw in having three 



threads, which revolve about the core only once and a 
half in their passage from the top to the point, instead 
of having only one thread, which revolves many times 
in the same distance. 

The advantage claimed of having the threads revolve 
at the angle is, that a screw so constructed can be 
driven in with a hammer instead of requiring the screw 
driver ; also, that the threads are farther apart and take 
a stronger hold upon the wood, and hold with double 
the strength of an ordinary screw. 

Some of the screws used in making watches at the 
Waltham Watch Manufactory are so minute as to seem 
like iron filings or grains of ground pepper. 

A pound of steel, costing but fifty cents a pound, 
yields 100,000 of these screws, worth eleven dollars. 



SCREWS. 

U. S. PA.TENTS 

FROM 

A.. D. 1831 

TO 

A.. D. 1884. 



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SAW SHARPENING MACHINES. 



SAW SHARPENING MACHINES. 

No. 1. Primitive Hand Filing. 

2. U. S. Patent, Saw Sharpener— A. D. 1849. 

3. " " Reciprocating Sharpener — A. D. 1878. 

4. " " Rotary Sharpener— A. D. 1879. 

5. " " » " —A.D.I 884. 



Pliny, A. D. 79, says that green wood fills the inter- 
vals between the teeth of the saw with sawdust, ren- 
dering its edge uniform and inert, and it is for this 
reason that the teeth are made to project right and left 
in turns, so that the sawdust is discharged. 

Saw grinding machines were among those supplied 
by Sir Samuel Bentham to the British Admiralty be- 
fore 1800. 

The angles at the points of saw teeth are, in gen- 
eral, more acute in proportion to the softness of the 



material to be operated on, varying from 90° for met- 
als and very hard woods to 6o° or less for soft woods. 

To insure the action of each tooth the points must 
be in the same straight line (in rectilinear saws), and 
for this purpose they are topped by laying the file 
without its handle flatwise upon the points and reduc- 
ing them to the same level by a few strokes of the tool. 

More force is applied to the file in sharpening the 
teeth near the ends of the saw than at the middle, 
where they are more worn. 



Hand-saw teeth and other teeth having angles of 
60° are sharpened by first filing the oblique faces 
next the backs, then the other oblique faces, and their 
backs. 

Wood pruning saws, which are made thicker on the 
face than at the back, are sharpened by a triangular 
file applied very obliquely in a horizontal direction, 
sometimes at an angle exceeding 45°. 

The setting of the saw is afterward performed. 



SAW SHARPENING MACHINES. 



787 Patents Granted by the United States, 



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BANJOS AND GUITARS 



BANJOS AND GUITARS. 

No. 1. Ancient Citheras. 

2. Spanish Guitar. 

3. English Harp Lute— A. D. 1816. 

4. U. S. Patent, Harp Guitar— A. D. 1831. 
" Pedal " —A. D. 1873. 

6. " " Banjo— A. D. 1876. 

7. » " Guitar— A D. 1881. 
" Zither— A. D. 1883. 
" Guitar Head— A. D. 1884. 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, 

429 Manufactories in the United States. 



The banjo is a modern invention. It is much 
esteemed by the Negroes of the southern United 
States. 

Its capacity is limited to the performance of sim- 
ple tunes, and it is principally used for accompani- 
ments. 

The thrumming sound has a near resemblance to the 
Tarn Tarn of Africa and the Orient. 

The guitar was known for more than fifteen centuries 
before the Christian era. 



In the sculptures of Nimrod a musician is repre- 
I sented playing on a guitar. 

Europeans derived it from Egypt through the inter- 
vention of the Saracens, after the lull of the dark ages, 
following the track through Spain. 

The modern Arabs have an instrument which may 
be considered the Syrian guitar. The head is. bent 
over, as in the European, the neck appears to be des- 
titute of frets, the strings are seven, and made of cat- 
gut. 



The guitar was introduced into England by Francis 
Corbeta, about 1660. 

The guitar is the principal musical instrument of the 
Japanese. Their syanisie has three strings, two in the 
octave, the middle one giving the fifth. 

The Spanish guitar has a hollow body with a round 
opening in the sounding board. The strings are six, 
and are stretched between a bar attached to the sound- 
ing board and the pegs, which are journaled in the 
head. 



Capital invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 


1800 

$4,431,900.00 
6,548,432.00 
2,378,520.00 


1SSO 

$14,446,766.00 

19,254,739.00 

7,098,794.00 


Hands Employed, . 


4,461 


11,350 




STXB CLASS. 

BANJOS AND GUITARS. 

84 Manufactories of Miscellaneous Musical Instruments in the United States. 

Capital Invested, $654,a50.00 

Value of Productions, 853,746.00 

Wages Paid, 293,062.00 

Hands Employed, . . ■ •. . 573 

69 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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CORNETS. 



CORNETS. 

No. 1. Ancient Trumpet. 

2. Hunting Horn. 

3. French Horn. 

4. " Cornetr-A. D. 1818. 

5. " Saxhorn— A. D. 1846. 

6. U. S. Patent, Cornet Attachments— A. D. 1848. 

7. " " Cornet— A. D. 1878. 

8. " " " —A. D. 1884. 



The cornu of the ancient Romans, like the instru- j cans. It differed from the tibia in being larger, and j two or three valves, and in brass bands takes the 
ments mentioned in the Bible, (Leviticus xxv, 9,) was | from the tuba in being curved and without keys. 1 soprano and contralto parts. It was first introduced 

curved and formed from a horn. It was afterwards j The modern cornet is a metallic wind instrument, j in France. Its tones are less powerful, but far more 
made of metal. Its invention is credited to the Etrus- 1 resembling a trumpet. easily manageable than those of the trumpet. 

The cornet-a-piston is generally made of brass, has ' 




MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

429 Manufactories in the United States. 

/,.,,, . , 1800 1SS0 

Capital invested, $4,431,900.00 ?H,446,765.C0 

Value of Productions, . . 6,548,432.00 19,254,739.00 

Wages Paid, . . . 2,378,520.00 7,098,794.00 

Hands Employed, .... 4>461 11350 



ST7B CLASS. 

CORNETS. 

84 Manufactories of Miscellaneous Musical Instruments 
Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, . 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, 

55 Patents Granted by the United States. 



the United States. 

$654,850.00 

853,746.00 

293,062.00 

573 







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FLUTES 



FLUTES. 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



No. 1. Flute a Bee. 

2. Double. 

3. German. 

4. Eight Keyed. 

5. Boehm Tube. 

6. " 1832. 

7. U. S. Patent,— A. D. 1849. 

8. " " —A. D. 1868. 
0. '• " —A. D. 1876. 



429 Manufactories in the United States. 



The Flute, in various forms, has been in use about j The Alexandrians were specially skilled in the use | tained the form of a pipe, and was called the English 
4,000 years. j of the flute. There was much written on flutes 2,000 1 flute. 

The flute mentioned in the book of Daniel may have I years ago. They are extensively made and used by ' Theobald Bohm invented, in 1833, a flute known as 
been used in Egypt, as paintings of flutes are common j the natives of Brazil, and the Peruvians have them of] the Bohm flute, which is said to combine improvements 
on Egyptian tombs. various sizes. : i„ nearly every part of the instrument, and is now gen- 

The flutes of the Egyptians were single and double, j The flute known to us is the German flute. 

Herodotus, 450 B. C, mentions " marching of troops Juba says "flutes made of the leg bones of the kid I 
to the sound of flutes." The Classic Greeks made 1 were invented by the Thebans. 
flutes of asses' bones. ! Until the early part of the eighteenth century it re- 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, . 



isoo 

$4,431,900 00 

6,548,432.00 

2,378,520.00 

4,461 



isso 

$14,446,765.00 

19.254,739.00 

7,098,794.00 

11,350 



erally adopted. 

Flutes are made of hard wood, ivory, glass, metal 
and vulcanized rubber. 



STJB OLA3S. 




FLUTES. 

84 Manufactories of Miscellaneous Musical Instruments in the United States-. 

Capital Invested $654,850.00 

Value of Productions 853,746.00 

Wages Paid 293,062.00 

Hands Employed, 573 

17 Patents Granted by the United States. 




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MUSIC BOXES. 

No. 1. Barrel Organ, 18th Century. 

2. Sheet Organ. 

3. French Organ— A. D. 1842. 

4. English— A. D. 1846. 

5. U. S. Patent, Self Acting— A. D. 1849. 

6. " " Electro Pneumatic— A. D. 1877. 

7. " " Mechanical— A. D. 1879. 

8. " " Watch Box— A. D. 1881. 

9. " " Mechanical— A. D. 1882. 






MUSIC BOXES. 






MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

420 Manufactories in the United State*. 



The use of machines for making mechanical music 
is almost coeval with the invention of clocks. 

The principle of their mechanism is almost the same 
as that of the barrel or hand organ, and of the machin- 
ery used for chimes of bells in church towers. 

Music boxes proper were not introduced much 
before the 1 8th century. 

Among the earliest made were small ones, to be 
worn as charms pendent from a watch chain, and from 
this insignificant beginning has grown the modern 



music box, capable of almost every musical effect, and 
of playing from one to more than one hundred tunes. 
The principal parts of the mechanism are the comb, 
the cylinder, and the fly or regulator. 

Various attachments or accompaniments, such as 
bells, drums and castanets, are often applied, and dif- 
ferent effects are produced according to the arrange- 
ment of the music. 

In respect to these effects, music boxes are called 
mandolines, expressives, quatuors, organocleeds, pic- 



colos, &c. Some have a combination of reeds and 
pipes, and are called flutes, celestial voices or harmoni- 
phones. 

The musical boxes of Prague and Ste. Susanne, in 
France, are largely exported. 

The centers of the manufacture in its present state 
of mechanical perfection, are Geneva and Ste. Croix, 
in the Pays de Vaud, Switzerland. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, . 



ISM 1880 

$4,431,900.00 $14,446,765.00 

6,548,432.00 19,254,739.00 

2,378,520.00 7,098,794.00 

4,461 11,350 



STXB CLASS. 

MUSIC BOXES. 

84 Manufactories of Miscellaneous Musical Instruments In the United States. 

Capitol Invested, $654,850.00 

Value of Productions, 853,746.00 

Wages Paid, . . . . . ... 293,062.00 

Hands Employed, .... 573 



202 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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PIANOS. 

No. 1. Ancient Lyre. 

2. " Hnrp. 

3. " Dulcimer. 

4. " Psalterium. 

5. Citole, 13th Century. 

6. Virginal, 16th Century. 

7. English Upright— A. 1). 1796. 

8. Spinnet— A. D. 1815. 
!). Harpsichord— A. D. 1820. 

10. U. S. Patent, Square— A. D. 1884. 

11. >• « Piano Action— A. D. 1884. 

12. " " —A. D. 1884. 



The first marked approach to the piano-forte ap- 
pears in the transition from the dulcimer to the keyed 
cithern, a small, oblong box, holding a series of strings 
in triangular form, and struck by plectra of quills at- 
tached to the inner ends of the keys. This application 
of the keyboard to stringed instruments is believed to 
have been first made in die twelfth century. 

An improvement on the keyed cithern, called a vir- 
ginal, was very popular with Queen Elizabeth and the 
ladies of her time. The first piano was made by Chris- 
tofali, of Padua, in 171 1. In 1716, Marius, a French 
maker of harpsichords, submitted four forms of instru- 
ments "of which he claimed to be the inventor, termed 
by him hammer harpsichords." Christopher Schroter, 
in 1717. asserted that he had invented an arrangement 
of keys, springs and hammers, and stated that "on 
this instrument he could play at pleasure, forte or 



piano." This is believed to have suggested the name 
" piano-forte." 

Plenius refers to "forte-pianos" in 1741. 

Pedals were introduced about the middle of the 
eighteenth century, and buff leather was substituted 
for quills in 1741. 

The first piano known in England was made by an 
English monk, about 1 757. at Rome. 

The piano was introduced on the stage of Covent 
Garden Theatre, London, May 16, 1767, as "a new 
instrument." From this time its success was assured. 

Zumpe made large numbers of pianos in England, 
in 1776. 

Bach played upon a "forte-piano" in the palace of 
Frederick the Great, at Potsdam. 

The first upright piano was patented in 1795, bv 
Wm. Stodart. 



Few attempts were made at piano making in the 
United States until the present century. 

Jonas Chickering. the founder of the firm of Chick- 
ering & Sons, of Boston and New York, has been 
called the father of the business in this country. He 
began to manufacture pianos in 1S23, and exposed his 
first instrument for sale on April 15 of that year. 

The iron frame and overstrung scale are the two 
most prominent features in improvements on pianos in 
America. 

Fifteen kinds of wood are used in the ordinary piano. 

There were manufactured in the United States, in 
1S29, 2.500 pianos, of the aggregate value of $75,000. 
About 15,000 arc manufactured yearly in New York 
alone. The United States now far outstrips Europe 
in the manufacture of pianos, and possesses the largest 
establishments in the world. 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

429 Manufactories in the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
.Hands Employed, . 



18A0 1HSO 

14,431,900.00 $14,446,765.00 

6,548,432.00 19,254,739.00 

2,378,520.00 7,098,794.00 

4,461 11,350 



STTB CLAS8. 

PIANOS. 

174 Manufactories in the United States. 
Capital Invested, . . , , . . . $9,869,577.00 

Value of Productions 12,264,521.00 

Wages Paid, 4,663,193.00 

Hands Employed, 6,575 

730 Patents Granted by the united States. 




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PIPE ORGANS. 




PIPE ORGANS. 

So. 1. Primitive Shepherd's Pipe. 

2. " Pandean Pipes. 

3. " Valves. 

4. " Bellows. 

5. " Key Board, 11th Century. 

6. " Organ, 12th Century. 

7. U. S. Patent, Organ—A. D. 1838. 

8. " •' Electro Pneumatic Stop— A. D. 18158. 
H. " " Organ Mower— A. D. 1876. 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, 



The early history of the organ is very obscure. A 
plausible supposition is that the instrument may have 
been suggested by some modification of the Pandean 
pipes. The organ mentioned in Genesis iv. 21, was 
probably identical with the syronix or pipe of Pan. 

Ctesibius is said to have invented an hydraulic organ 
about the third century B. C. 

An organ is described as carved on an ancient mon- 
ument, and in the Mattei Gardens at Rome, the form, 
the operation of the keys and the bellows of which 
closely resemble those of the present -lay. 

Organs were common in England in the tenth century 



Pedals, or fool keys, were added to the organ by 
Bcrnhard, a German, in 1470, 

An organ built in 1 733, for a church at Pisa, has four 
rows of keys and more than ioo stops. The organ at 
Seville Cathedral has ioo stops and 5,300 pipes. 

Organ pipes vary in length from three-quarters of an 
inch to thirty-two feet. 

The mechanism by which pneumatic power could be 
applied to organs, making the action of the largest 
organ as light as that of a piano forte, was first made 
fully known in 1840, by Mr, Barker, an Englishman. 

The Pandean pipe yet survives in England, as an 



accessory to the exercises of Punch and Judy, playing 
the air to a base drum accompaniment. 

The largest organ in the world was built by Henry 
Willis, in 1870, and is in Albert Memorial Hall, London. 
It has 138 stops, 4 manuals, and nearly 10,000 metal 
pipes. 

One of the largest organs in America is in Boston, 
Mass. It has 89 stops, 4 manuals, and 4,000 pipes. 

The fourth largest in the world, and the largest in 
the United States, is the one erected in the Music Hall 
at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1878. It has 96 stops and 6,237 
pipes. 



429 Manufactories in the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, 



iS«n 

$4,431,900.00 

6,548,432.00 

2,378,520.00 

- 4,461 



1SSO 

$14,446,765.00 

19.254,739.00 

7,098,794.00 

11,350 



STJB CLASS. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Production 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed. 



PIPE ORGANS. 

171 Manufactories of Organs in the United States. 

13.022.338.00 



179 Patents Granted by the United States, 







SackeluWilhelms Lilho Co New York 



>-*^" 






■"■ 




141 









4 






8 



REED ORGANS. 




REED ORGANS. 



No. 1. Aden, English— A. D. 1829. 

2. Harmonieum— A. D. 1840. 

3. 0. S. Patent, Exhaust— A. D. 1846. 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

429 Manufactories in the United States. 



Reed— A. D. 1867. 
Cabinet— A. D. 1872. 
Stop Action— A. D. 1877. 

—A. D. 1884. 
Parlor— A. U. 1884. 



The invention of the reed organ is attributed to the j ous sounds as the keys dance under the skilful fin- j though there is little doubt that the Greeks set the 
Greeks, and a description of one being blown by gers of a robust performer." j example. 

bellows and played by keys is given in a Greek epi- j The first organ in the western part of Europe was : The first United States patent for a reed organ was 
cram in the Anthologia, attributed to the Emperor | that sent from Constantinople, by Constantine IV, to I granted in 1812, and the first were made and intro- 
julian. in 364, translated as follows: "I see reeds of! King Pepin, in 757. ] duced in the United States in d\e year 1818. 

a new species, the growth of another and a brazen | The period when this instrument was introduced At the Paris exposition, 1855. American reed organs 
soil, agitated by a blast rushing from a leathern j into churches is involved in considerable obscurity, created a great sensation for their perfection In tone:, 
cavern beneath their roots, and producing melodi- j j workmanship, &c. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, . 



1880 1880 

$4,431,900.00 $14,446,765.00 

6,548,432.00 19,254,739.00 

2,378,520.00 7,098,794.00 

4,461 11,350 



sxtb aiuASs. 




REED ORGANS. 

171 Manufactories of Organs in the United States. 

Capital Invested, $3,922,338.00 

6,136,472.00 



Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, 



2,142.539.00 
. 4,202 



305 Patents Granted, by the United States. 



-§Ur 



Sackett& Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 









142 



i 







OIL PRESSES AND MATS. 



OIL PRESSES AND MATS. 



No 1. U. S. Patent, Oil Press— A. D. 






" " —A. T>. 1857. 

" " —A. D. 1862. 

" " —A. D. 1863. 
Cylinder Oil Press— A. D. 1867. 
Oil Cake Envelope— A. D. 1870. 
Mat or Squeezer— A. D. 1874. 
Oil Press Envelope— A. D. 1882. 

" " Box— A. D. 1882. 

" " Mat— A. D. 1884. 



The oil press was invented by Arisfceus, the Athen- 
ian, 1450 B. C, in the time of Joshua. 

The most ancient oil mills were those used in Pales- 
tine, at a very early date, for mashing the olive. 

The oil presses used by the Phoenicians, in the time 
of Solomon, are the same as are used at the present 
day in Syria and Palestine. 



King Solomon supplied Hiram with 20,000 baths of 
oil. The means used for expressing the oil was a mill 
and lever press. 

Screw presses for oil and wine were known to the 
Romans of the Empire. 

In China the pesde and mortar are used in re- 
ducing to powder the seeds of the oil-bearing tea 



plant. The meal is boiled in bags, and pressed to 
yield the oil. 

Charles Whiting, of Massachusetts, received U. S. 
Letters Patent March 2, 1 799, for extracting oil from 
cotton seed. 

The press for the expression of oil may be worked 
by screw, wedge, or hydrostatic power. 



OIL PRESSES AND MATS. 



166 Patents Granted by the United States. 




Sacketl & Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 



M 







143 



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FRUIT JARS. 




FRUIT JARS. 

U. S. Patent, Self Sealing— A. D. 1856. 

Hermetic Sealing— A. D. 1868. 
Conical Cover — A. D. 1860. 
Glass— A. D. 1866. 
" —A. D. 1868. 
Jar Cover— A. D. 1875. 
Cover Fastener— A. D. 1878. 
Jar Fastener— A. D. 1879. 
Preserve Jar — A. D. 1881. 
Jar Stopper— A. D. 1882. 
Self Sealing— A. D. 1883. 
Beveled Cover— A. D. 1883. 
Jar Fastener— A. D. 1883. 
Jar Cover— A. D. 1883. . 
Cover Fastener — A. 1). 1884. 
'• —A. D. 1884. 





8 




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The analogue of our modern fruit jar is found in 
those of the ancient Egyptians, who seem to have been 
given to laying in great stores of provisions in this way. 
They had lids or stoppers, which were luted or rend- 
ered air tight by liquid clay, pitch, gypsum or mortar. 
Some had flat bottoms, and others being pointed were 
set in a stone ring. 



Jars for preserving fruit are made of earthenware or 
glass. Glass jars were formerly blown like bottles, but 
are now usually pressed and blown in molds. 

The exercise of ingenuity has principally been con- 
cerned with the modes of closing to render them air- 
tight, protecting the contents from access of oxygen 
and consequent fermentation. Among the devices for 



this purpose are lids which screw down on the threaded 
neck of the jar. Another form is a flat or flanged lid 
pressed down upon a gasket on the lip by some me- 
chanical locking device. 

There are ten factories engaged in the manufacture 
of glass fruit jars in Pittsburgh, Penn., U. S. 



FRUIT JARS. 



356 Patents Granted by the United States. 



J 



31 






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ETAL PACKING AND STORING CANS. 




METAL PACKING AND STORING CANS. 

V. S. Patent, Tilting Carboy— A. D. 1871. 

Rip Patch Can— A, D. 187 6. 
" —A. D. 1878. 
" Knock Down Cover Can— A, 1). i679. 

Pyramidal Can— A. D. 1879. 

Double Fish Can— A. D. 1879. 

Fruit Can— A. D. 1879. 

Rip Strip Can— A. D. 1879. 

Rip Side Can— A. D. 1879. 
" Shipping and Filling Can — A. D. 1879. 
" Safety Shipping Can— A. I). 1881. 
" " Lamp Filling Can— A. D. 1881. 

Rip Wire Can- A. D. 1881. 

Lamp Filling Can— A. D. 1883. 
" Knock Down Cover Can — A. D. 1884. 

Transporting and Dispensing Can-- -A. U ISM 



Vases, made of umbricated or overlapping plates, 
supposed to be soldered together, are represented on 
the tombs of Thothmes, 1490 B. C. 

The most popular packing and storing cans arc the 
light tin receptacles now manufactured annually by 
millions. In these are packed fruits and vegetables of 
all sorts, c : ls, cocoa, meats, sardines, lobsters, crabs, 
and in fact everything that is produced on land or sea. 

These cans are filled with the desired product, and 
then rendered air-tight by soldering on a tin top. 

Metal packing and storing cans preserve their con- 
tents for years in a state of comparative freshness, and 
have proved a most useful invention. 

One of the earliest objections to metal packing cans 



was the difficulty of opening : to obviate this, a tin 
pocket on the top was made thinner than the rest 
of the can, and this pocket ripped open by means 
of a small wire attached inside, which cut through 
the thin tin without difficulty. 

Shears, or can openers, of peculiar shape, and made 
for the purpose of cutting through the tin, have also 
been invented. 

When the pork industry became so prominent in the 
central part of this country, a large tin barrel, with a 
closely-fitting removable top, was patented, in which 
lard was packed. Smaller vessels were also used, in 
which lard was stored for transportation and for daily 
use. 



When the various oils took the place of the tallow 
and wax candle, the combustible fluid was stored 
almost entirely in metallic vessels. 

An adjustable oil can was constructed, from which 
the oil could be poured into a smaller can without 
coming in contact with the air. 

Large quantities of food, stored in metallic cans, are 
consumed in the United States and throughout the 
entire civilized world. The ships of the Navy and the 
merchant marine are stored with them. 

Every year the demand increases, and every year 
invention adds some new device which is calculated to 
better preserve the contents of the cans. 



METAL PACKING AND STORING CANS. 



2,148 Patents Granted by the United States, 







SackeU&Wilhelms Litho Co New York 






HflHH 










145 



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14 15 16 

JACKETED VESSELS AND WRAPPERS. 



JACKETED VESSELS AND WRAPPERS. 

\o. 1. U. S. Patent, Encased Flask— A. D. 1863. 

,. ... tir A 1\ IQ7I 



JACKETED VESSELS AND WRAPPERS. 






BIS 



2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
llf 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 



Bottle Wrapper— A. D. 1871. 
Packing for Bottles— A. D. 1874. 
Encased Glass Vessel— A. D. 1877. 

« Oil Can— A. D. 1878. 
Bottle Wrapper— A. D. 1880. 
—A. D. 1880. 
Jacket for Cans— A. D. 1881. 
Bottle Wrapper— A. D. 1881. 
Encased Glass Vessel — A. D. 1883. 
Bottle Wrapper — A. D. 1883. 
Encased Can — A. D. 1883. 
Bottle Wrapper— A. D. 1884. 
'• Packing— A. D. 1884. 
Encased Vessel— A. D. 1884. 
Bottle Wrapper— A. D. 1884. 



The word flask is derived from the Greek, Phlas- 
keion. which was a. vessel woven of twigs. 

The thin glass bottles, wrapped around with rushes 
or straw, were common in Germany at the commence- 
ment of the 1 6th century. 

Modern wrappers consist of various devices and 



materials. Corrugated, fluted, crimped and 1 perforated 1 
paper, pasteboard, paper tubes, wooden sheets? wootf 
veneers, strips of wood coiled spirally, felt strips-; straw 7 
sheaths, stalks of tall grass and vegetable: fibers, a*S 
used in different forms for protecting and enveloping 
bottles. 



299 Patents Granted by the United States, 




-<5 
ll 






SackeU&WilhelmslilhoCoNewYork 



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146 



■ 






b 



\ ' 



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PITCHERS, CRUETS AND STAND. 



PITCHERS, CRUETS AND STANDS. 



No. 1. U. S. Patent, Molasses Pitcher — A. D. 18-55. 




" • " —A. D. 1857. 
Pitcher Lid— A. D. I860. 
Pitcher— A. 1). 1866. 
Sirup Pitcher— A. D. 1869. 
Ice •' —A. D. 1871. 

Molasses Jug— A. D. 1872. 
Tilting Cruet— A. D. 1877. 
Ice Pitcher Stand— A. 1). 1879 
Tilting Pitcher— A. D. 1881. 
Detachable Pitcher Spout— A. D. 188a. 
Tilting Vessel— A. D. 1884. 



Pitchers are of great antiquity and are frequently 
referred to in the Bible. 

In the last chapter of Ecclesiastes we read : 

" Or ever the silver cord be loosed, or the golden 
bowl bo-broken, or the pitcher be broken at the foun- 
tain, or the wheel broken at the cistern." 

These beautiful figures of speech indicate the re- 
moteness of the history of the vessels therein referred 
to. 

The modern tea pot, oil jars, the common pitcher, 
vases. Sec, are all to be seen in Egyptian paintings. 

The most primitive way of carrying water and wine 
was in carefully tanned skins. This was followed by a 
crude style of pottery, remains of which are to be 
found in almost every quarter of the globe. 



The Romans used many styles of pitchers. 

Modern invention has produced most beautiful 
shapes and designs. These are made of china, porce- 
lain, alabaster, silver, and the most costly of gold. 

Pitchers are of every conceivable shape and variety, 
and yet each different design is readily recognized. 

Molasses pitchers are of glass or china, with a silver 
lid. A wine pitcher is of cut glass with a stopper 
something like that of a decanter. 

A most useful invention is the silver ice pitcher. 
These show great varieties. The first patent was a 
plain pitcher with a closely-fitting lid. Later inventors 
devised the tilting ice pitcher, with a spout sotnetliing 
like an ordinary spigot. This patent has been very 
generally utilized. Silver stands for coffee, tea, &c, 



are now made with this spout, so as to tilt at the slight- 
est motion of the hand. 

The revolving cruet is common to every household. 
The glass bottles that fit into the silver holes are for 
the various condiments used for seasoning food. This 
is an ancient vessel. The epicures of Rome used them 
made of precious metals. 

Modern casters are of many different shapes and 
sizes ; the commonest has a silver case, into which fits 
six bottles ; a smaller caster has only two or three 
bottles. A useful and portable caster is made of 
twisted silver wire, with only three small bottles. 

Pickle stands, celery stands and other similar appli- 
ances of the table may be properly mentioned under 
this head. 



TABLE ARTICLES, 



PITCHERS, CRUETS AND STANDS. 



271 Patents Granted by the United States, 




SackeLU Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 



•-- 



1! 




147 











6 



8 







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II 



12 



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METAL POCKET BOXES, 



METAL POCKET BOXES. 

No. 1. U. S. Patent, Tobacco Box— A. D. 1860. 



METAL POCKET BOXES. 



Match Safe— A. D. 1861. 

Match Box and Taper Holder— A. D. 1867. 

Pocket Safe— A. D. 1868. 

Match Box— A. D. 1869. 

Portable Lighter — A. D. 1876. 

Tobacco Box— A. D. 1876. 

Match Safe and Pin Cushion— A, D. 1876. 

Tobacco Box— A. D. 1879. 

Match Safe— A. D. 1880. 

" Box— A. D. 1880. 

" and Cigar Cutter— A. D. 1881. 
Portable Lighter— A. D. 1882. 
Match Box Flame Guard— A. D. 1882. 

" and Tooth Pick Box— A. D. 1883. 

" Box— A. D. 1883. 



w 




The most ancient predecessor of the modern metal 
box is the alabaster box of the ancients, which was 
used as a receptacle for whatever was desired to be 
preserved. Though alabaster is a white, granular va- 
riety of gypsum, it served the purpose of the modern 
metal box of the present day in a large measure. 

We read of the alabaster box of precious ointment 
belonging to Mary of Capernaum. These boxes were 
durable and beautiful. 

Jewelled boxes of frankincense, myrrh, and jewels, 
were rare gifts in ancient times. 

We also read of a golden box containing only a 
withered rose, which was kept always on the dressing 
table of Anne of Austria. This withered rose was a 



souvenir of the gay and gallant Duke of Bucking- 
ham. 

The boxes mentioned belong, however, to a past 
age, and are recalled only to show that even a box can, 
after research, call up interesting remembrances. 

The 19th century deals almost exclusively with what 
is practical, and the golden and silver snuff boxes 
which were so fashionable a century ago are kept now 
only as pieces of interesting bric-a-brac. 

The most useful of the metal pocket boxes, of the 
day are, first, an oblong box in which chewing tobacco 
is kept. A companion to this is a match box. 

Another useful box is a small, thin receptacle, which 
fastens with a spring and is divided into two compart- 
ments. Into one of these about one dozen stamps just 



fit, and into the other a half-dozen street car tickets 
can be kept. 

The metal match box is an especial convenience. It 
protects other articles from contact with the match, 
and is a safeguard against ignition. 

A great variety of boxes have been made since the 
old brimstone match was invented. One of the earliest 
and most popular was a round, wooden box, with a 
firmly-fitting top. The pasteboard match box suc- 
ceeded this, to which a piece of sand-paper is attached 
for the sake of convenience. 

Some pocket match boxes have a corrugated bottom 
or side, on which the match can be made to ignite with 
a slight stroke. 




43 Patents Granted by the United States. 






SecketU Wilhelms LiLho Co New York 



':':" 



mhii 



^■KIF™ 1 ^^ 



{ I 






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148 



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14 
BOTTLE STOPPERS AND FASTENERS. 




BOTTLE STOPPERS AND FASTENERS. 

No. 1. U. S. Patent, Wire Fastening— A. D. 1859. 



BOTTLE STOPPERS AND FASTENERS. 




Bottle Stopper— A. D 
" —A. D. 
Metal Cap Fastening- 
Stopper Fastener — A. 
Internal Stopper — A. 
Stopper Fastener — A. 
" —A. 
—A. 
Internal Stopper — A. 
Stopper Fastener — A. 
\ " —A. 

" " —A. 

" —A. 
« —A. 
Internal Stopper — A. 



. 1862. 

1864. 
-A. D. 1866. 

D. 1871. 
D. 1874. 

D. 1876. 

D. 1878. 

D. 1879. 
D. 1831. 

D. 1882. 

D. 1882. 

D. 1883. 

D. 1883. 

D. 1883. 
D. 1884. 



The ancient Greeks and Romans knew nothing of 
cork stoppers, and stopped with a tin mouth piece the 
earthen, or the then rare and dear glass vessels, which 
they took with them on journeys, wound with willow 
branches, bark, straw or rushes. The manufacture of 
these flasks was an important work in Athens, and from 
them descended the demijohn of to-day. 

For a long time bottles were stopped with a flax 
stopper steeped in oil. 



The invention of cork stoppers is attributed to the 
Benedictine monk, Perignon, who from 1668 to 171 5 
was butler at the farm of Hautvilliers. It is singular 
that glass bottles, which were extensively introduced 
in the fifteenth century, had no cork stoppers until near 
the end of the seventeenth century, when the first came 
into use in the apotheicaries" shops in Germany, and 
the stoppers of wax, which were more troublesome and 
expensive, were laid aside. 



Modern bottle stoppers and fasteners consist of 
many devices, known as valve, screw, internal and ex- 
panding stoppers, and cap and die, and swing stopper 
fasteners. 

The bottling of liquids has attained great propor- 
tions as a distinct business, and the appliances for fast- 
ening the corks have been well studied and brought to 
a considerable degree of perfection. 



715 Patents Granted by the United States. 




SackeUA Wilhelms Litho Co New York 







149 







No. 1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 




DOSING AND DROPPING BOTTLES. 

U. S. Patent, Measuring Nozzle— A. D. 1864. 
Medicine Gauge — A. D. 1866. 
Medicine Bottle— A. D. 1868. 
Dropping Vial — A. D. 1868. 
Medicine Dropper — A. D. 1868. 
Dropping Bottle— A. D. 1875. 
Stopper and Dropper—A. D. 1876. 
Stopper and Measure — A. D. 1879. 
Dose Measure — A. D. 1881. 
Dropping Bottle— A. D. 1881. 
Graduated Stopper— A. D. 1881. 
Dose Cup and Stopper— A. D. 1882. 





8 







9 




DOSING AND DROPPING BOTTLES. 




DOSING AND DROPPING BOTTLES. 



In the Book of Jeremiah occurs the passage "Thus 
saith the Lord : Go, and get a potter's earthen bottle." 

Metal, earthen and glass bottles were used by the 
Egyptians, Assyrians, Greeks and Etruscans. The 
Jews probably obtained their knowledge of them from 
the Egyptians. _ 

Glass bottles made several centuries B. C. were 
found at Babylon. 

Glass bottles were known to the Romans of the 
Empire, and specimens have been found at Pompeii. 

Glass is the material almost universally employed in 



the manufacture of bottles ; it is generally of the 
coarsest kind, made from inferior materials. 

Bottles were formerly made by blowing and rolling, 
but since the introduction of presses blowing and 
molding have been combined. 

Beer and wine bottles are blown in molds. 

The manufacture of glass bottles, on account of the 
nature of the material, is very simple, although for the 
production of fine work great skill is required. 

The various bottles used for different well-known 
purposes are generally distinguished by peculiar 



shapes and sizes, as the English wine, beer, ale and 
soda bottles ; the French Champagne, Burgundy and 
Claret, and the Rhenish wine bottles. 

Port wine is occasionally put into very large bottles 
called " magnums," and acids into still larger, termed 
" carboys." 

Demijohns are large bottles covered with wicker 
work. 

Medicine bottles are of a great variety of sizes and 
shapes. 



28 Patents Granted by the United States. 






Sackett&Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 






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SAFES. 



m. 



No. 1. Primitive Oak Chest. 

2. " Iron Bound Coffer. 

3. " Money Chest. 

4. Single Door Boiler Plate. 
fi. Fire Proof Door. 

3. » 

7 Square Laminated Safe. 

8. Spherical Safe. 



Until the present century the usual safes were boxes 
of oak or other hard wood, more or less strengthened 
by iron bands, and provided with several locks. 

The Crown Jewels of Scotland were, in 1707, depos- 
ited in an oaken chest. 

The first patent for fire resisting safes was granted 
Richard Scott, of England, in 1801. 

The so-called fire proof safes were made in Paris, 
France, in 1820, by introducing a layer of plaster of 
Paris between the inner and outer surfaces of the box. 

The first American safes that obtained any celebrity 
were those constructed under the patent of Gayler. in 
1833- 

Asbestus was first used as a packing for safes in 
1834. 



SAFES, 



Chubb patented, in 1835, a process of rendering 
wooden safes burglar proof by lining them with steel 
or case hardened iron plates. 

The great fire in New York, of 1835, gave rise to 
many new inventions for increasing the fireproof qual- 
ity of safes. That of B. G. Wilder obtained prece- 
dence, and safes of this plan are still in use ; they were 
constructed of heavy plates of iron, with a filling of 
hydrated gypsum, hydraulic cement, alum and the neu- 
tralized and dried residuum of the so-called soda water 
manufacture 

Mention is made of a safe within a safe, (con- 
structed in 1850.) with filling of fire brick, melted alum 
and clay. 

Among the strongest safes are those patented in 
1851 by I ewis Lillie, of Troy, New York. 



Gulick, in 1857, made a water proof marine safe, 
having compartments filled with air or cork. 

Rhodes, in 1859, admitted a flow of cold water to 
circulate between the inner and outer walls of a safe 
and its door, by a valve which opened when the tem- 
perature reached 212 degrees. 

The first electric magnetic alarm attachment for safes 
was by Vasley, in 18&5. 

The Herring safes display excellent workmanship 
and finish. They are constructed of heavy iron, spec- 
ially prepared from the Franklinite iron of New Jersey, 
on account of its superior hardness. 

Safes of the largest size, as now constructed, are 
spacious closets, filled with shelves, drawers and com- 
partments, with time locks and other appurtenances. 



SAFES. 



40 Manufactories in the United States. 



Capital Invested. 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid. 



I8«0 INSO 

$1,026,800.00 $2,201,600.00 

1.910,079.00 3,352,39600 

47 1 ,924.00 1 ,096/>04.00 



Hands Employed 1,093 

304 Patents Granted by the United States, 




Sacket L 4 Wilhelms Litho Co New York 



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TRUNKS. 



No 1. Primitive. 



Japanese, 15th Century. 

Gripsack. 

U. S. Patent, Leather— A. D. 1836. 

.< Bed— A. D. 1861. 

" Veneer— A. D. 1865. 

" Sheet Steel— A. D. 1871. 
Bureau— A. D. 1871. 

" Saratoga— A. D. 1872. 

" Sole Leather— A. D. 1873. 

" Wardrobe— A. D. 1873. 

" Vulcanized Fiber— A. D. 1876. 




Satchels are of very ancient use. The name is from 
the Greek "Sakkos." and means a bag or sack. 

Shakespeare writes of both a satchel and trunk. 

A oripsack is something similar, and derives its 
name from the fact that it is generally carried in the 
hand. 

Trunks were primarily rude wooden boxes for 
clothes or toilet articles. A covering of skin was 
added as their use became more general and travel 
more extended. 

A very substantial trunk of the last century was 
made of horse skin tanned with the hair on. This was 
fastened on the box, with a flat or rounded top, with 
bright brass tacks, which were considered highly orna- 
mental. These horse hair trunks were succeeded by 
leather trunks strapped with steel or wooden strips. 

A cheap and portable trunk is a wooden box with 
curved lid covered with cloth and sometimes with paper 
in imitation of leather. 



II 

TRUNKS. 



As early as 1596 the trunk- makers of France were 
incorporated into a company. 

Roulston's trunk is one noted for its strength and 
durability. It has angle pieces to strengthen die 
corners, and guards to project from the corners of the 
body when shut. The corner longitudinal strips are 
bent at right angles at their ends to lap over vertical 
and transverse corner strips. The lower corner guards 
have projections for attachment and protection of the 
casters. The hinges are bent to lap around the ends 
of the trunk. A spring catch holds the lid case into 
the lid. 

A Saratoga trunk was so named from the vast size 
it attained on account of the amount of clothing con- 
sidered necessary for the person who frequented that 
favorite and fashionable resort, Saratoga Springs. 
This trunk attained huge proportions, and later inven- 
tions show it in the form of a folded wardrobe and 
bureau. Its compartments are many and various, and 



12 



it is capable of holding without injury a great number 
of dresses and other articles of the toilet. 

Trunks are made of wood, leather, paper, cloth, a 
preparation of zinc and other materials. 

The best trunk for ordinary land travel is one made 
of thick sole leather strapped with bands of the same 
material. No wood is used in the manufacture of 
this trunk, and it is capable of withstanding the roughest 
usage the average railway porter can administer. The 
best trunk for ocean travel is known as the steamer 
trunk, and is always bought by naval officers. This 
is perfectly flat on top, and is made of heavy sole 
leather, strapped with the same. It is made so as to 
fit squarely into its place and not roll about with other 
baggage. 

Satchels and gripsacks are made of the same variety 
of material. Alligator skins are also coming into use 
for the manufacture of these useful articles. 



TRUNKS. 



265 Establishments in the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 



1800 ISSU 

$935,800.00 $2,792,256.00 

2.836,969.00 7,252,470.00 

692,572.00 1,786,586.00 



Hands Employed, - - - 2,092 

628 Patents Granted by the United States. 



4,5:34 




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PRINTING MACHINES-SHEET. 



SHEET PRESSES. 



Primitive Press — A. D. 1648. 

Franklin's Hand Press— A. D. 1725. 

U. S. Patent, Flat Bed mid Platen Hand Press— A. TX 1829. 

" " Flat Bed and Platen Power Press^A. D. 1880. 

" " Impression Cylinder, Flat Form — A. D. 1846. 

" " Two-Impression Cylinder, Flat Form— A. D. 1846. 

" " ' One Typo Cylinder, Ten Impressions — A. D. 1847. 

" " Two Flat Forms and Platen— A. D. 1858. 

" " Rotary Perfecting, 4 and 8 Feeders— A. 1). 1872. 




The art of Printing was known forty centuries ago. 

Ancient Assyrian and Egyptian seals exist whose 
surfaces were blacked and then pressed upon bark, a 
leaf or skin, thus delivering an impression, either with 
white marks on black ground or black on white ground, 
according to the character of the engraving. The 
kings of Egypt stamped their names upon their grants 
and orders. Tablets of clay were impressed by en- 
graved cylinders, then baked. Some of the ancient 
stamps in the British Museum are of bronze, and have 
raised letters. 

The first printed pages are found in the Chinese an- 
nals, ir20 B. C. DuHale supposed it to have been 
invented 930 B. C. 

The Venetians introduced block printing. 

The earliest impressions were taken by a mallet and 
smooth faced block of hard wood. 

The oldest newspaper in the world is the King Pau, 
or Capital sheet, published in Pekin. It first appeared 
A. D. 911, but was issued irregularly until 1351. 
Since that date it was published weekly until June 4, 
1833, when, by order of the reigning Emperor, it was 
converted into a daily, with three editions — morning, 
midday and evening. The issue is called Heing Pau 
(business sheet) and contains trade prices, exchange 
quotations and all manner of commercial intelligence. 
The daily edition varies from 13,000 to 14,000. 

In the fifteenth century the art of printing by mova- 
ble type was invented in Germany, and introduced into 
France, Italy and England. 

Bleauw, of Amsterdam, made improvements on the 
printing press in 1620. 

The first printing press in the New World was used 
in Mexico, in the sixteenth century, by Spanish mission- 



aries. A mutilated copy of a book printed at that time 
by Juan Cromberger, is preserved in the library at 
Madrid, Spain. This press was used in Menico in less 
than a century after the art became known in Europe, 
and nearly a century before its introduction into the 
United States. 

The first press established in the United States was 
at Cambridge, Mass., in 1639. Rev. Jesse Glover was 
the first person who undertook the taskof establishing 
a printing press in the United States. He raised the 
money for its purchase, went to England, bought it and 
had it shipped to Boston, Mass. He died on the return 
voyage to America. The Glover press was put in 
working order by S. Daye, who published the " Free- 
man's Oath," the first newspaper ever published in the 
American Colonies. He was succeeded by Samuel 
Green, who obtained a grant of 300 acres of land from 
the crown in encouragement for his zeal. 

The first Indian printer known was employed in 
Massachusetts in the year 1639, An Indian boy was 
apprenticed to Green to learn the trade. He became 
an expert printer, and a worthy member of society, 
and took the name of James Printer. He rendered 
valuable aid in printing the Indian Bible. John Eliott 
said, " Printer was the only man who was able to com- 
pose the sheets and correct the press." The "Psalter," 
printed in 1 709. bears the imprint : " By James Printer, 
for the Co., for the Propagation of the Gospel, &c." 

The first family newspaper established in North 
America was in 1 704. 

The first negro who appeared in an American print- 
ing office was employed by Thomas Fleet, in Boston, 
Mass., in the year 1709. 

The English and' Indian languages were printed on 
the University Press; at Harvard, in 1709. About this 



time a printing press was established in New London, 
Conn. 

James Franklin, a brother of Benjamin Franklin, 
established a periodical in Boston in 1721. 

The first printing press south of Philadelphia, was 
set up at Annapolis, Md., in 1726. 

Benjamin Franklin used the Bleauw press in London. 

Nicholson patented a power press in 1790. 

The first press west of the Alleghany Mountains was 
located in Cincinnati, in 1793, and the first west of the 
Mississippi River, in St. Louis, in 1808. 

In 1814, a German constructed a printing machine 
for the " London Times," this being the first newspaper 
printed by machinery driven by steam power. 

In 181 5, Cowper obtained a patent for curved elec- 
trotype plates to be affixed to a cylinder. 

Clymer, of Philadelphia, invented the Cumberland 
hand press in 1817. 

The first power printing press in the United States 
was invented by Daniel Treadwell, of Boston, in 1822. 

The first lithographic establishment in the United 
States was established in Boston, Mass., in 1827. 

The first important improvement of the Bleauw 
press was made by Earl Stanhope, in 1814, who in- 
vented a press made entirely of iron. 

The Adams power press was invented in 1830, by 
Samuel Adams, of Boston, Mass. 

Richard M. Hoe, of New York, first brought into 
practical use the rotary press, in 1847, and it was soon 
adopted by nearly all the daily papers in this country, 
and also in England, Scotland and Australia. 

The perfected presses in use for printing the large 
newspapers, automatically feed, print, separate, fold 
and deliver many thousands an hour. 



PRINTING MACHINES-SHEET. 

11,314 Newspapers and Periodicals Published in the United States. 

Published Daily, • .... 971 

" Weekly, ... 8,633 

" 8emi-weekly, .... 133 

Tri- weekly, .... 73 

1,504 



All others, 



STJB OLASa 

SHEET PRESSES. 

Capacity — 

Sheets Printed per hour, . 100 10,000 

Hands Employed per hour, . . 2 2 

3,268 Patents Granted by the United States, 







Sacked & Wilhelms Litho Co New York 



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153 



n 







PRINTING MACHINES-WEB. 



No. i. (j 
2. 



PRINTING MACHINES-WEB. 

Patent, Prints a web from platen — A. D- 1822. 

" Prints a, web frotn plates, perforates and tears off — A. D. 1851. 

" Prints two webs from types, euts, and flics in four piles — A. D 1863. 

" Cuts one Fob into sbeeu, prints from plates, and counts — A. D. 1863. 

" PrinU two webs from typo, and cuts into sheets — A. D. 1865. 

•' Damps and prima one web from plates, oats, and flies in two piles — A. D. 1866. 

" Prints one web from plates, perforates, tears and collects before flying — A. D. 1876 

Prints one web from plates, cuts and folds — A. D. 1876. 

Prints from pistes, two wobs, cuts snd folds together— A. D. 1877. 

Prints from phOes, two webs, outs and folds, inserting supplement— A. D. 1878. 

Prints from types oiw side of » web, turns oter, prints other side, outs and folds— A. D. 1880. 

PrinU from pistes and lypw, sta or four webs, collects sheets into one newspaper— A. D. 1882. 




The history of the Printing Press is the history of a 
wonder. 

The pressing needs of the age require that the most 
perfect machinery should at all times be secured. It 
mav be interesting to review the one matter of press 
machinery, in order to see what a radical change has 
been made in the past quarter of a century in that 
department. 

Passing by the old Franklin press, which was so 
called because used by Franklin, (it being the old 
Ramage press, with a capacity of two hundred and 
fifty impressions per hour, with the aid of two men,) 
we come in the earlier decades to the Washington 
press, worked, like the Franklin, by hand, giving from 
two hundred and fifty to three hundred impressions an 
hour, with two men, one to work the press and one to 
roll the type applying the ink. 

In 1815, the London 'Times" procured a Konig 
press, with a nominal capacity of eleven hundred im- 
pressions per hour, afterwards increased to eighteen 
hundred. This press was in use until 1827, when it 
was superseded byApplegate & Cowper's, with a rate 
of five thousand impressions an hour. This continued 



until 1848, when Applegate's improvements increased 
the rate to eight thousand impressions. In this year 
the Hoe cylinder press came into existence ; the first 
made was for the New York " Sun," and had a rate of 
six thousand impressions an hour. Its fame was so 
great that one was ordered for the London "Times," 
and, with some improvements, it was claimed to have 
a rate of from eight to twelve thousand impressions an 
hour. 

January 1st, 1849, witnessed the introduction of 
Hoe's lightning press. One was ordered for the Phil- 
adelphia " Ledger" and Baltimore " Herald," but the 
highest speed of this press was only ten thousand'im- 
pressions an hour. Various improvements were made, 
so that it could run at the rate of fifteen thousand im- 
pressions an hour, and for twenty years this was the 
highest speed attained. 

By increasing the number of cylinders, the capacity 
was increased, until in a ten cylinder press, with ten 
men to feed, a rate of twenty-five thousand impressions 
per hour could be reached. 

In 1868 the Walter press was imported from En- 
gland, where it had superseded the Hoe for printing 



the London "Times." Up to this date the impressions 
had been made on one side of the paper only. In the 
Walter press the paper dropped out printed on both 
sides. This press claimed a capacity, in 1875, of 
eleven thousand papers, or twenty-two thousand im- 
pressions an hour. The same year the Bullock press 
came into the field, with a capacity equal to the Walter. 
For many years the Hoe press had rested on its lau- 
rels, but Mr. Hoe soon introduced his perfecting press. 

It gave twelve thousand papers an hour, and as late 
as 1877 this was the highest speed' reached by any 
press. 

In 1877, the Bullock struck off. with ease, twenty 
thousand complete newspapers an hour from one press. 

In 1879, a Scott press was constructed in Chicago, 
and was found to have a capacity fifty per cent greater 
than either the Bullock, Walter or Hoe. It began 
rapidly to supersede all others. Its capacity was sixty 
thousand impressions in an hour, or thirty thousand 
newspapers, printed, cut and folded. In 1881 it had 
received various improvements, so that it reached the 
actual figures of thirty-two thousand papers, ready for 
the carrier, within sixty minutes. 



PRINTING MACHINES-WEB. 

11,314 Newspapers snd Periodicals Published In the United States. 



Published Daily, 


971 




Weekly, .... 


8,633 


" Semi-weekly, . 


133 


" Tri-weekly, .... 


73 


All others, ..... 


1,504 


STTB OX.Ja.es. 




WEB PRESSES. 




Capacity — 'StiS* 


■nasal 

M.nhi.. 


Sheets Printed per hour, . 100 


50,000 


Hands Employed per hour, . 2 


2 


3,268 Patents Granted by the United States. 











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MATRIX MAKING MACHINES. 



MATRIX MAKING MACHINES. 

No. 1. I!. S. Patent, Type Wheel pressed down hy hand— A. D. 1868. 

2. " " Box of Type operated l>y plunger — A. 0. 1864. 

8. " " Type Wheel revolved by power— A. D. 1887. 

j „ ,, / Electrically connected machines for producing dupli- 

\ cate line matrices at aeveral distant point** — A. D. 1872. 

■'■ " " Type Rods aligued by finger keys — A. V. 1879. 

8. " " Movable Typo in movable carrier — A. D. 1880. 

7. " " Continuously rotating Type Cylinder — A. D. 1888i 




The first person mentioned as practicing the modern 
art of stereotyping was a Dutchman, Van der Mey, who 
resided at Leyden about the end of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. He printed four hooks from solid plates; but at 
his death the art of preparing solid blocks was lost or 
wholly neglected. In 1 725, however, Mr. Ged, a jew- 
eler, of Edinburgh, apparently without knowledge of 
Van der Mey's performances, devised die plan of 
printing from plates : in 1 729 he entered into partner- 
ship with three other persons, for the purpose of pros- 
ecuting the art. A privilege was obtained by the com- 
pany from the University of Cambridge to print Bibles 
and prayer-books: but one of Ged's partners was so 
averse to the success of the plan that he engaged such 
people for the work as he thought most likely to spoil 
it. The compositors willfully made errors in correcting, 
and the pressmen battered the plates when the masters 
were absent. In consequence, the books were sup- 
pressed by authority, and the plates melted. Mr. Ged, 
with the help of his son, whom he had apprenticed to 
the printing trade, actually produced, in 1736, an i8mo 
edition of Sallust; and in 1742 another book was also 
printed in Newcastle. But after the death of Ged and 
his son the art again fell into disuse, till in 1780 it was 
revived by Mr. Tulloch, of Glasgow, who practiced 



it in partnership with Mr. Fonlis, the University 
printer. 

It is difficult to determine who is entitled to the 
honor of priority. 

The first who ever revivified metals from their 
solutions by voltaic electricity, was an Italian named 
Brugnotelli. who, in 1805, thus gilded a silver medal. 
Thirty-four years after,, Professor Jacobi, of St. Peters- 
burgh, made a slight advance in the art, by converting 
any line into relief by a galvanic process. In the same 
year Mr. Jordan, a London printer, discovered a 
method of making copper casts by the deposition of 
copper from its solution, slightly forestalling Mr. 
Spencer, a carver and gilder, of Liverpool, who. in the 
autumn of that year exhibited to the British Association 
several more perfect specimens of electrotyping. 

The first eleptrotyping in America was done by Mr. 
Bruce, of New York City, in 1813, who printed a cate- 
chism, which it is believed was the first book issued 
from stereotype plates in this country. 

A U. S. patent was granted during 1877 fora method 
of rapid telegraphing of stereotype plates. It is claimed 
that by this process an entire page of a newspaper can 
be transmitted by telegraph in from fifteen to thirty 
minutes, delivering the copy directly from the instru- 
ment in such form that it can be handed immediately 



to the printers. In other words, the copy will be a 
substantial reproduction of the original, except that it 
may be given in a larger letter if so desired. 

The stereotype plate requires no preparation for the 
purpose of telegraphic transmission other than the fill- 
ing of all its depressions or spaces between the faces 
of the letter with a non-conducting substance, which 
may be quickly applied, the faces of the type being left 
clean by means of an equally simple process. The 
plate thus prepared is placed upon a cylinder arranged 
to revolve rapidly, so as to present each successive 
letter in fingers attached to a travelling frame. As the 
cylinder bearing the plate revolves, the frame gradually 
advances by the operation of a screw, and thus each 
and every type is successively presented to the fingers 
or magnetic points above mentioned. 

Necessarily the circuit is open when the points are 
passing over the non-conducting surface ; but as often 
as the metal type presents itself to the fingers the 
circuit is closed, and the corresponding magnetic points 
or pens at the receiving station make the record there 
in the same letter as the original, delineated in a series 
of fine lines, either upon chemically prepared or ordi- 
nary paper fixed upon a corresponding cylinder at the 
receiving station. 



MATRIX MAKING MACHINES. 



40 Patents Granted by the United States. 




Secketli Wtlhelms Litho Co New York 



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TYPE SETTING AND DISTRIBUTING. 



No.l. 
2^ 
S. 

4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 
8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

IS, 



TYPE SETTING AND DISTRIBUTING. 

Primitive method of Setting Type— 16tb Century. 

U. 8. Potent, Composing. Throws types on traveling belt from oases — A. P. 3843. 

" " Composing. Separate belts carry types from cases to diagonal 

collecting belt — A. 1). 1868. 

" " 8ets and Distributes simultaneously — A. D. 1867. 

" " Moves stick to desired case and ejects type thereinto— A. D. 1872. 

" " Composing. Types in longitudinal grooves in revolving cylinder — A. D. 1878. 

" " Distributing. Keys operate switch blocks leading types to proper case— 1878. 

" " Composing. Keys throw corresponding ejectors into path of 

revolving blade — A. t>. 1874, 

" Distributing. Feelers eu-aging with nicks in types, throw 

thom in proper receptacles — A. U. 1870. 

" " Distributing. Tvpcs register with openings in cases. Pueu- 

ni&tic plungers — A. 1>. 1878. 

" Composing. Types ejected into ways converging to common 

channel leading to galley— A. D. 1880. 

" 8et« and Distributes. Combines features analogous to Nos. 8 &. 10— A. D. 1880. 







It is now about fifty years since the first type-setting 
apparatus was invented, and a thoroughly successful 
machine has not yet been introduced. Great hopes 
have been formed from time to time, as one machine 
after another lias been announced, and several of these 
have done very fair work. 

As mechanical contrivances they have been quite in- 
genious, and have worked with a degree of precision 
which made us think again and again that the goal had 
been reached at last, and yet to-day but few such ma- 
chines are in use, and they only on a class of plain work 
where the number of sorts is limited. 

A machine must, of course, include capitals, lower- 
case, points and figures ; it cannot be very efficient 
without small capitals and italics, but each addition to 
its capability for variety of work adds greatly to its 
complexity. 

After all, it is a race between traveling from the 
stick to the boxes of the case and back again, and fin- 
gers beating upon the keys of the machine. The latter 
would, of course, carry the day, as the average travel 
of the hand after a letter is twelve inches from the 
stick, and the travel on the key-board of the machine 
is considerably less than one-half this ; but there are 
so many little niceties to be observed in spacing the 
words and justifying the lines — work which is done by 
the skillful printer as he sets up the line, but which, 
with machine-set type must be done afterwards, when 
the line of type is broken into lengths for the measure 
of the work and then justified by spaces. 

Type-setting machines have separate pockets or gal- 
leys for each sort and the mechanical arrangement is 



such that on touching the key, arranged with others 
like the key-board of a piano or concertina, the end 
type of the row is displaced and is conducted in a 
channel or by a tape to a composing stick, where the 
types are arranged in regular order in a line of indefi- 
nite length, whence they are removed in successive 
portions to a justifying stick, in which they are spaced 
to the proper length of line required. 

Three machines of this character were exhibited at 
the Paris Exposition in 1855. 

Of the American machines, that of Alden has, per- 
haps, excited most attention. 

The persistence of the inventor for seventeen years 
in the endeavor to perfect his invention, and his death 
in 1859, when success appeared to be crowning his 
efforts, afford one more interesting item to the history 
of invention when it shall be written. 

His machine has types arranged around the circum- 
ference of a horizontal wheel which rotates slowly, car- 
rying with it fingers which pick up the proper types 
from their respective cells. The ordinary types are 
used, with the exception that each has its peculiar nick 
at one side, which will enable the fellow-machine to dis- 
criminate when distributing the type. 

In the distributing process the dead matter is placed 
on a bed to the right of the key cylinder, and is taken 
up line by line as each is exhausted. The types are 
taken up by distributing transits in the revolving wheel, 
selected by means of the nicks, and then transferred by 
way of the channels to the respective type pockets. 
Extra spaces are tipped out at the end of the channel. 
Unnicked type are thrown into a separate box, italics 
into another. 



In the Kastenbein composing machine corqmon type 
are used, each sort being arranged vertically in a series 
of tubes like the pipes of an organ. As a letter key 
of the key-board is struck, the lever connecting with 
the particular letter tube opens the lower end of the 
tube and allows the lowest type in the rank to tall into 
a groove which conducts it to the slide where the letters 
are assembled in a long line, whence they are taken by 
the compositor's rule and justified. 

The distributing machine reverses this method. The 
dead matter is placed on a bed, each line is cut off, and 
the types raised seriatim so that they can be read by 
the observer. The corresponding key on the key- 
board being depressed, the type is pushed into its ap- 
propriate tube, ready for supplying the composing 
machine. 

Printers have been wont to boast that a practical 
type composing and justifying machine presents a 
problem which even Yankee ingenuity and persistence 
could not solve : but in view of the progress made in 
this direction during the last decade, it can hardly be 
doubted that complete success will be achieved in the 
near future. 

Still later machines for composing and distributing, 
the invention of Mr. Paige, were recently exhibited in 
New York, and worked well. 

It remains, however, to be determined whedier or 
not the capital invested in them and the casualties inci- 
dent to complicated and delicate machinery will dis- 
courage their use in place of composifors, who own 
themselves, are always ready, and for whom substitutes 
can be found if one or another prove ailing or erratic. 



TYPE SETTING AND DISTRIBUTING. 



125 Patents Granted by the United States. 




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TYPE WRITERS, 



TYPE WRITERS. 

No. 1. Hand Writer. 

2. U. S. Patent, Connected Pencil, Traces Lettera- 



■A. D. 1845. 




Double Hand Impression Machine — A. D< 1850. 

Type Wheel Machine— A. D. 1856, 

Movable Type Plate and Hammer — A. D. 1868. 

Spring Seated Keys Garry Type — A. D. 1872. 

Type on ends Lever— A. D. 1878. 

Elastic Type Plate— A. D. 1881. 

Oscillating Type Segment & Hammer — A. D. 1884. 



The type-writer is generally supposed to be a 
machine of recent invention, but it really dates as 
for back as 1714. 

The archives of the British Patent Office show the 
issue of a paper on January 7, 1714, No. 395, to Henry 
Mill, of England, for " an artificial machine or method 
for the impressing or transcribing of letters, singly or 
progressively, one after another, as in writing, whereby 
all writings whatsoever may be engrossed on paper or 
parchment so neat and exact as not to be distinguished 
from print ; that the said machine, or method, may be 
of great use in settlements and public records, the im- 
pression being deeper and more lasting than any other 
writing, and not to be erased or counterfeited without 
mnnifest discovery, &c." 

The records of the U. S. Patent Office show that 



letters patent were granted William A. Burt, of De- 
troit, Michigan, for a machine for printing, styled by 
himself the "typographer," July 23, 1829. 

This patent is said to be still in existence, but the 
records, other than above, were destroyed in the fire 
of 1X36. 

In the year 1843 Charles Thurber, of Worcester, 
Mass,, secured letters patent for a type-writing ma- 
chine, but his invention did not possess the merits to 
recommend it, and was soon put aside. 

One of the earliest patents granted was that of A. 
E. Beach, June 24, 1856, for printing instruments. 

Among the earliest forms was the invention of S. 
W. Francis, who received letters patent October 27, 
1857, for a writing machine which contained nearly all 
the features of subsequent devices in this line of inven- 



tions. "The Francis" was a complicated machine which 
has been much simplified by later inventions. 

Amongst the best known type-writers now in general 
use are the Remington, Caligraph, and Hammond. 

To such perfection has the machine been brought 
that even the most detailed and intricate statement, 
containing column after column of figures, can be 
readily made with it, and in a neat and business like 
form that is impossible with the pen of an average 
writer. Its use has opened a field for women who 
have to earn their Irving that never existed before. 
They are naturally expert and skillful in using the 
fingers, and they readily learn to use the type-writer 
with great speed. A number of schools have added it 
to their regular course, and young men who learn to 
use it find it far easier to obtain situations. 



TYPE WRITERS. 




23,000 Manufactured Annually. 




Capacity — p>mm>« 

Modi. 


PrHcn! 

Michin*. 


Words per minute, ... 50 


100 


Hands Employed per day, . 1 


1 



152 Patents Granted by the United States, 




Sackell 4 Wilhelms Litho Co New York 





PAPER FOLDING MACHINES. 



PAPER FOLDING MACHINES. 

No. 1, Folding by Hand. 

2. U. S. Patent Reciprocating Biatic-s, Taps Feed— A. D. 1849. 

3 „ .. « Fixed Ways— A. D. 1850. 

4. » " Oscillating BLdes, Register Points-A. D. 1856. 

e . .. .. tn 3 ?vt cut from sheet and folded in— A. D. 1860. 

" Sheets Slide on Inclined Tables— A. D. 1861. 

" Rotary Folder— A. D. 1873. 

,i " » _A. D. 1877. 

" Longitudinal and Rotary Folders— A. D. 1883. 




Machines for folding newspapers and sheets for 
books follow naturally in the wake of the printing 
press. They are made of various kinds, for octavo. 
iomo., and 321110.: also for folding i2tno.. cutting off, 
pasting and inserting the inset; in some cases, placing 
it in a cover and doubling it up into compact shape for 
the mail wrapper. 

The sheet is placed on the table so that two register 
points pass through two holes in the sheet previously 
made on the printing press. The folder comes down 
upon the folding edge, the pins give way, and the sheet 
passes, double edge first, between a pair of rollers, 
which compress it ; tapes deliver it to a second table 
beneath, where a second and a third folder act upon it 
in turn and deliver into a trough at the rate of 1.500 
per hour. 



With'i2mo. work, imposed in two parts of sixteen 
and eight pages, respectively, the machine cuts them 
apart and folds the larger part like an octavo; the 
smaller folds but once, and is then "inset" into the 
octavo portion, which forms the "outset." 

The two-sheet folder and paster, for large twenty- 
four-page periodicals, folds one sheet of sixteen pages, 
30; by 45; inches, insetting the eight pages within the 
sixteen, and pasting and trimming all, delivering a 
complete copy of twenty-four pages, ready to read, at 
the rate of 1,200 per hour. It will fold eight pages 
alone, with or without pasting or trimming, or will fold, 
paste and trim the eight pages, insetting without past- 
ing them in. 

Machines of this general character are also made for 
folding, pasting and trimming, or for folding, pasting, 



trimming all around, and putting on a cover of differ- 
ent colored paper. 

"The Christian Union" is folded, inset and covered 
in this manner, four of these machines being attached 
to a four-cylinder " Hoe" press. 

Gallaher, of Washington. D. C, completed the first 
paper folding machine in 1S43, and deposited a model 
in the If. S. Patent Office. 

Birchall, of England, took out letters patent in 1847 ; 
Smith's patent of 1849, Snow, 1850, Chambers, 1856, 
Crosby, 1S56, Worth, 1858, had registering pins to fit 
the perforations made by the printing press. 

Ford's patent. 1872, a combination of a folding 
machine with a printing press, is arranged so that the 
flyer of die press will deposit die papers upon tapes, 
instead of on tables. 



PAPER FOLDING MACHINES. 

Capacity— 

Average No. copies per day, 16 pp.8vo., 2,500 15,000 
Hands Employed per day, . . 1 1 

161 Patents Granted by the United States. 




i I 



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Saekell&Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 






mm 



1 











PAPER MANUFACTURES. 

No. 1. Primitive Hand Paper Bag Making. 

2. U. S. Patent, Paper Bag Machine— A. D. 1852. 



PAPER MANUFACTURES. 



3. " 


" Envelope 


" —A. D. 1853. 


4. " 


" Paper Box 


" —A D. 1856. 


5. " 


" Bag 


" —A. D. 1860. 


6. " 


" Box 


" —A. D. 1870. 


7. " 


" Bag 


" —A. D. 1871. 


8. " 


" Envelope 


" —A. D. 1871. 


9. " 


" Paper Bag 


" —A. D. 1879. 


10. " 


" Box 


" —A. D. 1882. 


11. !' 


" Bag 


" —A. D. 1882. 


12. « 


" Envelope 


" —A. D. 1883. 



m_ 



The old method of folding envelopes was by means 
of the bone folding stick. A good workman could 
produce by its aid 3,000 envelopes a day. 

Pierson commenced the manufacture of envelopes 
in this country in 1843, but became discouraged and 
gave up the business. 

Jacob Berlin followed him three years later. He was 
successful, and the trade in the United States was 
firmly established. 

They are now chiefly made in New York, New 
England and Pennsylvania. 

At the present time the number manufactured in this 
country reaches 10,000,000 per day. These are con- 
sumed principally in the United States. Some are sent 
to Canada, South America, Mexico, West Indies and 
Australia. At one time shipments were made to 



Liverpool. Now they are buying our improved ma- 
chinery and are manufacturing themselves. 

Many envelopes of American manufacture are sent 
to Russia and other foreign countries. With our im- 
proved machinery and cheap paper we can successfully 
compete with any foreign country. 

Until the invention of this machine the manufacture 
of envelopes was by no means perfect. Improvements 
have been going on constandy since the Japanese first 
used envelopes as inclosures for perfumes, etc. 

The contractors for the postal stamped envelopes use 
the "Leader" machine with an attachment, which prints 
and stamps the envelopes at the same time at the rate 
of about 2,000 an hour. 

It is now a common thing to speak of paper bottles, 
buckets, wheels, rails, carriages, roofs, soles, hats, 



chimney stacks, and innumerable other articles made 
of paper. 

Paper railroad ties are now a practical reality. In 
their manufacture the paper is subjected to great pres- 
sure, and it is said the material can be produced at one- 
third the cost of steel rails. 

A man to-day can wear paper shoes and clothes, eat 
from paper dishes, with paper knives and forks, served 
upon a paper table, sit on a paper chair, sleep in a 
paper bed, in a room carpeted with paper, wash in a 
paper tub or bowl, live in a paper house, ride in a 
paper carriage or car, sail in a paper, boat, make a for- 
tune on paper, and yet the industry is only in its infancy. 

There are three factories in the United States 
making petroleum barrels from paper which turn out 
3,000 barrels a day. 



PAPER MANUFACTURES. 

BAG, BOX AND ENVELOPE. 

80 Manufactories of Piper Bags In the United State*. 

Capital Invested. . $82,600.00 fl ,304,700.00 

value of Productions, . 749,578.00 4,112,566.00 

H^v 1' , ■ " 43,968.00 439,620.00 

rlands Employed, . . , \\2 1 569 

369 Manufactories of Paper Boxes In the United States. 

capital Invested, . . $333,196.00 $2,496,496.00 

Value of Productions, . 1,162,777.00 7.665,553.00 

&™ d ; • • • 358,658.00 2,373,948.00 

Hands Employed, . . x ,601 9 678 



12 Manufactories of Envelopes In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, . 
Hands Employed, 



1800 

$309,600.00 

763,700.00 

117,180.00 

. 432 



1,603 Patents Granted by the United States, 




SackeUS Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 







BOOK BINDING AND PAPER RULING. 



BOOK BINDING AND PAPER RULING. 



BOOK BINDING AND PAPER RULING. 



No. 1. 



Hand Book Sewing. 

" Ruling. 

" Rounding Books. 
U. S. Patent, Hand Ruling Machine— A. D. 1882. 

•< " " Rounding Machine — A. D. 1845. 

4. i. .. Single Thread Book Sewiug Machine— A. D. 1870. 

•■ u « " Wire Book Stapling Machine— A. D. 1876. 

•• Ruling Machine— A. D. 1877. 
" Several Wires Book Stapling Machine— A. D. 1877, 

.. .. •• Thread Book Sewing Machine — A. D. 1879. 

M " Automatic Book Backing Machine— A. D. 1881. 

" " 8ingle Wire Book Stapling Machine— A. D. 1882. 




Book-binding is coeval with the art of composing 
books, for, from whatever materials ancient books were 
made the necessity arose of uniting the several parts 
for more ready reference, as well as for their better 
preservation. 

The earliest known form is the Egyptian, which con- 
sisted in pasting or gluing the sheets together and roll- 
ing them upon small cylinders , the sheets were unrolled 
from one cylinder, and, after reading, rolled upon the 
other. 

It is asserted that Phillatius was the discoverer of a 
substance for making the sheets adhere together. 

The plan of fastening the leaves to a back and sides 
is said to be the invention of Attalus of Pergamus. about 
2O0 B. C. He also first ordered the squaring of books. 
This is the origin of folding in twos, or fours, or "folios 
and quartos." 



Ivor)' was used for book covers in the eighth century, 
and oak in the ninth. The book of the Evangelist on 
which the English Kings took their coronation oath was 
bound in oak boards, A. D. i too. 

Hog skin leather, silk, velvet and calfskin were used 
as early as the fifteenth century. 

In the Bodleian Library is a volume of the Epistles 
of St Paul, the binding of which was embroidered by 
Queen Elizabeth. 

Cloth binding superseded the paper known as 
" Boards" in 1823. 

India rubber backs were introduced in 1841. and tor» 
toise shell sides in 1856. 

Book-sewing was done entirely by hand until 1872, 
when Henry G. Thompson, of Connecticut invented 
a machine for book-sewing which is still in practical 
use. 



The several modes of binding books are known by 
the following names : 

Full binding is entirely of leather. 

Half full has the back and corners of leather, and the 
sides of cloth or paper. 

Cloth binding has the back and sides of cloth. 

The kinds of leather with which books are either 
full or half bound give the names to various bind- 
ings, as, Russia, Morocco, Roan, Calf, Sheep, and Vel- 
lum. 

France, England and America have each characteris- 
tically contributed to the improvement in style, design 
and cheapness of book-binding. 

France has excelled in taste, England in solidity and 
strength, and America, by the invention and use of ma- 
chinery, has vastly increased the speed and cheapness 
of production. 



588 Book Binding and Blank Book Making Establishments In the 
United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, 



i860 

$1,654,830.00 

3,729,080.00 

1,048,930.00 

4,777 



1880 

$5,798,671.00 

11,976,76400 

3,927,349.00 

10,612 



BOOK BINDING. 

Capacity — 

Completed Volumes per day, 
Hands Employed per day, 

PAPER RULING. 

Capacitt — 

Sheets Paper per day, . . 100 

Hands Employed per day, , . 1 

923 Patents Granted by the United States. 





"*■ 









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Sacked & Wilheims Lilho Co New York 



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160 



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REFRIGERATOR BUILDINGS. 



^ 



REFRIGERATOR BUILDINGS. 

No. ) U. S. Patent, Refrigerator Fruit House— A. D. 1865. 

Building— A. D. 1861. 

" Fruit Preserving House — A. 1). 1867. 

Building— A. D. 1872. 

Structure— A. D 1879. 

Cooling Air in Refrigerating Rooms — A D. 1884. 




Jn the time of Senaca snow, collected from the moun- 
tains and, preserved in deep pits, had become an article 
of merchandise in Rome. 

Alexander the Great, when he besieged the city of 
Patra, caused trenches to be dug which he filled with 
snow and covered with oak branches to preserve it. 

In the 1 6th century there were no cellars in France. 



The use of cellars for storing ice and preserving 
goods came into existence in England in the reign of 
Henry VIII. 

The Cjuincy Market Cold Storage Company, of 
Boston, is said to have the largest refrigerating build- 
ing in the world. It is of stone and brick. 160 by 8o 
feet in size, and 70 feet in height. The capacity is 



800,000 cubic feet, the cost $200,000, and the ice 
chamber holds 600,000 tons of ice. It is used for 
storing dressed beef and mutton. The Chicago re- 
frigerating cars unload at the door. 

In the dry atmosphere of the Andes on the California 
coast, meats may be preserved without artificial means. 



REFRIGERATOR BUILDINGS. 



164 Patents Granted by the United States. 




SacketU Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 



i! 




I 



MARINE PROPULSION. 



MARINE PROPULSION. 



1. Primitive Indian Canoe. 

2. Galley, loth Century. 

a. Double Ship— A. D. 1787. 

4. Steamboat, "Clermont"— A. D. 1807. 

6. V. 8. Patent, Screw Steamship, " R. F. Stockton"— A. D. 1839. 

6. •• •' Cigar Ship— A. D. 1858. 

7. " » Screw Man of War— A. D. 1860. 

8. '• " Monitor— A. D. 1861. 
!). •' ■> Torpedo Boat^-A. D. 1884. 



The first use of paddle wheels may have been the 
velocimeters of the Ancients, in which an axis crossed 
the vessel, projecting over each side, and had paddle 
wheels four feet in diameter, which dipped into the 
water and were routed by the progress of the vessel. 

The boats by which the Roman army was transported 
to Sicily were propelled by wheels moved by oxen. 

Thomas Savery, of England, obtained a patent in 
[696 for a paddle wheel on each side of a vessel, to be 
turned by means of a capstan. 

The hydraulic propeller was invented by Dr. Allen, 
in 17 V. This method was to form a tunnel or pipe, 



3? 




open at the stern of the vessel, and by means of a pump 
to force water. 

Oliver Evans, of Philadelphia, had a stern-wheel boat, i 
which navigated the Schuylkill River in -1789. 

Robert Fulton, in 1 796, had a steamboat on Collect 
Pond, New York City, propelled by a screw astern. 

The credit of the first application of the screw pro- 
peller for marine propulsion is due John Stevens, of 
Hoboken, N. Y., who, in 1804, constructed a boat with 
twin screws, which attained a very considerable speed. 

Fulton successfully started his steamboat, the Cler- 
mont, on her trial trip to Albany from New York City 
in 1807. 



Fulton's boat had side paddle wheels, as also had 
the Savannah, 1S19, and Enterprise, 1838. 

The steamboat Great Britain, 1843, had a screw, 
and from this date the screw propeller became 
common. 

The Nautilus, furnished with the "Ruthven Hydrau- 
lic Propeller,'' had a trial trip on the River Thames in 
the summer of 1868. She ran at an average speed of 
J 0.35 miles per hour. 

The estimated thrust of screw propellers, with en- 
gines of one thousand horsepower, is twenty thousand 
pounds. 



MARINE PROPULSION, 



1035 Patents Granted by the United States. 



IE 



M. 



SackeU&Wilhelms lithe Co New York 



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162 










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SHIP AND BOAT BUILDING. 



SHIP AMD BOAT BUILDING. 

No. 1. Primitive Boat Building, 

2. Ancient Galley. 

3. Galleon— A. D. 1571 

4. " Royal Sovereign"— A. D. 1657. 

5. Life Preserving Oar. 

6. Spar Torpedo Boat. 

7. Life Boat and Carriage. 

8. Circular Iron Clad. 

9. War Steamer. 




The first form of boat seems to have been a log, 
which was burnt out and then finished with pointed 
stones. This was succeeded by the raft, and, later, by 
the canoe. The sea-going qualities of die canoe seem 
almost incredible, voyages of hundreds of miles being 
made in them in tempestuous weather. 

The ships on Egyptian tombs are galleys propelled 
by oars. 

The Phoenicians attained great skill in constructing 
vessels. 

The boats which came to Babylon, down the Euphra- 
tes, were made of skins. 

Ships are often mentioned in the Bible, Balaam 
prophesied more than 1,000 years before ii oecurrect 
that Assyria should be destroyed by people who should 
come in ships from Chitiim. 

Sesoatris built a ship 47S feet long. The Genoi 
are said to have first built ships to be propelled by sails 
alone. 

Many vessels were employed as early as 1 344. 

The "Syracuse," a shipwhose construction was super- 
intended by Archimedes, had 10 tiers of oars, 3 decks, 
and required a crew of 600 men. It had sumptuous 
apartments, gardens, arbors, floors paved, libraries and 
baths, and was adorned with pictures and statues. It 
was presented by Hiero to Ptolemy, King of Egypt. 

Henry VII. in 1500, constructed the first ship of the 
English Royal Navy. 



Henry VIII, in 1515, had a vessci built for the navy 
I of i.ooo tons. 

During the reign of Elizabeth great progress was 
made by the English in ship building. 

During the eighteenth century they attained great 
superiority in the size and shape of their vessels. 

The first vessel built by Europeans in America, was 
a Dutch yacht, at Manhattan River, in 1614. 

The first regular naval combat, in which any Ameri- 
can vessel is known to have been engaged, occurred in 
1645, between a ship built at Cambridge, Mass., and 
an Irish man of war, with 70 men and 20 pieces of 
ordnance. The New England ship had but 30 men 
and 14 pieces. 

In 1745 the New England colonies owned, exclusive 
of fishing craft, about 1 ,000 sail of vessels. The entire 
amount of tonnage entered in the several colonies dur- 
ing the year ending January 5, 1771, was 331,642. 
One hundred and eighty-two vessels were built in 1 772. 
It is a singular circumstance that no attempt was 
made to construct a life boat until the year 17S9, when, 
owing to a calamitous shipwreck on the Hind Sand, in 
Tynemouth Haven, England, the gentry of South 
Shields formed themselves into a committee and offered 
premiums for the best plan of a boat to overcome the 
clangers or a heavy, broken sea. Various plans were 
submitted, and preference was given to the invention 
of Mr. Greathead. A boat, built according to his plan, 



was launched on January 30, 1790. and so well did it 
answer that hundreds of lives have heen saved by it, 
and in no instance did it fail. 

The steamboat built by John Fitch, propelled by 1 3 
oars, made her first trip June 5, 1790, on the Delaware 
river, between Philadelphia and Trenton, thus accom- 
plishing the most successful experiment in steam navi- 
gation made in Europe 6r America. 

The first American vessel on Lake Erie was con- 
structed in 1797. In 1807, the "Clermont," built by 
Fulton and Livingston, which had been launched in the 
spring of this year, was completed. She was supplied 
with a steam engine built by Watt and Britton, of 
England, and made her first trip to Albany, New York, 
in 32 hours. 

American ship builders early abandoned the Euro- 
pean models, and constructed the finest frigates, sloops 
and coasting schooners. 

American clippers became famous. One of these 
vessels made the voyage from the Sandwich Islands to 
New York, a distance of 17,597 miles, in 82 days. 
Iron wits experimentally used for ships in 1821, and 
came into permanent use about 1830. 

The marked improvements of modern times are the 
increased length of the vessel, and the substitution ol 
a concave instead of a convex form from the stern back 
on each side of the ship. 

From observations made by Mr. Scott Russell, in 



1832, upon the shape of a wave, he designed the hol- 
low lines drawn from the stem. 

The Francis metallic life boat was invented in 1838, 
and patented in the United States in 1845. The most 
important part of the construction consisted in the lon- 
gitudinal corrugations formed in the sheet metal, by 
which the strength and stiffness were much increased. 

The Francis life car resembles a boat, being a water 
tight metallic shell, with a hatchway or cover, and 
adapted to travel on ropes whose ends are connected 
to the ship and to the shore respectively. The passen- 
gers are inclosed in the car, and the stops are made by 
hauling on a rope attached to the car, and grasped by- 
parties on board and ashore. 

One of Francis' cars was the means of saving two 
hundred lives from the ship "Ayrshire," which went 
ashore at Long Branch, New Jersey, in January, 1850. 

The lines of the "Great Eastern" were designed by 
Mr. Russell, in accordance with his theory of wave 
lines. Elm is principally used in England for the keel 
of vessels, but live oak is preferred in the United 
States, 

111 recent years boats made of corrugated sheet 
metal have come into use. Paper boats are made by 
fitting successive sheets over a model of the exact form, 
witft varnish between the layers. 

The use of Steel for constructing vessels has recently 
been introduced. 



SHIP AND BOAT BUILDING. 

2,(88 Ship nnd Boat Building Establishments In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, - 

New Vessels built, 
Boats built, • 

Vessels repaired, 



ISO© I.SSO 

$5,472,815.00 $20,979,874.00 

11,667,661.00 30,800,327.00 

4,154,509.00 12,713,813.00 



9,260 



21,345 



2,492 Patents Granted by the United States, 




Seckelt * Wilheims laho Co New York 



- . . 




163 



•" 




* I 



AIR AND GAS ENGINES. 



For more than a century the attention of mechan- 
icians has been directed to means for making air and 
gas available in driving machinery. 

Amonton, France, in 1699, had an atmospheric fire- 
wheel, or air engine, in which a heated column of air 
was made to drive a wheel. Some have attempted to 
make available the expansion of air. previously me- 
chanically condensed and stored in reservoirs. It was 
not understood, apparently, that the valuable effect 
would only be equal to the force employed in con- 
densing the air, minus friction, leakage and other inci- 
dentals. This form settled down to two classes of 
machines — 

1st. Those which were locomotives, as in Bouepas's 
air-driven carriage, patented in 1828, where the air was 
condensed in tanks and admitted to the alternate ends 
of a cylinder, which had a reciprocating piston, con- 
nected in the usual manner to the crank and drive- 
shaft. Von Rathen used the same device in 1848, at 
Putney, England, where he ran an air locomotive at the 
rate of ten or twelve miles an hour 

id. Those in which a body of air is condensed into 
a reservoir, placed at the bottom of a shaft, or in a sit- 
uation where the prime motor cannot be set up. In 
this case the engine in the mine is run by the air from 
the reservoir during a lull in the force of the prime 
motor. 

Medhurst secured patent on this in England, in 1 799. 
He condensed air to one-fifteenth of its volume, and 
stored it for this purpose. Fisk's U, S. patent air res- 
ervoir in 1S65 had a similar purpose. 



Another form of air engine has two chambers filled 
with air or gas, connected by pipes with the respective 
ends of a cylinder, in which a piston reciprocates as 
the bodies of air in the cylinders are alternately ex- 
panded and contracted. Sterling's English patent, 
1827, was of this character, and is stated by Chambers 
"to have been unsuccessful, owing to mechanical de- 
fects, and to the unforseen accumulation of heat not 
fully extracted by the sieves or small passages in the 
cool part of the regenerator, of which the external sur- 
face was not sufficiently large to throw off the uncov- 
ered heat when the engine was working with highly 
compressed air." 

Sterling is said to have been the originator, in 1816, 
of the regenerator wherein the heat of the exhausting 
air is made to heat surfaces which communicate heat to 
the incoming air for the next charge. The same idea 
was found in the English patent of Glazebrook, in ! 797. 
Sterling made improvements in 1 S40. which he also 
patented. In this engine two strong, air-tight vessels 
are connected with opposite ends of a cylinder, in 
which a piston works in the usual manner ; four fifths 
of the interior space in these vessels are occupied by 
two similar air vessels, or plungers, suspended to the 
opposite extremities of a beam, and capable of being 
alternately moved up and down to the extent of the 
remaining fifth. By the motion of these interior ves- 
sels the air to be operated upon is moved from one end 
of the exterior vessel to the other, and as one end is 
kept at a high temperature, and the other as cold as 
possible, when the air is brought to the hot end it be- 1 



comes heated and has its pressure increased, whereas 
its heat and pressure are diminished when it is forced 
to the cold end. Now, as the interior vessels move in 
opposite directions, it follows that the pressure of the 
enclosed air in the one vessel is increased, while that 
of the other is diminished ; a difference of pressure is 
produced on opposite sides of the piston which is made 
to move from one end of the cylinder to the other ; 
the piston is connected with a fly-wheel, and motion 
communicated in the usual way. In this engine the air 
received heat at the temperature of 650° Fab, and dis- 
charged the last heat at 1 50 Fah. The efficiency of a 
perfect engine with those limits of temperature would 
be 0.45 and its consumption of coal 0.73 of a pound 
per horse power per hour. The actual consumption 
of coal per horse power per hour was about two and 
two-tenths pdunds, being three times the consumption 
of a theoretically perfect engine, and corresponding to 
an actual efficiency of o. 1 5, or one-third of the maxi- 
mum theoretical efficiency. 

Sterling's air engine was more economical than the 
double-action steam engine. 

A third form of the apparatus embraces but few fea- 
tures. These have been modified by independent in- 
ventors to such an extent that they now represent 
more than eighty patents. Glazebrook seems to have 
fully anticipated the usefulness and the future of the 
air engine. His second patent in 1801 has a refriger- 
ator whose use is not to cool the pump wherein the air 
is condensed, but to deprive the escaping gas of its 
heat, in case a gas be used of so expansive a character 



as to preclude its being ejected into the atmosphere 
after using. He cites carbonic acid and other gases 
and compounds, He only antedated the engine of 
Brunei by three years, which was intended to be used 
without the escape of carbonic acid. 

Lillie's air engine, patented in 1819, is in the same 
line of invention ; the air is compressed by mechanical 
force, passed through heated tubes, expanded against 
a piston and there escapes into the open air. Air en- 
gines are used extensively for driving light machinery, 
and are very desirable where water is scarce. 

The claim for die Ericsson engine was that he in- 
tended to use the same portion of heat in producing 
mechanical power, over and over again, by the means 
of a regenerator. The regenerator was used by Ster- 
ling in 1816, and Glazebrook in 1797, in air engines. 

The principle on which the Ericsson regenerator 
rests is the repeated use of the same caloric. In 1852 
a ship was built, qne thousand tons burden, two hun- 
dred and fifty feet long, with paddle wheels thirty-two 
feet in diameter, to be propelled by air. On January 
4th, 1853, the ship on her trial trip made twelve knots 
an hour, with the wind, using only six tons of fuel per 
day. 

On the second trial the greatest speed attained was 
nine knots. The ship, named "after the inventor, failed 
to establish the validity of the principle involved. He 
took out another patent in 1855 ^ or certain novelties 
in die apparatus. Ericsson patented improvements in 
air engines in 1851, 1855, 1856, 1858 and i860. 

The first gas engines were gunpowder engines ; the 



gas generated by the explosion being the means of 
expelling die air, the condensation of the gases produc- 
ing a partial vacuum in the chamber. 

O. Hautcfeuillc, in 1678, first used this power. 

Hughens applied it in a cylinder so that the atmos- 
pheric pressure might force a piston downward when 
the vacuum was thus formed beneath it. In 1791 
Barber obtained an English patent for a gas engine, in 
which a stream of carbureted hydrogen gas was intro- 
duced at one induction port and a quantity of atmos- 
pheric air at the other, the resulting combustion giving 
an explosive force against the piston. 

Street, in 1794, proposed to use the expansive power 
of heated gas instead of its explosive power. Lebon's 
French patent of 1 799 described the distillation of car- 
bureted hydrogen from coal, and its introduction into 
the cylinder beneath the piston, and, simultaneously at 
another channel, a proper proportion of atmospheric 
air. The mixed gases were exploded" by the electric 
spark, their dilation furnishing the desired motive 
power. 

Brunei's gas engine, in 1825, consisted of five dis- 
tinct cylindrical vessels. Davy and Faraday, in 1 823, 
succeeded in reducing several gases to a liquid state 
by means of great pressure and very low temperature. 
This discovery again turned attention to gas engines. 
Cooper, in 1 835, described an engine in which one part 
oxygen and two parts hydrogen were ignited to pro- 
duce a vacuum alternately on each side of a piston. 
Johnson's patent of 1841, proposed to introduce pure 
hydrogen gas and oxygen, instead of atmospheric air. 



[BjJ 




A!R AND GAS ENGINES. 



The Otto and Langens gas engine is an upright hollow 
column having a heavy piston, whose rod is a rack act- 
ing upon cog-wheels on the fly-wheel shaft ; as the 
piston ascends the cog-wheel slips loosely on the shaft, 
and the mixed gases, coal gas and air are exploded by 
communication with the gas jet which is kept con- 
stantly burning. 

As the gases rapidly condense after explosion the 
atmospheric pressure, aided by the weight of the piston, 
is made effective upon the shaft of the wheel by the 
engagement of the rack teeth with those of the spur 
wheel. 

In Lenoir's gas engine, now much employed in 
France, the source of power is the expansion arising 
from the explosion of gas. Air and gas are admitted 
to a cylinder in the proportion of 1 1 to 1 ; a spark 
from a galvanic battery is sent through it; th» spark 
explodes the mixture, and the expansion conseqifent 
on rltis explosion drives a piston to the other end of the 
cylinder. Mechanism does all the rest ; opens a slide 
valve to permit exit to the exploded mixture, drives 
the piston back by die momentum of a fly-wheel, opens 
tubes for the admission of new air and gas, establishes 
connection again with the battery, and prepares for a 
renewal of the action, and so on continuously. These 
engines are costly in the first instance, and many pre- 
cautions are necessary to prevent them being over- 
heated; but they require no fireman, and are rather 
cheaper to work than steam engines : consequently 
they are much employed for two to four-horse power 
purposes. 

AIR AND GAS ENGINES. 



Vo. 1. Grtlnpowder Engine — A. I'- 1680 

2. Primitive Air Engine — A. P. 1794. 

3. V. S. Patent, Hot. Air Engit ' 1827. 

4 •• " Explosive Gas Engine — A,, D, 1838. 

—A. D. 1844. 

a „ ,. ' —A. 0. 1867. 



Bi-sulphide of Carbon Engine—A. D. 1882. 
Steam and Hot Air Engine — A. D. 1883. 
Explosive Gas Engine— A. D. 1883. 
-A. 1). 1863. 

—A. LI. 1883. 

•• '■ ■• —A. D. 1884. 



403 Patents Gtanted by the United States. 



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LUBRICATORS 



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LUBRICATORS. 



No. 1. U. S. Patent, Lubricator— A. D. 1851. 




Thernoscopic Lubricator — A. D. 1876. 
Steam Engine Lubricator — A. D. 1878. 
Hydrostatic Pressure Lubricator — A. D. 187S). 
Lubricator— A. D. 1881. 
—A. D. 1882. 
Glass Cup Lubricator— A. J). 1883. 
Steam Engine Lubricator — A. D. 1884. 
Locomotive Lubricator — A. D. 1884. 



An early form of oiler is to be seen in the British 
Museum. It is a small horn with a plate on the end, 
and a nozzle through which the oil exuded. It was 
found at Thebes. 

According to a correspondent of the "Railroad 
Gazette," the Erie Railroad has reduced its oiling ex- 



penses from $5,000 to $1,000 a year, by using paraf- 
fine on passenger car journals, and has reduced the 
number of hot journals from 535 to 332. 

It is stated that a step in Starr's flour mill at Vallejo, 
California, supporting a 4-ton shaft making 93 revolu- 
tions per minute, had been constantly running, day 



and night, lor seven months with the hydrostatic lubri- 
cator without changing the oil ; and the oil, when taken 
from the reservoir at the end of that time, had not 
become thickened or discolored in any appreciable 
degree. 



LUBRICATORS. 



794 Patents Granted by the United States, 




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STEAM AND AIR BRAKES. 



STEAM AND AIR BRAKES. 



No, 1. V. 


S. Patent 


Hand Power— A. D. 1840. 


: : 


k( 


Steam — A. D. 1858 
Air— A. D. 1860. 


4. ' 


- 


Steam— A. D. 1862. 


5. 


'• 


Locomotive Drive Wheel— A. 1). 1874 


6. • 




Vacuum— A. D. 1875. 



Car brakes, until the advent of the atmospheric 
brake, were actuated by a winding drum connect- 
ing with chains and levers, the power of the brake- 
man being applied to a hand-wheel on the car plat- 
form. 

The Westinghouse atmospheric brake has been 
adopted on most of the railway lines in the United 
States and Europe. 

Its chief features are, first, the use of compressed 



atmospheric air as a means of applying the brakes ; I Kansas Pacific Railway May 12, 1S71, a train going at 
and, second, putting the whole braking apparatus j the rate of 45 miles an hour was stopped within a ciis- 
under the direct control of the locomotive engi- j tance of 250 feet. 

neer, so that he can apply the brakes at pleasure, [ At a recent test of the Westinghouse air brake, a 
instantaneously or gradually, and with any desired : freight train of fifty cars. 1,900 feet long, and weighing 
power, limited only by the power of the air-corn- 2,000,000 pounds, drawn by a heavy engine, was 
pressing apparatus and the strength of the air brought to a standstill in 1 2; seconds, and within 200 
vessels. feet from the marking post, the train running at the 

At a test of the Westinghouse air brake on the | rate of 20 miles an hour. 



STEAM AND AIR BRAKES. 



290 Patents Granted by the United States. 







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STEAM ENGINES. 



STEAM ENGINES. 

Jfo. ). Fitst Steam Engine— B. C. 200. 

■2 Piston .Steam Engine— A. L). 1690. 

3. U. S. Patent, Beam Engine- A. D. 1849. 

4. ■• " » " —A. D. 1876. 

5. " •• Direct Acting Engine— AD, 1882. 

6. " •• Horizontal Engine— A. D. 1883. 

7. " " Duplex Engine— A. D. 1883. 






Baptista Porta, in tfioo, contrived an apparatus for 
exhibiting the power of steam. 

Solotnon De Cans, about 1020, wrote a book in 
whirh he claims to have invented a steam engine 

The first engine on this Continent was brought over 
from England in 1736: and prior to the Revolutionary 
war there were but two steam engine* in I lit- Colonies; 
one was built for list in a distillery in Philadelphia, 
and the other was imported, as stated above, for the 
Schuyler Copper Mines, in Passaic, N. |. Both were 
of the Nowcomen type, 

James Watt, of Glasgow, when repairing a model of a 
\cwcomen engine in 1703. began a series ofimprOvi 
ments which finally rendered the steam engine mm, r 
sally applicable. l"o avoid losses ol lieatill the steam 
cylinder, he attached in 1765 the separate condenser, 
thus saving three fourths of the injection vvatel needed 
in the \ewcomen engine. 

The first steam engine constructed in this country 
was built at Philadelphia, Pa m 1,3,, 



Oliver Kvarts, of Philadelphia. Pa, invented the 

■high pressure non'cotiriensmg steam engine." 

In 17S5 Mr. Evans hrsl applied steam to the grind- 
ing of plaster and the sawing oi stone, and to flour 
mills. 

A recent writer has calculated that the engines of a 
first-class Atlantic steamer contain 6,000 parts, with 
'2,270 boiler tubes, 4,456 condenser tubes. 64,888 
rivets, [0,407 nuts. 3,000 studs, 7.S68 bolts, 1,582 
! boiler stays, 1,356 furnace bars, and 1,144 pins. In 
I addition 10 these there arc 100 moving parts, 271 
steam pipes. 147 valves, 37 levers, 24 furnaces, ami 
172 pieces belonging to the pumping-out arrange- 
ments. The number of auxiliary engines would be 
about 23. 

Ac idea of the extreme lightness of steam may be 
Obtained by the statement chat it takes 27.2222 cubic 
feet of steam at the pressure of one atmosphere to 
wi igh oni pound, avoirdupois. 

Some conception of the enormous results of steam 



oCiwer may be gi.ned freer, the |'t.t ihat the ^ s :-egaie 
steam power in use in the world is at present three 
and one-hall millions horse-power employed in sta- 
tionary engines, and ten millions horse-power in loco- 
motive engines. This force is maintained without the 
consumption of animal food, except by the miners who 
dig the coal, and the force maintained in their muscles 
is to the force generated by the product of their labor 
about 1 to 1.0S0. This steam power is equal to the 
working force of twenty-live million of horses, and one 
horse consumes three times as much food as one man. 
The steam power, therefore, is equivalent to the 
saving of food for seventy five millions of human 
beings. 

Further, three power looms attended by one man 
produce seventy-eight pieces of cotton fabric, against 
four pieces produced by one hand loom worked by one 
man in the year 1 Soo. 

A carpenter, planing machine does the work of 
twenty men. 



STEAM ENGINES. 



4,337 Patents Granted by the United States. 




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STEAM ENGINES-ROTARY & OSCILLATING. 

No. 1. Rotary sted,n Jet— A. D. 162». 

2 .. " Pressure — A. D. 1769. 

3. U. S. Patent, Rotary Steam Pressure— A. D. 1816. 

4 .. •' Oscillating— A. D. 1827. 

5 „ .. i' —A. D. 1832. 

g .. •• Reaction Steam Jet— A. L>. 1834. 

7 ,. " Steam Jet— A. D. 1845. 

8 .. .. Compound Direct Acting— A. D. 1869. 

9 .< .. Rotary Steam Pressure— A. D. 1882. 



STEAM ENGINES, 
ROTARY AND OSCILLATING. 



The original steam engine was the /Tiolipile, exhib- 
ited in Alexandria, Egypt, 150 B. C. It was a rotary 
steam engine, the principle being the same as that of 
the modern turbine water wheel. 

Hero, who derived much information from Archi- 
medes, described three modes in which steam could be 
used as a mechanical power : xst, to raise water by its 
elasticity; 2d, to elevate a weight by its expansive 



power ; and, 3d, to produce a rotary motion by its re- 
action on the atmosphere. 

Nerbrest, in his Astronomia Europica, in r68o, 
speaks of drawing a car by an seolipile, which ejected 
the steam upon wings whose axes were geared to the 
wheels of the car. 

The oscillatory cylinder engine was patented in Eng- 
land in 1813. 

In a rotary engine the piston is attached to a shaft, 



and revolves with it within a cylinder, the axis of which is 
parallel with the axis of rotation of the piston or vane. 
Oscillating engines have their piston rods attached 
directly to the crank pin, and as the crank revolves the 
cylinder oscillates upon trunnions, one on each side of 
it, through which the steam enters and leaves the 
steam chest. The valves are within the steam chest, 
oscillating with the cylinder. 



STEAM ENGINES-ROTARY AND OSCILLATING, 



921 Patents Granted by the United States, 










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8 
STEAM ENGINE VALVE GEAR. 



9 




STEAM ENGINE VALVE GEAR. 

No. I. Automatic— A. I). 1717. 

2. Eccentric— A. D. 1785. 

3. English Shifting Cam— A. U. 1802. 

4. " Hand Shifting Eccentric— A. D. 1834. 

5. U. S. Patent, Fly Wheel Governor— A. D. 1839. 
fi. •' " Link Motion— A. D. 1842. 

7. '• " Valve Gear— A. D. 1849. 

8. " " Link Shifted by Steam— A 
'■>■ " " Electric Generator Engme- 



D. 1867. 
■A. D. 1883. 



The first means of shutting and opening the pas- 
sages of steam engines were cocks, and as these were 
all worked by hand the closest and most constant 
attention was required. 

Dr. Papin invented the piston and lever safety valve 
in 1710. 

In 171 1 Messrs. Newcomen & Cawley contracted 
to build a steam engine that would operate pumps 
for draining a coalery at Griff. Warwickshire, Eng- 
land. 

When this engine was on trial the builders were 
surprised to see it make " several strokes very quick 
together," when, after a search for the cause of this 
action, they found a hole in the piston, which let cold 
water into the cylinder and condensed the steam, 
whereas, before this, the steam in the cylinder had 



been condensed by the application of cold water to the 
outside. 

This circumstance led to the application of a jet 
of water into the cylinder. In order to cause this jet 
of water to enter the cylinder at the right time, which 
was at the completion of the stroke of the piston, a 
float was so arranged in a pipe at the side of the cylin- 
der that when the steam was strong it would rise and 
open the injection valve. This was a self-actuated 
valve gear, but with it only from six to ten strokes of 
the piston per minute could be attained. 

Finally, Humphrey Potter, a boy who attended the 
engine, in 1713, added what he called a "scoggan," i 
which was a catch that the beam always opened so that i 
the piston would make as high as sixteen strokes per j 
minute. 



This device was used for several years, but " being 
perplexed with catches and strings, Mr. Henry Beigh- 
ton, in an engine he had built at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
in 1718, took them all away but the beam itself and 
supplied them in a much better manner." 

Watt introduced the rotary ball governor, throttle 
valve, steam gage, indicator and register. 

The detachable, adjustable, or drop cut-off valve 
gear was patented by Frederick E. Sickels, of New 
York City, in 1842. 

The application of the governor to determine the 
point of cut-off was made by Zackariah Allen and 
George Corliss, of Rhode Island, in 1849. 

The valve gear is the system of valves and of actu- 
ating mechanism which distribute the steam as the 
engine passes through its cycle of motion. 



STEAM ENGINE VALVE GEAR, 



679 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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I 




STEAM PUMPING ENGINES. 




STEAM PUMPING ENGINES. 

I. Single Acting Pumping Engine— A 1> 1774. 

3, V. S. Patent, Double Plunger Mining Pump— A, D. 1870. 

Duplex Pumping Engine — A. D. L875, 

Doable End Steam Pump— A. D. 187(i. 

Steam Pumping Engine— A, D. 1881. 

Gas Motor Applied to Pumping— A. D. 1883. 

Compound Pumping Engine— A. D. 1883. 




The Marquis ol Worcester, in his "Hundred Inven- 
tions," published in 1663, mentions a number of ex- 
periments which he made of the expansive power of 
steam, and claims that his attention was directed to 1 
this subject by an incident which occurred while he was 
a prisi ni-r in the Tower of London. Ha liatl been pre- 
paring some food over a lire when the cover of the 
vessel was suddenly driven with great violence up the 
chimney. While this story is probably apocryphal, it 
is believed that the Marquis invented an engine which 
he thought could lie made conducive to the public in- 
terests in raising water from pits or wells, and this, 
engine was afterwards recommended to Louis XIV by 
Sir Samuel Morland for the purpose of irrigating the 
grounds at St. Germain. The Marquis is claimed as 
the inventor who discovered a mode of applying steam 1 
. s a mechanical agent, and he secured the passage by 



Parliament of an act to enable his heirs forncnety-nine 
years to receive the sole benefit, profit and advantage 
from, as he termed it, his " water commanding engine." 

This engine was, however, incomplete ami crude. 

In 1698, Captain Savary obtained a patent for a 
new method of clearing coal and other mines of 
water, ami he may be justly considered as the first 
person who rendered steam applicable to manufactur- 
ing purposes. 

Savary' s engine was employed with good results in 
the drainage of mines in Cornwall and Devonshire, 
England. 

The engines of the Marquis of Worcester, Savary, 
Papin and Newcomen, were all pumping engines. 

Oliver Evans, of Philadelphia, was one of the first, 
If riot the first inventor, to apply the high pressure 
principle to the steam engine, and he succeeded in in- 



troducing it into quite general use in this country be- 
fore his death. In the year 1 S 1 7, he constructed a pump- 
ing engine for the l'airmount Water Works, the boilers 
for which were worked at a pressure of 200 pounds to 
the square inch, but after two explosions the engine 
was abandoned and water wheels introduced. 

The largest stationary engine in the world is at the 
famous zinc mines at Friedcnsville, Pa. It is known as 
" The President," and it is said that there is no pump 
ing engine in the world that can compare with it. Its 
regular work is to raise 17,500 gallons of water every 
minute, and it has raised as high as 19000 gallons in 
a minute, from a depth of 350 feet. The driving 
wheels are 35 feet in diameter, and weigh 40 tons 
each. The sweep rod is 40 feet long, the cylinder no 
inches in diameter, and the piston rod iS inches in 
diameter, with a 10-foot stroke. 



STEAM PUMPING ENGINES, 



217 Patents Granted by the United States. 



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STEAM AND VACUUM PUMPS. 



STEAM AND VACUUM PUMPS. 

No. 1. Steam Vaeuurn Mining Pump — A. D. 1665. 

2. " '• '■ —A. D. 1698. 

3. " —A. D. 1698. 

' 4. U. S. Patent, Steam Vacuum Pump — A. D. 1842. 
" —A. D. 1853. 
Hot Air Water Elevator— A. D. 1864. 
" " Steam and Vacuum Pump — A. D. 1856. 

' —A. D. 1872. 

" " Steam Vacuum Pulaometer — A. D. 1881. 



Papin of France,- in 1695, added more to the inven- 
tion of the steam engine than all of his predecessors ; 
and, speaking of the extent to which steam could be 
applied, states that "his principle could be applied to 
removing water from mines, throwing bombs, &c." 

Savary's steam-pumping engine was employed with 



good results in the drainage of mines in Cornwall and 
in Devonshire, England, in j 705. 

The earliest application of a steam engine to a pump 
is accorded to Newcomen, in 1713. 

Oliver Evans, in 181 7, constructed a pumping engine 
for the Fairmount Water Works, of Philadelphia, Pa. 



Steam pumps arc important among the engineering 
devices of the day. 

The necessity of pumping water from mines, from 
ponds in draining, or from sunken vessels, coffer dams 
or wet excavations, has given great importance to that 
special application of the steam engine. 



STEAM AND VACUUM PUMPS, 




165 Patents Granted by the United States, 




SackeU&Wilhelms Litho Co NewYork 



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171 



f 



CARDING. 



No. 1. Primitive, Carding Wool, Hand. 

2. " " Cotton, Hand. 

3. English Carding Wool or Cotton Machine— A D. 1748. 
4 .i .. » >■ —A D. 1748. 

5. Automatic Carding Machine — A. D. 1773. 

6. U. S. Patent, Wool Carding Machine— A. D. 1810. 

7. •• •• Automatically Stripping Top Flats— A. D. 1857. 

8. •• " Cotton Carding Machine— A. D. 1884. 

9 . ,. ,, Woo i •• « -A. D. 1884. 




The earliest authentic mention of carding describes 
two flat surfaces studded with teeth, one being nailed 
to a bench and the other having a single handle by 
which it could be moved back and forth over the fixed 
card upon which the cotton was placed. 

The first improvement consisted in suspending the 
movable flat by two cords which passed over pulleys 
and had weights at the other ends. 

The next improvement was made in 1748, by Peel, 
of England, who patented two different carding ma- 
chines. His invention met with no success. Twelve 
years later it came into use, with slight improvements, 
as the invention of Hargreaves. In 1762 Peel em- 
ployed Hargreaves to erect a cylinder carding machine 
in a mill at Blackburn. England. 



CARDING 



The greatest step of all was taken in 1 773, when 
Richard Arkwright invented his power card, which con 
sisted of a main cylinder working against top flats, the 
cotton l>eing fed into the cart! bj fluted rolls and 
removed by a doffer and doffer comb. 

As the cotton is drawn between the cylinder and 
each flat in the carding process, the action of the cylin- 
der teeth disentangles and straightens die fibres, and 
■ays them parallel. 

Since Sir Richard Arkwright's invention, improve- 
ments in the cotton card have consisted mainly of mod- 
ifications of the same general plan. 

The first carding machine established in America 
was constructed and set up at Pittsfield, Mass., in 
180T. 



Cards in use fifty years ago had but ten flats each. 

A subsequent improvement consisted in making the 

; frame of iron instead of wood, and using fourteen 

Hats, covering a trifle over a quarter of the surface of 

the cylinder. 

In tS62 cards were built with twenty flats, covering 
' a little over one-third of the circumference, and twelve 
years later the distinction of -top flat" and "under 
flat " arose. 

Great improvements have been made in top flat 
cards, and they are sometimes built with twenty-seven 
flats one and one-half inches on the wire in width. 

Cards are distinguished by quality, as sheet card, 
fillet card, breaking card and top card. 



CARDING. 



751 Patents Granted by the United States, 



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172 







FELTING AND HATS. 



FELTING AND HATS. 

No. 1. Primitive Forming Bate — Bowing. 

2. .. Felting Hats. 

3. V. S. Patent, Forming Bats— A. D. 1846. 




Felting Hats— A. D. 1870. 

Pouncing Hats— A. I). 1879. 

Blocking and Shaping Hats— A. D, 1881. 

Fulling Mill— A. D. 1881. 

IroningHftte— A. B. 1883. 

Curling Hat Brims— A. D. 1884. 



Felt probably preceded woven fabrics. 

In Central Asia, the home of the Argali, the clothing 
and tents of the people are yet, and have been since 
time immemorial, made of felted fabrics. 

The latticed huts, referred to by Herodotus, were 
covered with felt. The Chinese traveler, Chi fa haim, 
who visited India in the 4th century, describes the 
people who live about the Lake of Lob as wearing 
dresses of Chinese cut, made of felt. 

Felt covered the funeral pile of Hephsestin, whose 
obsequies were so splendidly celebrated by Alexander. 

The principal use of felt among the Greeks and Ro- 
mans was in the manufacture of hats. 

The art of felting, no doubt, passed from Central 
Asia into Greece in the time of Aristotle. 



The felt mantles of Circassia to this day are heavy, 
stiff, and rain proof. 

The Armenians of Schamachi lead a nomadic life in 
huts constructed of wicker work covered with felt. 

Hatters attribute the art of felting to Clement. 

Dr. Hooke lectured on Felt Making before the 
Royal Society of England in [666. 

The hair of rabbits and other animals is used in 
Russia as a felt foundation for bowls, dishes, plates, 
&c. ; after completion they are varnished and resemble 
papier mache. The uses of felt are various. Among 
them may be cited the following: Among the Asiatics, 
cloth hats, tent coverings, sacks, &c. In the United 
States and Europe, for domestic purposes; cloth, cloth- 
ing, socks, slippers, boot and shoe soles, carpets, hats. 



raps, gloves, table covers, steam boiler coverings, deal- 
ing for walls, non-conductors for kilns and refrigerators, 
roofing, steam packing polishing wheels. &c, &c. 

Felt hats are as old as Homer. The Greeks made 
them in various forms. 

In 1449 Charles VII made his triumphal entry into 

I Rome, wearing a felt hat lined with red velvet ami 
surmounted with a plume of feathers ; this set the 
fashion, and hats soon superseded chaperons and 

. hoods. Felt hats are said to have been introduced 

I into England in 1470. 

! The use of the fur of the beaver, which dates back 

j to 1585, threatens to become obsolete. It is to a 
great extent superseded by the imitation made by 
covering a body with silk plush. 



FELTING AND HATS. 



1,372 Patents Granted by the United States. 






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KNITTING. 

No. I. Primitive Hand. 

2. Knitting Machine — A. D. 1589. 

3. Hib Knitting Machine— A. D. 17- r >6. 

4. Ribbing Attachment to Frame— A. D. 1769. 

5. Widening and Narrowing Attachment— A. D. 1760 
l). Knitting Machine— A. D. 1777. 

7. Attachment to Knit Several Breadt] 

8. Stocking Frame— A. D. 1784. 

9. U.S. Patent, Straight KniUing-A. I). 1837 



-A. D. 1782. 



Knitting, derived from the Saxon word "crittan," 
meaning threads woven by hand, is the art of making 
a textile fabric by interlooping yarn or thread by means 
of needles of any character. 

Its origin was probably in Scotland, .whence it was 
taken to France, where a company of stocking-knitters 
was established in 1527, under the patronage of St. 
Fiacre, a Scottish recluse of the seventh century. 

According to other accounts, the practice of knitting 
was first known in Italy or Spain. So far as silk stock- 
ings are concerned, it is quite probable that they were 
first knit in Spain, for the first record of them in Eng- 
land is that a pair of them was presented to King 
Henry VIII from Spain. 



8 

KNITTING. 



The word knit applied to stockings must have 
been common in England in 1 530, as at that time a 
grammar was published by the French master to 
the Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VIII, in which 
the verb to knot or knitt is mentioned : "I knitt bon- 
nets or hosen, je lasse ;" and from an authentic and 
curious household book, kept during the life of Sir 
Thomas L'Estrange, Knight, are the following entries 
" " 533, 7th Sept., peyd for 4 peyr of knytt hose, viii s. 
1538, 3d Oct., peyd for 2 peyr of knytt hose, 1 s. ;' 
the former being for Sir Thomas himself and the latter 
for his children. 

Stockings, or coverings for the legs, had been worn 
since the time of the Roman Empire, but they were 



9 



mostly of cloth or skin, and so when the knitting of 
woolen stockings was learned in England it became 
quite an industry. 

Silk knit stockings came into England from Spain, 
and were very rare. 

The first pair of silk stockings knit in England was 
presented to Queen Elizabeth by Mrs. Montague, her 
silk-woman, and it is stated chat Her Majesty was so 
well pleased that from thenceforth she never wore 
cloth hose any more. 

The hand-knitters employed long pins or needles in 
this work, and the art of knitting became an extensive 
business and support for the peasantry of England. 



KNITTING, 



765 Patents Granted by the United States. 




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KNITTING -CIRCULAR MACHINES. 



No. I, (J. K Patent, Endless Chain of Needles— A. D. 1840. 

2. " " Four Feed Machine— A. D. 1844. 

8. " " Vertically Arranged Needles — A. D. 1862. 

4. " " Levers to Lift Stitehes over Vertically 

Arranged Needles — A. I). 1864. 

6. •' " Knitting Circular Bibbed Fabrics— A. D. 1866. 

6. " " Weft Thread Knitting— A. V 1870. 

7. " " Knitting Shaker Sgck, Ribbed Leg— A. D. 1874. 
Radiully Reciprocating Needles — A. D. 1881. 

" " Knitting Ribbed Tops of Stockings— A. D. 1884. 




Stockings were probably first woven in this country 
at Chester, Pa., in 1723, and the frames were brought 
over by the Germans, as the English Government 
placed a prohibition upon the exportation of stocking 
frames into the Colonies. 

The State of Virginia, in 1662, offered a premium of 
ten pounds of tobacco for every dozen pairs of woolen 
or worsted stockings ; and the knitters of coarse yarn 
stockings in Pennsylvania are said to have received 
one-half crown a pair in 1698. 

In 1766 the Society of Arts of New York offered a 
prize of ten pounds for the first three stocking looms 
of iron ; and in 1776 the Committee of Safety of Mary- 
land appropriated three hundred pounds to Mr. Cox- 
endefer, of Frederick County, to establish a stocking 
factory. 

In 1758 Jedediah Strutt invented "a machine for 
making turned ribbed stockings and other goods," and 
in 1775 a Mr. Crane, of Edmonton, England, suc- 
ceeded in applying warp to the stocking frame. 

The circular knitting machine was invented in 1816 
by a Mr. Brunei, who called it •'The Tricoteur," but it 
was not until 1847 that the "latch needle," now so 
commonly used, was invented. While this invention 
is claimed both in England and France, it is held in 



this country to have been made by Mr. Aiken, of New 
Hampshire. 

In 1831 Timothy Bailey, of Albany, N. Y., succeeded 
in applying power to the old stocking frame of Lee, 
and in the following year the manufacturing of hosiery 
by steam or water power was first commenced in this 
country at Cohoes, N. Y. 

The invention of knitting lace is attributed to Bar- 
bara, the wife of Christopher Haltman, a German 
miner in 1560. At that time, the mines being unpro- 
ductive, the women employed themselves in making 
nets, and the lace which they manufactured, on account 
of the low price of labor, soon became fashionable and 
superseded the Italian lace worked with a needle. 

A manufacture of lace was established in France in 
'566- 

Flanders has long been celebrated for its lace, and 
it is said that an ounce of fine Flanders thread has 
been sold in London for four pounds, which might be 
made into lace of the value of forty pounds, ten times 
its weight in gold. 

About 1760 Morris and Betts made an improve- 
ment upon Strutt's invention, mentioned above, which 
laid the foundation of modern machine-wrought lace, 
and in 1769 the first figured lace web was made by 



Robert Frost, on a frame arranged bj Thomas Taylor, 
of Nottingham, England. 

About twenty years ago the machine to knit a cir- 
cular and seamless webb was invented. This gave a 
a new impetus to American hosiery. 

On hosiery and knit goods there are now engaged 
about a hundred and fifty mills, almost wholly supply- 
ing the market. Some of the departments of manu- 
facture are new since 1867, and a large share since 
1864. 

The progress made in this branch of manufacture is 
astonishing, as the United States now make almost all 
the undergoods, stockings, hosiery, scarfs, neck com- 
forts, opera hoods, &c, which they consume, amount- 
ing to about forty million dollars annually. Not only 
are the goods woven circular, but within ten or fifteen 
years the manufacturers have succeeded in making 
goods which are fitted to the form, and in making 
them, not by hand, but by machinery, and surpassing 
in quality the goods made abroad. 

American wool, with its long, glossy staple, is well 
fitted to the production of this class of fabrics, and 
American competition has not only succeeded in taking 
possession of the home market for American products, 
but in greatly reducing prices. 



KNITTING-CIRCULAR MACHINES, 



276 Patents Granted by the United States. 




SackeU& Wilhelms Litho Co New York 



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KNITTING-STRAIGHT MACHINES. 



No. 1 

2. 



KNITTING-STRAIGHT MACHINES. 

U. S. Patent, Knitting Fashion Fabrics— A. D. 1848. 
., „ .i two separate fabrics at same time— A. D. 1861. 

Plain Work— A. D. 1853. 
„ „ ., PaBhioned Work— A. D. 1864. 

« Ribbed and Plain Work— A. D. 1865. 
Fashioned Work— A. P. 1866. 
Irregular Tubular ' V. D- 1867. 
Fashioned Work— A. D. 1878. 
Stockings, Full, Regular Make— A. D. 1884. 



Machine knitting was invented in 1589 by an En- 
glish clergyman named Wm. Lee, who was refused a 
patent by Queen Elizabeth on the ground that it would 
take away the occupation of a large number of her 
subjects. Lee went to France where he set up his 
stocking frames, but he failed to make any money, and 
died in 1610, it is said, poor, of a broken heart. Lee's 
machine consisted of a series of hooked or bearded 
wires or needles having slotted or grooved shanks into 



which the point of the hook or beard was pressed, and 
these needles were arranged at regular intervals in a 
row on a bar, the thread or yarn being manipulated 
thereon to produce knitting very much as now done 
on fiat frames. 

After Lee's death the workmen whom he had taken 
to France returned to England with the machine and 
succeeded in introducing its use in London. Soon 
afterwards the manufacturers of stockings by the | 



"stocking frame," as the machine was called, was in- 
troduced into Nottinghamshire which soon acquired 
the reputation it has since retained for this industry. 

There have been various improvements introduced 
into this branch of manufacture until the number of 
stocking frames in England has increased to over 50, • 
000, giving employment in Nottinghamshire alone to 
about 40,000 persons. 



KNITTING-STRAIGHT MACHINES, 



201 Patents Granted by the United States, 









SackeU&Wilhelms Litho Co New York 



: - 















LOOMS FOR WEAVING 



LOOMS FOR WEAVING. 



No. 1. Primitive Egyptian. 



2 


" Roman. 


3. 


" Hindoo. 


4. 


" Hand. 




6. Power Loom— A. D. 1678. 

6. Fly Shuttle Hand Loom— A. D. 1733. 

7. English Power Loom— A. D. 1774. 

8. " " » —A. D. 1785. 

9. Power Loom— A. D. 1786. 



The invention of the loom, or an instrument by which 
a continuous fabric is woven from threads, is lost in the 
obscurity of the ore-historic period, and was probably 
one of the first inventions made by mankind. On the 
tombs at Thebes, and on the remains of Egyptian archi- 
tecture, looms of simple construction are to be seen, 
and the cloths found upon the mummies of ancient 
Egypt show, from the fineness and regularity of their 
texture, that the Egyptians had the art of doing better 
weaving than it would be supposed possible from the 
apparently imperfect looms represented. 

The simplest and probably the most ancient of looms 



is that of the Hindoo Tanty, and yet some of the fabrics 
from the looms of India are unrivaled for their delicacy 
of texture. 

The use of the loom in Europe was introduced in 
the early ages of the Christian era. Italy and the 
Netherlands were for a time the countries most distin- 
guished for their skill in its use. 

The earliest association of persons in England for 
the promotion of a particular branch of trade, and 
sanctioned by the authority of the Government, was 
that of the company of weavers in the reign of Henry 
II, in 1170. 



Edward III appears to have been the first British 
monarch to encourage and foster textile manufacturers 
by inviting Flemish workmen to go to England and 
establish themselves under his protection. 

Cotton fabrics which were unknown in Europe were 
sent in 1519, by Cortez, from Mexico to Spain, and in 
the same year Magellan, when circumnavigating the 
world, found Brazilians using cotton, which he called 
vegetable down. 

In the perfected loom of to-day the shuttle is thrown 
180 times a minute, or three times a second. 



LOOMS FOR WEAVING. 



2,128 Patents Granted by the United States. 






Sackell & Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 











7 8 9 

LOOM POWER FOR WEAVING PLAIN FABRICS 



LOOM POWER FOR WEAVING PLWK FABRICS. 

No. 1. TJ. S. Patent, Plain Loom— A. D. 1810. 

2 H •• " " Weaving Broadcloth— A. I). 1830. 

—A. D. 1842. 

— A. D. 1852. 

_A. D. 1868 

» Continuous Weft Loom— A. D. 1870. 

•' Positive Motion Loom for Oilcloth. 

„ „ ■' " Narrow Sheeting. 



The power loom, that is a loom actuated by ma- 
chinery in contradistinction to a hand loom, was 
invented by Dr. Cartwright in 1785. He was a 
clergyman, and belonged in the county of Notting- 
ham, England. 

Previous to this the fly-shuttle had been invented by 
John Kay, of Lancaster Co., England, who patented 
his invention May 26, 1733. This superseded the old 
way of throwing the shuttle by hand, and enabled one 
weaver to do the work of two or three. 

There was great opposition to Cartwright's inven- 
tion, and the operatives burned a mill containing five 
hundred of his looms. Steam was applied to his loom 




in 1806, and in 1809 he received from Parliament a 
gift of ,£10,000 for his invention. 

The first factory in America, if not in the world, 
where a power loom was used and spinning and weav- 
ing were carried on under the same roof, was erected 
at Waltham, Mass., in 181 3, and as early as 183 r it is 
estimated that there were 33,433 looms in use in the 
United States. 

The first carpets woven by a power loom in this or 
any other country were produced in 1839 at Lowell, 
Mass. In that year Erastus B. Bigelow invented his 
power loom for weaving ingrain carpets. This ma- 
chine could easily weave from 25 to 27 yards per day, 



whereas the previous hand loom production never ex- 
ceeded eight yards. 

This invention was followed later by a power loom 
for brussels and tapestry carpets, one of the most in- 
genious pieces of mechanism ever devised. 

The growth of the weaving industry from that time 
to the present is exemplified in most of our large mills 
and factories, where looms constructed half a century 
ago are kept merely to show by way of contrast the 
wonderful progress that has been made in the art of 
weaving during the present generation. 

In the perfected loom of to-day the shuttle is thrown 
three times a second, or 180 times a minute. 



LOOM POWER FOR WEAVING PLAIN FABRICS, 



2,128 Patents Granted by lh> United States. 













Sackelta Wilhelms Litho Co New York 



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-JACQUARD AND MOQUETTE, 



LOOMS JACOUfiRD AND MOQUETTE. 

No. 1. Primitive Draw Boy. 

2. •' Jacquard. 

3. U. 8. Patent, Power Pile Wires— A. D. 1837. 
Jacquard— A. D. 1842. 
Power for Weaving Ingrain Carpet — A. D. 1849. 

" " Double Pile Fabrics— 1851. 

Moquette— A. D. 1856. 
" —A. D. 1881. 




The Jacquard loom was invented by Jacquard, a 
straw hat manufacturer at Lyons, and his invention 
produced a complete revolution in the art of figure 
weaving. His incentive was a prize offered for the 
production of a machine for making nets. 

Napoleon's attention was called to his wonderful in- 
ventive genius, and he was asked if he could not im- 
prove on a loom belonging to the French Government, 
which was designed for weaving shawl patterns in imi- 
tation of cashmere, which was very expensive. 

Jacquard improved on the model of Van Causer, 
produced the machine which bears his name, and was 
awarded a pension of 6,oco francs. 

He was also awarded a bronze medal at the French 
exposition in 1801. 

His invention excited great opposition at first from 
the weavers at Lyons. 

Jacquard died in 1834, and he was one of the few 
inventors who reaped a pecuniary reward from the 



product of his genius, for besides his pension he re- 
ceived a royalty of 50 francs on each machine sold. 

Draper, in 1834, 1835, and 1837, took out patents 
for Jacquard application to the lace frame. He was 
the earliest and most ingenious, though not most suc- 
cessful, pioneer in finding out how every thread in a 
machine might be as simply and perfectly controlled as 
those on a pillow by the fingers of a workman. Money 
failed before Draper had quite accomplished this ; but 
his diversified combinations of lace machinery were the 
real germs of those which have been perfected by his 
successors, with great profit to themselves and to the 
establishment of the trade ; yet this clever mechanic 
fell into deep and unassisted poverty. 

By 1840 the application of the Jacquard to the lace 
machine had been effected. 

Oldknow, in 1849, added the use of very thin steel 
bars, pierced so as to pass warp threads through them, 
and guiding the movement of each sideways right and 
left. Articles are thus made from the narrowest braid 



to a highly-figured lace curtain two yards wide, and 
requiring ten or twelve thousand cords to produce the 
pattern. Oldknow granted 1,170 licenses, and now 
3,000 machines are using his perforated steel-bar in- 
vention. 

The complex operations governed from the ends 
and backs of Levers' machines are carried on in a 
small space, but through their whole width of perhaps 
two hundred inches, safely and exactly, prompt atten- 
tion being given to remedy any defects in materials or 
workmanship. 

In 1 841 Deverill had patented a claim to the first 
successful application of the Jacquard to the end of a 
lace frame. Birkin bought the invention from Dev- 
erill ; but, seeing a doubt arise, relinquished his sup- 
posed right, and with most praiseworthy spirit thus 
restored freedom of action to the fancy lace depart- - 
ment, in which direction alone general profit was to be 
hoped for. 



LOOMS-JACQUARD AND MOQUETTE. 



2,128 Patents Granted by the United States. 







' 



Sackett & Wilhelms LilKoCo New York 









■■■■■■■■■I 






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LOOMS FOR FANCY WEAVING 



LOOMS FOR FANCY WEAVING. 



No. 1. Drop Box Movable Shuttle Boxes— A. D. 1760. 

2. U.S. Patent, Weaving Figured Goods— A. D. 1812. 



The term " fancy loom" is used to designate such 
looms as produce figures in the weaving. 

The fancy loom, which is known and used in all 
countries, was invented by Wm. Compton, of Wor- 
cester, Mass., in 1836, and was patented the following 
year. 



LOOMS FOR FANCY WEAVING, 




Fancy Loom — A. D. 1843. 
•< — A.D. 1849. 
Weaving Venetian Carpeting— A. D. 1850. 
Fancy Loom — A. D. 1855. 
Open Shed Loom — A. D. 1884. 
Open Shed Broad Loom— A. D. 1884. 
Broad Loom for Fancy Cassimere— A. D. 1884. 



2,128 Patents Granted by the United States. 



m 



Sackett& Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 



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II 12 13 14 

SEWING MACHINES AND ATTACHMENTS, 



SEWING MACHINES AND ATTACHMENTS. 




No. 1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

6. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



Primitive Hand Sewing. 
English Chain Stitch— A. D. 1790. 
U. 8. Patent, Lock Stitch— A. D. 1846. 
" —A. D. 1851. 
" " Four Motion Feed— A. D. 1852. 

" Chain Stitch— A. D, 1857. 
'< " Boot and Shoe— A. D 1875. 

" Button Hole— A. D. 1881. 
Machine Sewing — A. D. 1884. 
Gatherer or Ruffler— A. D. 1884. 
Plate Hemraer and Binder — A. D. 1884. 
Feller— A. D. 1884. 
Quilter— A. D. 1884. 
Cordcr— A. D. 1884. 
Braider— A. D. 1884. 



The first attempts of a mechanical contrivance for 
reducing the labor of sewing, as was natural, were 
rather close imitations of hand sewing, though they in- 
troduced features essential to the most improved sew 
ing machines. The ancient tambourine apparatus for 
embroidering figures upon fabrics, to be afterwards 
removed and sewed upon others, combined the eye 
pointed needle with other devices now common in sew- 
ing machines. 

The earliest patent on sewing machines appears to 
have been granted in England to C. F. Weisenthal, 
June 24, 1755. His patent was for the needle with the 
eye in the center and pointed at both ends. The de- 
vice was operated by hand. 

Saint's machine (English patent of July, 1790,) is the 
nearest approach to the modern apparatus, but was 
adapted only to leather sewing, as the notched needle 
which pushed the thread through could not have been 
used for fibrous material. 

In 1825, Thimmonnier, a poor tailor of France, con- 
ceived the idea of a sewing apparatus, and for sixteen 
years labored to develop it. In 1834 he obtained a 
patent for a crocheting machine adapted to sewing 



purposes. He achieved substantial success, and in 
1841 two hundred of his machines were at work mak- 
ing army clothing. 

A machine was patented February ?i, 1842, in the 
United States, by j. J. Greenough, for making the 
through and through stitch having a double pointed 
needle with an eye in the middle, which was drawn 
through the cloth by pincers. 

Benjamin W. Bean in 1843, patented a machine for 
making a running or basting stitch, the needle passing 
through the corrugations of the cloth. 

In 1845, Elias Howe, of Cambridge. Mass.. com- 
pleted his first machine and obtained a patent thereon 
September 10, 1846. This was the first complete sew- 
ing machine designed for general purposes. 

His principle covered the forming of the seam "by 
carrying a thread through the cloth by means of a 
curved needle on the end of a vibrating arm. and the 
passing of a shuttle furnished with its bobbin between 
the needle and the thread which it carried." 

Mr. Howe, almost immediately after obtaining his 
patent, went to Europe to obtain capital for the manu- 
facture of his machine, but he was met by a scepticism 
even more obdurate and discouraging than he encoun- 



tered from those to whom he applied for aid in the 
United States. He returned home after two years, in 
a sailing vessel, paying for his passage by manual 
labor, and arriving literally penniless. 

Singer's first patent was granted in 1851. 

The first rotating hook was patented by Wilson in 
1851. 

Gibbs invented the rotating hook which produces a 
twist in the looping stitch. 

Wilcox invented the automatic tension. 

The Grover& Baker machine of 1852 first introduced 
the double loop stitch employing two threads effected 
by a circular horizontally moving needle. 

The vibratory eye-pointed needle, the reciprocating 
shuttle, the rotating hook and the four-motion feed, are 
the essential foundation elements of sewing machines. 

Sewing machine attachments are classified as fol- 
lows : Binders, holders, bobbin winders, braiders, cord- 
ers, guides, hemmers, needle clamps, presser feet and 
lifters, rufflers and gatherers, setters and threaders, 
take ups, tensions, needles, shuttles, bobbins, thread 
cutters, trimmers, tuck creasers, markers, tucking 
guides, &c. 



SEWING MACHINES AND ATTACHMENTS. 



106 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Paid, 



1800 188* 

$1,427,750.00 $12,601,830.00 

4,255,820.00 13,863,188.00 

1,094,796.00 4,636,099.00 



Hands Employed, 



2,297 



9.553 



3,841 Patents Granted by the United States. 



I 




Sacketl & Wilhelms Lttho Co New York 






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SPINNING, 

No. 1. Primitive Roirlan Distaff and Spindle. 

2. " Hindoo Wheel. 

3. " Dritain Wheel. 

4. Roller Spinning Machine— A. D. 1768. 

5. Spinning Jenny — A. D. 1764. 

6. Roller Spinning Machine— A. D. 1769. 

7. U". S. Patent, Throstle Frame— A. D. 1816. 

8. " " " " — A. D. 1833. 

9 . .. " « " —A. D. 1836. 




The art of spinning is, without dispute, of very re- 
mote antiquity. When or where thread or yarn was 
first spun is a question that cannot be answered with 
any degree of certainty. 

Almost all the nations of the world, even those little 
removed from barbarism, have been found to have 
early practiced, by some mode, the art of spinning 
thread and forming it into a web. 

The Egyptians say it was Isis who invented and also 
taught them the art of spinning : the Chinese give the 
honor of this discovery to the consort of their em- 
peror Yao ; the Lydians ascribe it to Arachne ; the 
Greeks to Minerva ; the Peruvians to Mamacella, wife 
to Man-co-copac, their first sovereign. Upon one 
thing these various claimants agree, and that is that 
the art was first invented and taught by a woman. 

The spindle and distaff were the first instruments 
made use of by the Ancients in spinning. This appa- 
ratus was of very simple character. . The distaff con- 
sisted of a rod of wood or other material, upon which 
the material to be spun was placed. The spindle for 
twisting the thread was usually constructed of iron or 
like heavy material, with a ball of iron or clay at the 
lower end which acted as a fly-wheel and kept it turn- 
ing around after it had once got an impulse. 

Next after the distaff and spindle, by which some of 
the finest, most evenly twisted, and most delicate yarns 



SPINNING. 



were spun, we have information of a simple form of 
spinning wheel employed by Hindoo women for spin- 
ning the coarser kinds of yarn. The operator of this 
machine sat upon the ground in front of it and spun 
the material which she held in her left hand, using her 
right for turning the wheel. 

Long after these means were employed, but how 
long or when cannot be told, the common spinning 
wheel, known as the "Jersey" wheel, was introduced, 
which was a long stride in the improvement of means 
as regards quantity, but none as to quality of yarn 
produced. The next step forward was to provide this 
machine with a treadle. 

In 1 738 Lewis Paul, (some authorities claim that it 
was Thomas Highs or Hays,) invented and patented, 
and in 1758 made entirely practicable, what was known 
as a "roller" spinning machine, in which the "rolls" or 
roving " being put between a pair of rollers or cylinders 
is, by their turning around, delivered to the nose of a 
spindle in such proportion to the thread made as is 
proper for the particular occasion. From hence it is 
delivered to a bobbin spole or quill, which turns upon I 
the spindle, and which gathers up the thread or yarn 
as it is spun." 

As the invention of the needle with the eye through 
the point made practicable the work of sewing by ma- 
chinery, so the invention of the "spinning rollers" 
formed the foundation principle of all the great inven- 



tions which can properly be said to belong to ma- 
chine spinning. 

Sir Richard Arkwright, an Englishman, possessed 
of very high inventive talent as well as unrivalled 
sagacity, in 1 769, improved upon Paul's machine, and 
brought to a higher state of perfection the " throstle 
frame," which, though designed only to reduce ravings 
into yarn, was easily applicable to the manufacture of 
roving itself. 

The next important invention in the art of spinning 
was made by " a poor man by the name of Hargreaves," 
who on accidentally overturning a wheel upon the 
floor when both the wheel and spindle continued to 
revolve and spin yarn as before, got the idea of placing 
the spindles in upright instead of horizontal position, 
and invented the "spinning jenny," which he patented 
in England in 1777. 

The inventions of Arkwright and Hargreaves " broke 
down the barrier which had so long obstructed the 
advance of cotton manufacture," as these machines 
made it entirely practicable to use cotton in the manu- 
facture of cloth. 

Samuel Crompton combined the ideas of Arkwright 
and Hargreaves in an invention called the spinning 
"mule," which was greatly improved upon and made 
self-acting by Richard Roberts, of Manchester, En- 
gland, in 1825. 



SPINNING. 



1,226 Patents Granted by the United States, 










, 



SackeU&WilhelmslilhoCoNewYork 



182 






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SPIIMNIIMG--RIIMG CAP AND FLY FRAME, 




SPINNING -RING CAP AND FLY FRAME. 

No. 1, U. S. Patent, Cap Frame— A. D. 1841. 

2. " " •' " —A. D. 1844. 

3. " " Ring " —A. D. 1847. 

4. " " Fly " —A. D. 1883. 

5. " " Cap " —A. D. 1883. 

6. " " " '• —A. I). 1883. 



l'lie " ring frame" is an American invention, having 
been produced by Mr. Jencks, of Pawtucket, Rhode 
island. 

This machine has taken the place of substantially 
all others in the United States for the production 
of warp, ant 1 a good deal of weft, and it is fast sup- 



planting the " mule" for the same purpose in other 
countries. 

In 1807 it is estimated that there were 4,000 spindles 
in operation in the United States. 

In 1883 there were 12,750,000 spindles running on 
the manufacture of cotton alone, most of these being 
employed in " ring frames." 



It is undoubtedly true that the machinery by which 
fibers are spun into yarn and the yarn made into cloth 
is the most wonderful and important that has yet been 
devised by man. 

Spinners have stretched Sea Island Cotton out so 
firfe that one pound of it would reach 1,026 miles. 



SPINNING-RING CAP AND FLY FRAME, 



Patents Granted by the United States. 




SeckeLt & Wiihelms Litho Co NewYork 



183 



















10 



CIGAR MAKING. 



CIGAR MAKING. 



No. 1. Hand Bunching. 



2. 

3. 
4 U. 
5. 
6. 

7. 




Binding the Bunch. 

Wrapping. 

S. Patent, Bunching Machine — A. D. 1847 

■ • Belt " — A. D. 1847 

•' Roller " — A. D. 1852. 

" —A. D. 1872. 

" Belt " — A. D. 1881 

" — A. D. 1881 

« _A. D. 1884 



The name "cigar" is derived from the Spanish ci- 
garro, a kind of tobacco grown in Cuba. 

The Aztecs, of Mexico, are spoken of by Sahagun 
in liis history of New Spain as " using leaves of tobacco 
rolled into cigars." 

The cheroot is the cigar of the Manillas, arid lias a 
regular taper, but both ends are cut squarely off and 
one end is smaller than the other. 

Although cigars are of ancient origin in the West 
Indies, they were not generally known in Europe until 
the beginning of the 19th century. 

Previous to 1820 the manufacture of cigars in Cuba 
was a government monopoly. 

In Mexico a cigar is called a " puro ;" in Peru it is 
called a " cigarro puro." 

The process of the manufacture of Havana cigars is 
as follows : Arrived at the factory, the tobacco bales, 
carefully packed and wrapped in palm leaves, are kept 
in a cool, dark place, being divided off into classes ac- 
cording to quality and value. When the cigar bales are 



I opened the Manojas and Zatellor are separated, and the 
latter carried in their dry state to the moistening room ; 
here the leaves are placed in a large barrel, in which 
1 is a solution of saltpetre in water. Then the water is 
I poured off and the leaves spread upon the edge of the 
barrels, thus ridding them of any surplus of water ; 
the stem is then taken out ; the maker then supplies 
himself with a handful of leaf (copa) for wrappers, and 
a lot of the filler (tupa), carries them to a table, and 
spreading a wrapper upon the table cuts with a short 
knife the different portions of the leaf. He then lays 
the wrapper on the table and takes a few fragments of 
tobacco or a leaf strip in the center and rolls the whole 
into the shape of a cigar, and then taking the wrapper 
rolls it spirally around the cigar. 

It is stated that, as the best tobacco grows in Cuba, 
so, also, the best cigars are made there. 

The best cigars are made of tobacco which is grown 
on soil peculiarly adapted to produce the delicate flavor. 
A portion of the northwest of the Island of Cuba is 
said to be the best soil. Connecticut Valley, some parts 



of Virginia, a few counties of Ohio and Kentucky, re- 
spectively, are noted regions. 

The process of making cigars by hand is simple and 
easy. A round piece of leaf shaped like one of the 
gores of a globe is placed on the work bench, a bundle 
of fragments of leaves is placed across the center of 
the gore, and rolled up in it by passing the hand flat 
over it. 

Cigar machines are of modern invention. 

The tobacco leaf selected for cigars is first steamed, 
stemmed, flavored and dried, after which it is rolled on 
the rolling machine into proper form for fillers ; one 
machine cuts them and rolls into proper length as 
they are fed to it; another takes this "wa'd," moulds it 
into the cigar shape and it is then ready for the wrap- 
per. The wrapper is placed in another machine and 
the perfected filler laid bias on the leaf, which is rolled 
by a pad that simulates the action of the human hand. 
The cigars are then usually placed in a press, bundler 
or mold, after which they are ready for boxing. 



CIGAR MAKING. 



7,145 Manufactories of Cigars and Cigarettes in the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, 

Capacity — 

Number per day, 

Hands Employed per day, 



1800 

$3,035,555.00 

9,068,778.00 

2,531,354.00 

7,997 



18X0 

$21,698,549.00 

63,979,675.00 

18,464,562.00 

53,297 



199 Patents Granted by the United States, 




SackeUiWilhelms LithoCo New York 






184 






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9 



CIGAR MOLDS 



CIGAR MOLDS. 

No. 1, Common Cigar Mold. 

2. U. S. Patent, Gang Mold and Press— A. D. 




Plunger Mold— A. D. 1871. 

Lever Mold— A. D. 1875. 

Motal Lined Mold— A. D. 1876. 

Gang Mold— A. D. 1879. 

Combined Wood and Metal Mold— A. D. 1880. 

Roller Mold— A. D. 1882. 

Sheet Metal Plunger Mold— A. D. 1884. 



Great skill has been attained in American factories 
in making cigars, so much so that it is difficult to dis- 
criminate between the genuine and spurious article 
excepting by trial, and even then in some cases it re- 
quires the nicest taste to detect the difference. 

Many persons engaged in the business import to- 
bacco from Cuba, use the Connecticut leaf for wrappers, 
and produce an article equal to the best made in 
Havanna. 

The consumption of cigars extends all over the 
globe, and increases yearly in a wonderful ratio. 



In making cigars by hand it is usual for the operator 
to grasp the leaves and pieces of tobacco in the hand, 
and give to the same a shape corresponding generally 
to the cigar when made. The largest quantity of 
material is to be in the central portion and less towards 
the ends of the cigar. 

In the manufacture of cigars it is usual to employ 
wooden molds, into which are placed the bunches or 
bodies of the cigars. These molds are each of the 
proper shape for the exterior of the bunch, and when 
the molds have been filled they are subjected to power- 
ful pressure to shape the bunches. The bunches are 



in a more or less moist condition, and in consequence 
of being firmly held the tobacco cannot expand ; be- 
sides this the cigar body is difficult to remove from the 
mold after being pressed. To facilitate this removal 
it is usual to allow the tobacco to project beyond the 
mold at the tuck or larger end of the cigars, so that 
such tobacco may be grasped in the fingers to lift the 
bunch from the mold. 

Many improvements have been made for overcom- 
ing the difficulties, in molds, such as two-part cigar 
molds, divided into sections with guide bars, &c. 



CIGAR MOLDS. 

3 Manufactories of Cigar Molds in the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed, . 



$69,800.00 

111,820.00 

32,020.00 

76 



107 Patents Granted by the United States. 




Sacked &Wi!helms Litho Co New York 






185 




CIGAR WRAPPER CUTTERS. 



CIGAR WRAPPER CUTTERS. 



No. 1. Hand Cutting. 

2. IT. S. Patent, Cutting Die— A. D. : 




Boiler Cutting Dies— A. D. 1869. 

Hand Roller and Die Cutter— A. D. 1873. 

Lever Cutter— A. D. 1877. 

Rocking Lever Cutter— A. D. 1881. 

Reciprocating Roller and Cutter — A. D. 1883. 

Suction Wrapper, Holder & Cutter— A. D. 1884. 

Suction Wrapper Cutter— A. D. 1884. 



Cigars constitute the most important form in which 
tobacco is consumed for smoking, and in fact the 
largest aggregate in general consumption in any form, 
and their greater value induces every effort to produce 
leaves suited for the covering of cigars. 

The cigar is of Spanish, or Spanish colonial, origin, 
and it was long in use in Spain before it was intro- 
duced elsewhere. 

The finest cigars are manufactured at Havana, Cuba. 
Uniformity in size, length, weight and color, is essen- 
tial. The Havana cigars are tied in bundles of from 



twenty-five to fifty each, and are packed in boxes of 
Spanish cedar. 

A very superior article of tobacco for the exterior 
wrappers of cigars is grown in Connecticut. 

Many persons engaged in the manufacture of cigars 
import tobacco from Cuba and use the Connecticut 
leaf for wrappers, and produce an article equal in ap- 
pearance to the very best Havana cigar. 

The operation of making cigars by machinery is con- 
ducted in a series of machines : one cuts wads of cigar 
length and quantity from a stream of cigar leaves 
packed and traversing a chute whose width is equal to 



the length of the cigar ; the wad thus cut off is driven 
into a mold which gives it the cigar shape. In this it 
is left to dry, so that when removed it only requires 
the wrapper to complete it. These molds are made of 
wood or metal, principally the latter, and, since a great 
increase in the demand for cigars, a large number of 
molds are inserted into one beam or bar of metal ; a 
sharp knife is fixed to this beam or bar, so that it de- 
scends close to the edge of the mold, thus leaving the 
cigars smooth at the larger end and of equal length. 
The finest cigars are hand-made. 



CIGAR WRAPPER CUTTERS. 



74 Patent* Granted by th« United States. 



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Sec'keU&Wilhelms Lilho Co Hew York 
















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186 




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CIGARETTE MAKING. 



\< 




CIGARETTE MAKING 

No. 1. Hand Rolling. 

2. U. S. Patent, Hand Rolling Device— A. D. 1858. 
Roller Machine— A. D. 1865. 
Continuous Filler Machine — A. D. 1872. 
" —A. D. 1876. 
Cigarette Machine— A. D. 1882. 
" —A. D. 1884. 



Tobacco in the form of cigarettes is extensively used 
by the inhabitants of Nicaragua, Guiana and the dwel- 
lers on the banks of the Orinoco, and the use of the 
weed is not confined to the male sex, but is freely used 
both by women and the juvenile portions of the com- 
munity. 

In Russia cigarettes are called parporos, and consist 
of Turkish tobacco rolled in silk paper. The ladies 
almost all smoke the small, delicate size of parporos, 
while the gentlemen smoke the larger ones. On the 
ears are fixed little cups for cigar ashes in every seat. 



Instead of having smoking cars, as in the United States, 
the Russians have cars for those who are so "pokey" 
as not to smoke. 

The favorite mode of smoking in Austria is the 
cigarette, almost every gentleman having a silver box 
in which he has tobacco and small slips of paper with 
mucilage on. them ready for rolling. 

In Turkey the girl of twelve years smokes a cigar- 
ette of the thickness of pack thread ; after fourteen 
years of age the diameter of the cigarette increases 
year by year. 



The cigarette is chiefly smoked in Peru. 

In Cuba cigarettes are called cigarros. 

Cigarettes were first made in the French govern- 
ment manufactory in 1843. The tobacco granulating 
machine is used for grinding tobacco ready to fit it for 
making into cigarettes. 

The most improved cigarette machine uses an end- 
less roll of paper. It cuts, wraps and folds the paper 
around a regulated quantity of tobacco, which is sup- 
plied at one end of the machine, while the finished 
cigarettes emerge at the other. 



CIGARETTE MAKING. 

7,145 Manufactories of Cigarettes and Cigars in the United States. 





1800 


isso 


Capital Invested, 


$3,035,555.00 


$21,698,549.00 


Value of Productions, 


9,068,778.00 


63,979,575.00 


Wages Paid, 


2,531,364.00 


18,464,562.00 


Hands Employed, 


7,997 


53,297 


Capacity — 

Number per day, 




Phmilivf Pnuot 
Mode. Maohint. 

2,000 50,000 


Hands Employed per 


day, 


1 1 




187 



n 












8 



TOBACCO CURING. 



TOBACCO CURING. 

No. 1. Plant. 

2. Leaf. 

3. Primitive Curing. 

4. U. S. Patent, Sweating— A. D. 1869. 

5. « « " — A. D. 1876. 
» Curing— A. D. 1880. 

7. " " Treating— A. D. 1880. 

« Electric Curing— A. D. 1882. 
9. " " Resweater— A. D. 1884. 




The house or barn in which tobacco is to be cured 
is opened in a damp time, the tobacco is taken from 
the poles and put in piles ; after remaining in piles for 
one week it is stripped, that is, the leaves are taken 
from the stalk, assorted, and put into hands .weighing 
about four ounces. 

The next process is bulking. The hands are stacked 
in a compact heap, the butts together and the leaves 
smoothed down. When the pile is four feet high 
planks and weights are put on, and sometimes it is 
covered with blankets. In this state it remains from 
four to six weeks, until the color, flavor and other 
qualities are properly developed, when it is packed 
for market. 

It is the fermentation in the process of curing which 
evolves the peculiar aroma of tobacco. 

Various "liquors," or fluid mixtures, are used to 



promote this fermentation, and, at the same time, to 
give the tobacco that peculiar flavor which constitutes 
the difference of samples. 

With some of their choicest "-Cavendish" the Amer- 
icans use cider, and tile tobacco growers of Havana 
apply a fluid mixture of various aromatic gums, the 
composition of which they have managed to keep 
secret. The Germans and the Dutch use a compound 
of sal ammoniac, nitre, and, it is said, the fluid secreted 
by the kidneys. 

The speed of the fermentation will depend upon the 
surrounding temperature. Thirty-six hours will some- 
times suffice. When to stop this fermentation is the 
important point of the process. It must be stopped at 
attaining a precise degree of heat, which is not scien- 
tifically determined, as in brewing, the practised hand 
being the only means of testing the temperature of the 



heated mass, which is ascertained by shoving in the 
hand. 

Heated above or below that point, which practice 
makes easy of detection, the tobacco would be " foxy" 
or musty, and become deteriorated in the market. The 
fermentation is stopped in its intensity by simply un- 
covering the mass and spreading out and turning over 
the leaves, more or less saturated with moisture. 

It is certain, however, that a mild and slow fermen- 
tation constantly exists in all tobacco, varying with the 
degree of moisture in the air, thus still further tending 
to improve its good qualities, as in the best American 
and Havana, and to intensify its bad qualities, as in 
inferior productions. This explains the/ necessity for 
v keeping" the prime Havanas, which decidedly " im- 
prove by age," reversing the lot of all other things in 
this best of possible worlds. 



TOBACCO CORING. 



80 Patents Granted by the United States. 




Sacked iWilhelms Lilho Co New York 



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188 



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TOBACCO DRIERS. 




TOBACCO DRIERS. 

No. 1. V. S. Patent, Drying Furnace— A. D. 1861. 

" " Drying House— A. D. 1872. 

" " Drying House— A. D. 1873. 

4. " " Drying Furnace — A. D. 1876. 

fi. " " Drying Room and Furnace — A. D. 187? 

6. " " Drying and Curing— A. D. 1878. 

7. " " Drying House— A. D. 1880. 
" " Drying Barn— A. D. 1882. 

" Curing Furnace— A. D. 1884. 



Tobacco is usually cured in large barns upon the 
farm where it is raised, and the value of the crops de- 
pends upon the success of this process. 

These houses, or barns, are arranged so that the 
ventilation is under perfect control. 

The tobacco in " hands" is hung upon poles with Che 



tops hanging downwards, the distance being regulated 
so that the leaf will not " pole burn." 

The latest improvement in curing is the introduction 
of heat and air by means of flues. 

Until a recent period the barns for curing the crop 
of tobacco were very inferior, rude structures, made of 
rails covered with straw. 



TOBACCO DRIERS. 



43 Patents Granted by the United States. 




SackelU Wilhelms Litho Co New York 






mm 




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189 



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TOBACCO LEAF TREATING. 




TOBACCO LEAF TREATING. 

No. 1. Hand Mid Rib Crushing. 

2. " Booking. 

3. V. S. Patent, Crushing— A, D. 1862. 

4. » " Stripping — A. D, 1868. 

5. " " Stripping and Brushing— A. D. 1873. 
Drying— A. D. 1878. 



The tobacco plant is found principally in America. 
The cultivation of it had extended, before the dis- 
covery of Columbus, far to the north of the regions in 
which it appears to be indigenous. 

It is doubtful whether the use of tobacco as a nar- 
cotic was known in the East before the discovery of 
America, though Meyen in his Geography of Plants 
expresses the opinion that the smoking of tobacco is 
of great antiquity among the Chinese. He bases this 
opinion on the fact that he found on some very old 
Chinese sculptures the very same tobacco pipes which 
are now in use. 

Meyen's authority is, however, greater as a botanist 
than as an archaeologist, and as the habit never seems 
to have been introduced by the Chinese to other ori- 
ental nations, it is probable America can claim to have 
taken the initiative in teaching the world to smoke. 



The tobacco plant which ripens in the sun produces 
the yellowest and sweetest leaf. These leaves must 
be gathered, however, before the frost bites them, 
otherwise they will turn very dark and lose the desired 
flavor. After the tobacco is cut the leaves should 
be taken one by one from the stalk, strung on a 
wire rod and suspended in rows in the flue-curing 
barns, built expressly for the drying of tobacco. After 
the leaf is properly dried, it becomes a bright yellow. 
It is now ready for market, if it is to be sold in the raw 
state. 

Before placing the leaf tobacco on the market it is 
customary to bind a number of leaves together, thus 
making a sheaf of leaves, the effect of which is quite 
pretty. The manufacturer first strips the leaf of its 
hard central stem ; then the leaf is crushed to make 
smoking tobacco, or pressed into compact and highly 



perfumed "plugs" and packages for chewing, pow- 
dered into snuff or rolled into cigars. 

A more primitive way of drying the leaves was to 
suspend them while on the stalk on a square stick, 
which was hung across the beams of the tobacco barn. 

Sheeting tobacco consists in laying the leaves out 
smoothly in sheets. This is done by passing the 
leaves between rollers, which flatten them, devices act- 
ing in concert with the rollers to draw out the w nkl s. 

Sometimes revolving brushes are used, acting ob- 
liquely to the direction of motion of the leaf. 

In sheeting tobacco it is sometimes laid in symmet- 
rical piles known as books. 

Tobacco is also sheeted and stripped by the opera- 
tion of laying the broad portions of the leaf flat, and 
separating them from, or flattening, the stem, as the 
case may be. 



TOBACCO LEAF TREATING. 



38 Patents Granted by the United States, 




: 



Sackett& Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 




190 



r 


















TOBACCO PRESSES. 



TOBACCO PRESSES 

No. 1. U. S. Patent, Pressing Rolled Tobacco— A. D. 1837. 

" Pressing Tobacco into Hogsheads — A. D. 1841. 
" Hydraulic Press— A. D. 1858. 

Plunger Press— A. D. 1866. 
" Double-acting Toggle Lever Press — A. D. 1868. 
" Tobacco Press— A. D. 1873. 
" Compressing into Hogsheads — A. V>. 1877. 
" Plug Tobacco Compressing — A. D. 1882. 
— A. D. 1884. 




One of the commonest of the primitive methods of 
tobacco manufacture, was to take a bundle of leaves 
of about the same length and make of them what was 
known as the "tobacco twist." The process was sim- 
ple, and was done mainly by hand. Later, a rude 
press, consisting of a pedestal, above which an iron or 
wooden screw was suspended, was used for compress- 
ing this twist into smaller bulk. 

After presses were used for the twist, it became 
apparent that what is known as the "plug chewing 
tobacco" could be compressed into still smaller space. 
For this purpose long flat boxes were manufactured ; 
the tobacco was made into long loose rolls ; these 
rolls contained the dark, richer leaves, but were en- 
closed in large, bright-yellow leaves, which still bring 
a high price in the market, and are designated as 
"wrappers." These rolls are then placed in the flat 
boxes and the screw above the pedestal is lowered 
upon them at immense pressure. The screw remains 
stationary at this high pressure until the large roll be- 
comes pressed into the shape of the flat box, and is 



then sold as a plug. Many hundreds 6f these plugs 
are packed in wooden boxes. These boxes, before 
the tops are nailed on, are placed on the ped- 
estal of the tobacco press, and again subjected to 
the pressure of the screw. This second pressure 
causes the plugs to press closely upon each other, 
and when they are taken out by the retail tobac- 
conists they sometimes stick together like leaves of 
mica. As soon as a box of plugs comes from the 
press it receives the internal revenue stamp of the 
United States. 

These stamps are rightly prefixed by the word 
" revenue." They are a source of very great revenue 
to the Government, and are the main causes of the 
surplus now in the Treasury. 

The tobacco tax at this date is $20,000,000, and 
about one-third of this is paid on the tobacco which 
goes through the presses. 

Like every other invention the tobacco press has 
been subjected to a variety of improvements. 

The original press was a small wooden screw, 



worked by a wooden lever. Then followed the iron 
screw and iron lever. Afterwards the power of the 
press was greatly increased, and horse-power was em- 
ployed. Steam soon succeeded horse-power, and now 
great manufactories in New York, Detroit, Toronto, 
Chicago, and Durham, N. C, turn out more work in 
an hour by the aid of steam than the primitive press 
could do in a month. 

Durham, North Carolina, does the largest tobacco 
manufacturing business in the world. The town is in 
the center of the golden tobacco belt. The town 
sprang up as if by magic ; it owes its prosperity to the 
tobacco trade alone. 

One of the wisest pioneers bf the tobacco trade in 
that section was the late Robert A. Jenkins, Esq., who 
had on hand over 1,000,000 pounds of the golden to- 
bacco at the close of the war. He knew the value of 
the tobacco grown in that section, and advertised it 
throughout the North by selling great quantities to the 
soldiers of General Sherman's army on their march to 
the sea. 



TOBACCO PRESSES. 



115 Patents Granted by the United States, 



SacketL & Wilhelms Litho Co New York 




191 





2 








10 



II 



12 



13 



TOBACCO PIPES. 



No. 1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 



TOBACCO PIPES. 

Primitive Hispanolirt Inhaling — A. D. 1547. 
" Mound Builders. 
" Indian Clay. 

Brazil— A.' D. 1590. 
Types— Indian, Turkish, American, Dutch, African. 
U. S. Patent, Sponge Chamber — A. D. 1858. 

Detachable Perforated Holder— A. D. 1862. 

Nicotine Chamber — A. D. 1866. 

Nicotine, Water & Saliva Cup Attachment— 1870. 

Combined Pipe and Cigar Holder— A. D. 1871. 

Corn Cob— A. D. 1878. 

Movable Bottom— A. D. 1883. 

Movable Bottom— A. D. 1884. 




The sailors sent ashore by Columbus, at Cuba, found, 
to their astonishment, the natives puffing smoke from 
their mouths and noses, which, they afterwards learned, 
was derived from the combustion of the dried leaves of 
a plant. The smoke was inhaled through a hollow 
cane, one end of which was introduced into the mouth, 
or, in case of this being forked, the forked ends were 
inserted in the nostrils and the other end was applied 
to the burning leaves, 

The -Aztecs, in Mexico, used pipes of varnished and" 
richly gilt wood. 

Pipes, made of clay, were Used by the native Indians 
of Virginia, in 1585. 

The Colonists introduced' into England the practice 
of tobacco smoking, or, as it was first called, "tobacco 
drinking." The first method of imbibing the fumes 
was by means of a walnut shell and a straw. 

Sir Walter Raleigh and other young Englishmen, 
gave every encouragement to tobacco smoking. 

The Calumet pipe of peace of the North American In- 
dians was of red, black or white stone, finely polished. 
The stem was about two and one-half feet long, of 



strong reed or cane, adorned with feathers of different 
colors. This pipe was a safe conduct among the allies 
of the tribe which gave it, and in all embassies the em- 
bassador carried it as a symbol of peace. 

The dying Gavarni said to his friend, " I consign my 
wife to your care, but oh, do take care of my pipe." 

Pipes have been made of formidable dimensions in 
Germany, some carrying a quarter of a pound, others 
half a pound, and even a pound of tobacco. They 
figure in the shops of Bremen and Hamburgh. Some 
large and fine specimens of meerschaum are carved so 
elaborately into pipe bowls as to command two or three 
hundred guineas each. But all these giants of smoke- 
dom, " pale their ineffectual fires" before the monster 
pipe of die South American Indians, the pipe of the 
tribe of Oyatopoks. It remains burning night and day, 
filled with a species of herb, which they use instead of 
tobacco. This huge pipe is surrounded at one time 
with a hundred to a hundred and fifty aspirants, who 
fix their long tubes of reed into the numerous holes 
with which its sides are bored. 

Tobacco pipes are made of a finely ground white 



plastic clay called " pipe clay." This clay being worked 
into paste and dough, in the same manner as the finer 
sorts of potter's stuff, is next rolled into cylinders for 
the stems, and into balls for the bowls. These are 
then pressed to the desired form in metallic molds and 
pierced with a wire, dried for a day or two, scraped, 
polished, dipped, and ultimately fired in a baking kiln 
for ten or twelve hours. A clever workman aided by 
a boy, can make from five to six gross of plain pipes 
per day. 

Almost ever)' material has been fashioned into pipes 
—stone, wood, bronze and other metals, bone and clay 
of every kind, including, of course, the fashionable 
meerschaum, which is, after all, only a species of clay, 
called magnesite, which is the mineral magnesium sili- 
cated, or in union with silex or flint, 

It is estimated that 54,000 genuine meerschaum 
bowls or heads are annually produced in Germany, 
and about 9,600,000 of the common porcelain, the 
favorite of the German peasantry, and of those of fine 
clay or lava 2,700,000 are manufactured yearly. 



TOBACCO PIPES. 



37 Manufactories In the United States. 





1870 


1880 


Capital Invested, 


- $178,600.00 


$233,800.00 


Value of Productions, 


477,330.00 


628,688.00 


Wages Paid, 


- 214,924.00 


226,306.00 



t 






Hands Employed, - - 481 

170 Patents Granted by the United States. 




Sackett & Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 









192 







V 







7 8 9 

TOBACCO-HAND CULTURE AND TREATMENT. 




TOBACCO-HAND CULTURE AND TREATMENT. 

No. 1. Sawing Seed. 

2. Hilling. 

3. Transplanting. 

4. Laying by and Topping. 

5. Worming and Suokering. 

6. Cutting and Sticking. 

7. Housing. 

8. Stripping and Tying. 
?. Packing. 



The name tobacco is supposed to be derived from 
the Indian tabacos, a name given by the Caribs to the 
pipe or tube in which they smoked, or inhaled the 
smoke of, the plant. Others derive it from Tabasco, 
a province ofMexico. Others from the island of Tobago, 
one of the West Indies. The name of the genus is de- 
rived from that of the French ambassador to Portugal, 
Jean Nicot, who brought some tobacco in 1560 from 
Lisbon to France, and who stated that "the seeds were 
those of a highly valuable medicinal plant introduced 
into Portugal in 1 520." The plant was unknown to Eu- 
ropeans until the discovery of America, when it was first 
noticed by sailors sent ashore by Columbus in Cuba. 

Tobacco was very generally met with as other por- 
tions of America were discovered. 



Garcilasso speaks of the ancient Peruvians as using 
it only for medicinal purposes, in the form of snuff. 

Tobacco is successfully cultivated throughout a wide 
range of latitude. Excellent varieties are produced in 
the equatorial regions, and in the United States its lim- 
its are not quite reached at the borders of Canada. 
The plant requires a deep, rich, mellow soil, or sandy 
loam. 

The method of raising the plants is as follows : The 
seeds having been sown in beds and germinated suffi- 
ciently, are picked out, as soon as they are able to be 
handled, and allowed to gain five or six leaves (exclu- 
sive of the seminal leaves.) They are then trans- 
planted, during the month of May, into fields which 
have been previously much manured. The plants are 



placed two or three feet apart, in rows. The roots 
have a tendency to appear above ground ; the earth, 
is. therefore, from time to time heaped around them ; 
when nearly full grown, the tops are pinched off to 
prevent development of flowers and seeds, and to pro- 
mote the growth of leaves. The harvest generally 
takes place in August. The mature plants are cut off 
above the roots, placed in heaps under cover, and 
allowed to sweat for three or four days, after which 
they are hung in airy sheds to dry. They are then 
submitted to a similar process for one or two weeks, 
and then, when slightly moist, the leaves are stripped 
and packed for market. 

The production to the acre is usually from 600 to 
700 pounds. 



TOBACCO-HAND CULTURE AND TREATMENT. 



Area in Acres, 
Pounds raised, 



1SOO I88O 

Not reported. 638,841 

434,209,461 472,661,158 



84 Patents Granted by the United Stabs. 




SeckeU&Wilhelms Uho Co Mew York 




193 







>\ 



8 
WATER ELEVATORS, 



WATER ELEVATORS. 



Xo. I. Primitive, Raising Water, Asia. 



" " " Roman. 

" Chain Buckets. 
" Atmospheric Bellows Pump. 
U. S. Patent, Rotary Pump— A. D. 1874. 
Water Elevator— A. I). 1879. 
" " Transmitting Power — A. U. 1881. 

" Force Pump— A. D. 1883. 
Rotary Pump— A. D. 1884. 




The earli est water elevator machine is found repre- 
sented on a monument of as early date as 1432 B. C. 
Something similar to this is still used on the banks of 
the Nile. 

Wilkinson says that an instrument resembling a 
portable pump is represented in the sculptures of the 
ancient Egyptians. 

The contrivances of the Asiatics for raising water are 

wheels furnished with buckets upon their peripheries. 

The pole and bucket are of the most ancient as 

well as of modern use. So also is the Archimedean 

screw. 

Siculus says " the Egyptians have an easy way to 
water the land by means of an engine invented by 
Archimedes, the Syracusan, which from its form is 
called ' Cochlea.' " 

The "Jantee" is another water raising device of 
great antiquity used in Bengal for land irrigation. It 
is a trough counter-weighted by an extended arm and 
balanced across a bar. As the trough end descends it 
dips water, and as it rises the water runs towards the 
axis of vibration and escapes at a .lateral orifice into a 
trough which conducts it to the field. 

The history of the hydraulic pump cannot be clearly 
traced. The ancient Egyptians and Assyrians used 
endless ropes moved by drum wheels with buckets 
attached. 

The chain pump was first used by the Chinese. 

The representation of a machine resembling a public 
pump is often seen in Egyptian sculpture. 

The invention of the valve pump is ascribed to 
Ctesibius, of Alexandria, third century B. C. 



There is no evidence of the employment of a valve 
pump prior to the Christian era. 

The invention of the hydraulic ram is ascribed to the 
elder Montgolfier, and its improvement to the son. 
The principle, however, was previously employed by 
John Whitehead, of England, in a machine constructed 
by him in 1772. The principal difference between 
his machine and Montgolfier's ram consisted in the 
use of a stop cock in place of the automatic impulse 
valve. 

The clearer comprehension of the science of hy- 
draulics has given to this generation a more extended 
knowledge over water power. Hydraulic elevators 
are constantly being exhibited and patented. The one 
known as the "Acenseu.r Edoux" is considered the 
safest of all methods of raising great weights by hy- 
draulic pressure, and is remarkably smooth and noise- 
less in action. Preference is also given to the "Acen- 
seur Edoux" on account of its avoidance of the use 
of a lifting cable. 

In England companies are now established for the 
renting of hydraulic power distributed by mains. 

The hydraulic pressure pump is used for working a 
hydraulic press. 

An invention known as " Knowles' pump" works 
directly from the steam cylinder, dispensing with belt, 
pulley, cranks and fly wheel. 

The modern hydraulic ram is another powerful water 
raising device. The span of Rock Island draw bridge 
is rotated by two hydraulic rams. The power of the 
rams is transferred to the pier by a wire rope arranged 
as an Armstrong crane. 



The hydrometer is a portable force pump for sprink- 
ling gardens, flowers, &c. 

An aquapuit is another portable force pump for 
similar purposes. 

The ordinary atomizer may be classed under the 
head of atmospheric pumps. 

The rotary pump acts by a rotary, in contradistinc- 
tion to a reciprocating, action. Rotary pumps are of 
various kinds, single and double pistons and centri- 
fugal. 

In the Douglass rotary pump the pistons are three 
in number, and are operated by a scroll race in which 
the rollers of the pistons are held against the under 
diameter of the cylinder in which they work, and with- 
drawn to pass the abutment. Passages through the 
slides balance the water pressure on their respective 
sides. 

Samain's pump is also rotary. In Bayley and 
Sewall's rotary pump an eccentric ring rotates the 
cylinder. 

Inventors in all parts of the world have experimented 
on water power by means of this rotary motion. 

A Russian, Greindl, has invented a ve.y valuable 
rotary pump. 

A chain bucket is the valve on the chain of the 
pump. It is elastic, fills the pipe in ascending, and 
lifts and discharges the water. 

The chain pump is one in which buckets are attached 
to a continuous chain. Murray's chain pump is espe- 
cially adapted for hydraulic construction, drainage, 
sewerage works, &c, having no valves to be obstructed 
by mud, sand or wheels. 



WATER ELEVATORS, 



2,737 Patents Granted by the United States. 




SackeU&Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 



**■* 






194 




WINDMILLS. 



WINDMILLS. 

No. 1. Primitive— B. C. 160. 

2. Horiwmtal Wheel— A. D. 1719. 

3. IT. 8. Patent, Vertical Wheel— A. D. 1859. 

4. " " Geared Vertical Wheel— A. D. 1873. 
6. " " Hoisting— A. D. 1882. 

6. " " Pumping Railroad Tank— A. D. 1883. 

7. " " Farm— A. D. 1883. 



WINDMIILLS, 




Paulo introduced windmills into Rome for grinding 
grain a little before the time of Augustus. 

In the time of Hero, 150 B. C, organs were blown 
by the agency of a windmill, which worked the piston 
of an air pump. 

They were used in England A. D. 1180, and from 
the twelfth to the fourteenth century notices of them 
are common. 

Bartolomeo Verdi had a grant of land to build wind- 
mills, in Venice, in 1332. 

In the twelfth century the Pope decided that the 
usufructs of water and windmills were taxable. 

Those which turn wholly round are the most 
ancient. 

The first mode adopted to present the vanes towards 



the wind was to float the mill and turn it in the water 
as occasion required. 

The next was to put it on a post, and turn the build- 
ing on this as an axis. This was called the German 
method. Then followed turning the cap or roof, which 
was a Dutch invention of the sixteenth century. 

In 1772, Andrew Meikle, of Scotland, invented a 
plan for automatically adjusting the area of the sails to 
the force of the wind. 

In 1804, By water, of England, patented a method 
of rolling up the sails to adjust them in like manner, 
by means of a weighted lever which was caused to 
operate gears connected by cords to cylinders on which 
the sails were wound. 



The ball governor, from which Watt borrowed the 
idea, was first used in windmills. 

In Holland windmills are employed in driving the 
scoop wheels which drain the polders. 

Holland has over 12,000 windmills in operation, 
averaging eight horse power. 

In many portions of the United States, especially 
in low countries where they have no water power, 
windmills are used for driving machinery, for thrash- 
ing and grinding grain, and for pumping water. 

There are several large establishments in the United 
States for manufacturing machinery for windmills. 

In the low lands along the Southern Atlantic coast 
windmills are used by the planters for driving the ma- 
chinery of the rice and sugar mills. 



69 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, 



1800 


1880 


$8,560.00 


1697,100.00 


28,760.00 


1,010,542.00 


12,948.00 


244,197.00 



27 



596 



Capacity — 

Maximum gallons Water pumped per day, 
Hands employed per day, . 




Sacked & Wilhelms Lilho Co New fork 



' 



HBnMBHMBMHHHHM 




5 6 

WOOD WORKING-COOPERING. 



WOOD WORKING-COOPERING. 

No. 1. Primitive Coopering— A. D. 1776. 

2. TJ. S. Patent, Barrel Stave Machine— A. D. 1844. 

3. " " Barrel Oozing Machine — A. D. 1858. 

4. '• " Barrel Making Machine— A. D. 1883. 

5. " " Barrel Crozing Machine — A. D. 1883. 

6. " " Barrel Crozing Machine — A. D. 1883. 



The monuments of Egypt furnish proof of the early 
use of hooped vessels, though no date is given of their 
invention. 

In one of the inscriptions copied by Wilkinson may 
be seen two slaves emptying grain from a wooden ves- 
sel made with hoops. 

Throughout the East the bamboo is largely used for 
making hollow vessels, a section of the stem through a 
node securing a solid bottom, and one between the 
nodes an open mouth for a natural tub or bucket. 




In well-wooded regions nothing would be more 
natural than the employment of hollow tree trunks 
for the same purpose, or sections of tree stems hol- 
lowed out by fire or otherwise. 

In drying, such vessels would split and spoil, and it 
would require no great genius to repair them by means 
of withes or wooden bands, the primitive form of the 
hoop. 

The fabrication of casks was early introduced into 
France, and from that country was carried into Britain. 

The occupation of the modern cooper is divided into 



distinct branches, as the dry, the wet or tight, which 
are again subdivided into large and small work. 

, Hoops for casks are known as bilge chine or chime, 
flat, half round, quarter and truss. 

The Standard Oil Company is constructing at Pitts- 
burg a factory for the manufacture of barrels for its own 
use. The building will be 300 feet square, and sup- 
plied with the latest improved machinery for making 
barrels, with a capacity for turning out 5,000 to 7,000 
barrels a day. 



WOOD WORKING-COOPERING. 



438 Patents Granted by the United States. 







SackeLU Wilhelms LiLho Co New York 



r 



w 



196 






■kk 



'i 







WOOD WORKING-MOLDING 



WOOD WORKING-MOLDING. 

No. I. Primitive Oaioing Machine— A. D 1776. 
2 • Molding Machine A. D. 1775. 

3. •• Dressing Bulluaters— A. D. 1775. 

4 0, 3. Patent. Wooden Screw Machine— A. D. 1816. 




Oval frame Machine—A. D. 1862. 
Shaping Chair Stuff— A. D. 1869. 
Bobbin and Spool Machine— A. D. 1876. 
Felly Machine— A. D. 1880. 
Wedge Machine— A. D. 1884. 



Professor Willis states that " Gen. Benthem's house 
was converted into and formed the first manufactory 
of wood-working machines, including planing, molding, 
rabbeting, grooving and mortising machines." 

The wood-molding machine is analogous to the carv- 
ing machine. 

It is said that Berlin, Germany, has become the 
headquarters of the carved wood industry. Six hun- 
dred artists in wood carving, the same number of 



turners, and 700 carpenters, are engaged in manufac- 
turing such articles as cigar cases, newspaper and pic- 
ture frames, napkin rings, &c. The value of the 
annual export of these articles is 5,000,000 marks, 
and this is exclusive of the costly carved wood furni- 
ture, the manufacture and export of which is assuming 
large proportions. 

Since 1850 the inventions in wood-working machines 
have followed each other in rapid succession in the 



United States. Within the past few years the art has 
been raised to the dignity of recognition among other 
branches of engineering. 

Machines for molding and planing wood are of 
every conceivable arrangement and capacity, from the 
surface planer of two feet in width, to the milling cut- 
ter, three-eighths of an inch in diameter — consisting of 
not less than forty independent machines, operating 
with rotary cutters. 



WOOD WORKING-MOLDING. 



553 Patents Granted by the United States. 










SackeU&Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 




197 















3 






H\ 



\& 



WOOD MORTISING. 



WOOD MORTISING. 



No. 1. U. 8. Patent, Mortising Machine— A. D. 1807. 



" —A. D. 1845. 
Hub Mortising Machine — A. D. 1856. 
Boring and Mortising Machine— A. D. 1876. 

" " — A. D. 1883. 

" " — A.D. 1883. 



The mortising machine may have had a •precarious 
existence before Gen. Benther's description of the self- 
acting machine in his patent of 1 793. This included 
the operation by which a hole previously bored was 
elongated by a chisel into a slot. 

Brunei's machine was made for the British Admir- 
ility in 1804. 

The mortise chisel is the invention of Brunei or 



Maudsley, being applied in the mortising machine in- 
vented by the former, and constructed by the latter in 
Portsmouth dock yard, England, in 1802-1808. 

In 1827, John McClintic, of Pennsylvania, devised a 
practical mortising and tenoning machine. 

The later improvements in this class of inventions 
have increased their capacity and range of work. 



WOOD MORTISING. 



CITY — 


PrimHhu 
MWf. 


Machima. 


If umber Mortices per day, 


125 


3,760 


Hands Employed per day, 


. 1 


1 



217 Patents Granted by the United States. 



% 




Sacketi & Wilhelms Lilho Co New York 






^ aa ***npi 



198 






I 



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WOOD WORKING-PLANING, 



WOOD WORKING-PLANING. 

No. 1. Primitive Bench Plane— A. D. 1776. 

2. " Rabbet Plane— A. D. 1775. 

3. " Planing Machine— A. D. 1776. 

4. U. S. Patent, Planer, Rotary Disk— A. D. 1826. 

5. " " Planing and Matching — A. D. 1834. 

6. " " Planer, Rotary Disk— A. D. 1849. 

7. " " " " Cylinder— A. D. 1873. 

8. " " " " " —A. D. 1883. 



The first to employ power in the operation of 
smoothing the surface of wood was Gen. Benthem, of 
England, and to him belongs the honor of having dis- 
covered the principle upon which all planing machines 
operate. He procured an English patent for his ma- 
chine in the year 1791. 

The transverse planing machine was invented by 
Bramah in 1802. 



William Woodworth, of New York, patented in 1828 
his celebrated planer, This patent ran for a term of 
twenty-eight years, being renewed twice for seven 
years. 

In the United States a village of 2,000 inhabitants is 
considered large enough to support a planing mill. 

Forty-five thousand feet of pine boards per day 
can be planed on a planing machine. 



WOOD WORKING-PLANING. 

4,958 Foundries and Machine Shops 

in the United States. 

Capacity — Pn™iu,. <•„,.„, 



Mode. Ma, 



Feet per day, 

Hands Employed per day, 



1,000 30,000 
2 2 



809 Patents Granted by the United States, 



Si 



!&*- 







i 



Sackett&Wilhelms Litho Co New York 






199 









8 



WOOD SAWING 



9 



WOOD SAWING. 

No. 1. Primitive Sawing and Veneering — A. D. 1775. 

2. " Scroll Sawing— A. D. 1776. 

3. " Reciprocating Saw Mill— A. D. 1775. 

4. U. S. Patent, Reciprocating Saw Mill— A. D. 1810. 



5. 




_A. D. 1867. 

Lumber Trimming: Machine — A. D. 1876. 
Saw Mill Head Block— A. D. 1880. 
Firewood Drag Sawing Machine — A. D. 1876. 
Circular Saw Mill— A. D. 1882. 



Saw mills were erected in Germany in the fourth 
century. There was one in operation on the Island of 
Madeira in 1420. 

The first in use in Norway was in 1530. The saw 
mill as a means for cutting timber was not in use very 
long before the settlement of America. 

The first saw mill in Massachusetts is said to have 
been built in 1633, which was several years before it 
was introduced into England. 



Wind saw mills were erected by the Dutch on Man- 
hattan Island in 1633. 

The populace destroyed a saw mill in England as 
late as 1 767, fearing it would deprive the sawyers of 
their labors. 

The first saw mill successfully established in England 
was in 1783. 

The first in the Northwest Territory was erected in 
Ohio in 1789. 



The earliest United States patent granted for saw 
mill was in 1 798. 

Floating saw mills are common on the lower Missis- 
sippi River. The drifting logs are picked up and 
turned into lumber and the product sold to the planters 
along the shore. 

The aggregate product of the saw mill industry of 
the United States is reported as $233,268,729 for the 
year 1880. 



WOOD SAWING, 



25,708 Lumber and Saw Mills In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 

Hands Employed, 



I860 1880 

$72,603,894.00 $181,186,122.00 

93,338,606.00 233,268,729.00 

20,647,807.00 31,845,974.00 



71,878 



Capacity — 

Feet per day, board measure. 
Hands Employed per day, 



147,956 



4,000 100,000 



2,975 Patents Granted by the United States, 







SackeU&Wilhelms Litho Co NewYork 



«4t 






IM t 



:: 



200 




WOOD WORKING-TURNING. 




WOOD WORKING-TURNING. 

No. 1. Primitive Turning Cylindrical Forms — A. D, 1776. 

2. " " " " —A. D. 1775. 

3. U. S. Patent, Gun 8tock Uthe~-A. D. 1818. 

4. " " Turning Wooden Trays— A. D. 1831. 
6, " " " Polygonal Forms— A. D. 1852. 

« » » —A. D. 1881. 



The lathe, for turning wood into articles ol a circular 
form, was invented by Talus. Pliny, however, ascribes 
its invention to Theodore of Samos, who flourished 
about 740 B. C. 

With this instrument the ancients turned all kinds of 
vases, many of which they enriched with figures and 
ornaments in basso relievo. 

Cicero calls the workmen who used the lathe "vas- 
cularii." 



The primitive and most simple kind of lathe is that 
known as the " pole lathe." 

The parent of all recent machines of this kind is that 
invented by Thomas Blanchard, of Philadelphia, and 
patented by him September 6, 1819. This lathe, for 
turning irregular forms, contains the generic idea of 
all machines for duplicating sltapes, by using a model 
in conjunction with a blank. This ingenious idea may 



be said to have wrought a complete revolution in that 
branch of wood working to which it pertains. 

In the United States Patent Office wood turning 
machines are classed as follows : irregular forms, lathes, 
automatic spindles, gage, many spindle, single chuck, 
tubular cutter, appliances, oval forms, polygonal forms, 
regular forms, lateral movement, and longitudinal 
movement. 



WOOD WORKING-TURNING, 



710 Manufactories In the United States. 



Capital Invested, 
Value of Productions, 
Wages Paid, 
Hands Employed. 



1H70 1880 

$2,751,544.00 $3,450,710.00 

4,959,191.00 6,770,119.00 

1,499,665.00 2,148,914.00 

- 4,103 5,665 



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Sacketl&Wilhelms lilho Co New York 



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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION UBRA"'^ 



3 ^Ofifi DOIS'JHSE 2 

J nmahfT15,U57 1892 

The growth of industrial art.